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Was Freud a Scientist

As a result of Freud's 19th century German view of science, many contemporary writers regard his theory-building methods as untenable and rather unscientific (Breger, 2000 Crews, 1995, 1996 Sulloway, 1992 Webster, 1995). His theories were not based on experimental investigation but rather on subjective observations that Freud made of himself and his clinical patients. These patients were not representative of people in general but came mostly from the middle and upper classes.

The Striving Force as Compensation

As a creation of the individual, the goal may take any form. It is not necessarily a mirror hnage of the deficiency, even though it is a compensation for it. For example, a person with a weak body will not necessarily become a robust athlete but instead may become an artist, an actor, or a writer. Success is an individualized concept and all people formulate their own definition of it. Although creative power is swayed by the forces of heredity and environment, it is ultimately responsible for people's personality. Heredity establishes the potentiality, whereas environment contributes to the development of social interest and courage. The forces of nature and nurture can never deprive a person of the power to set a unique goal or to choose a unique style of reaching for the goal (Adler, 1956).

Experimental Studies of Judgments

Another experiment also demonstrates that environmental manipulations have different impact on people depending on psychological type. A robust finding in social psychology is the fundamental attribution error (Ross, 1977), a finding of particular interest to personality psychologists. What is the fundamental attribution error Most people attribute too much importance to personality and too little importance to situations when they give reasons for other people's behavior. For example, when they read student essays that take a position on a social issue (such as abortion or nuclear arms), research subjects typically judge that the essay accurately reflects the writer's attitude, even if they are told that the position expressed in the essay was assigned by the instructor (Jones & Nisbett, 1972). Hicks (1985) found that there is one personality type relatively resistant to this error the intuitive-thinking type. In a setting in which most students hold antinuclear positions,...

Poison through the US Mail

Police investigations eventually led to Molineux's arrest, and he was put on trial on 4 December 1899 in February 1900 he was found guilty of murder, entirely on the basis of circumstantial evidence. In 1901 his appeal came up before the New York Court of Appeals and they overturned the verdict and ordered a new trial. This took place in October 1902 and Molineux was acquitted. On his release from jail he did not return to his old job but became a writer of short stories and novels, and he even penned a play about prison life. Some of his works were favourably reviewed, but he was eventually certified insane and died in 1917 in a mental hospital. The underlying cause of Molineux's insanity was syphilis contracted from one of the many prostitutes he frequented - his wife Blanche had divorced him several years earlier.

Speech Assessment in Children Descriptive Linguistic Methods

Asymmetries in the distribution of sounds may be further indicative of systematic rule-governed alternations in sound production (Ken-stowicz, 1994). Rule-governed alternations occur when morphologically related words are produced in different ways, for example, electric but electricity.'' Alternations are typically sampled by adding either a prefix or suffix to a base word in order to change the context in which a sound occurs. There are two general types of rule-governed change allophonic variation and neutralization. Allophonic variation occurs when a single phoneme has multiple corresponding phonetic outputs that vary by context. An example is t produced as aspirated in word-initial position tap, as flap in intervocalic position bitter, and as unreleased in word-final position it. In each case, the target sound is t , but the phonetic characteristics of the output differ predictably by word position. Thus, there is a one-to-many mapping between phoneme...

William Heberden 17101801

The hemicrania, or pain of one half of the head, was very early distinguished by medical writers from the other species of headaches but we have not yet advanced much in knowing how this differs from other pains of the head. Commentaries on the History and Cure of Diseases Ch. 17 (i802)

Omnis Cellula E Cellula

Germany is a good place to start a quick look at stem cell research outside the United States because it was home to an early pioneer in cellular study. Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow, a German doctor, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, and politician, is another of those historical geniuses that dot the landscape of biological studies. In the mid-1800s, he originated the groundbreaking idea that disease began at the cellular level. A prolific writer, in 1855 he published his best known scientific treatise on the subject, titled Omnis cellula e cellula, Latin for every cell originates from another cell.

Madeleine Smith 18381912

The Victorian public savoured the trial with its prurient details of their relationship although the press portrayed L'Angelier as the seducer and fortune seeker and Madeleine as the victim whose only release was to get rid of him. After the trial Madeleine moved to the south of England eventually ending up in London where she met and married George Wardel, who was one of William Morris's designers, and later his business manager. (At one time Wardel had owned a silk works in Leek, Staffordshire.) Soon Madeleine was working for the company as an embroiderer of tapestries. She became a member of the group of intellectual socialists that included many leading artists and writers of the day, including George Bernard Shaw who knew her well. Eventually her marriage broke up and she ended her days in the USA, dying in obscurity at the age of 74 in 1912.

The difficult colleague

Difficult colleagues are numerically only a small part of the workforce, but they are a real problem because they consume an inordinate amount of medical managers' time and energy. Unfortunately, you do not have a formula for dealing with them as you do with the doctor who is incompetent or who breaks the rules. Furthermore, obstructive colleagues are the very ones who are least likely to accept your right as a medical manager to ask for changes in the way they practise, and they certainly will not have any sympathy for your occasional need to pass comment on the way they conduct their personal clinical practice. If they are rabble-rousers and busy letter writers they become more than a nuisance and frankly are often damaging. Management books and courses are replete with advice on how to deal with this sort of person in an organisation, the squeaky wheel , but in any particular instance the advice, like so much in management books, differs little from common sense. These books and...

Recruitment of Scientific Talent

The traditional method of fleshing out scientific talent in this country has been through local, regional, state, and national science fairs and competitions. Beginning in 1942, the most prestigious national competition was organized by the nonprofit organization Science Service and underwritten by the Westing-house Corporation. The Science Talent Search has been the country's premier channel through which young scientific talent has been recognized and recruited. Until 1998, when Intel Corporation took over sponsorship, the competition more commonly became known as the Westinghouse. The charge of Science Service was and still is to popularize science and make scientific information more accessible to the public. Among others, Joseph Berger, an education writer for the New York Times, has written a book, entitled The Young Scientists America's Future and the Winning of the Westinghouse, about this talent search. As Berger writes From the start, the Westinghouse was different from a...

Downloadable Competency 7 Acting as Ambassadors

Here was a nurse leader who, in a very brief memorial tribute, was remembered not only for her leadership and character but also for her role as an ambassador for the profession. Most significantly, the act she was most remembered for was her success in easing tension among a group of midwives who were experiencing emotional conflict over a change. In her long career, there could have been dozens of other outstanding acts, but the writer chose that one to exemplify her many contributions to the field. She was remembered most because she represented the nursing staff in a way that eased conflict and helped the profession. This is what is meant by serving as ambassador for nursing to the organization. The nurses who had known the decedent no doubt cherished the memories of her attempting to represent them in making the hospital a better, more peaceful place to work. One might imagine that she was a problem solver and someone you could go to when you did not know how to handle a...

Origins of conceptual distinctions and the modern view

Modern writers in all the aforementioned fields agree that behavior unfolds under the control of both a genetic blueprint and the environment, and that the debate now centers on the precise nature of the interplay between the two. Using the development learning terminology, four alternative models-A through D-can be conceptualized, as illustrated in figure 8.1. The first two are not in-teractionist accounts, whereas the last two can be described in this way.

Epidemiologysymptomatology

SD is an example of a focal dystonia, a disorder of muscle tone affecting one specific anatomic site. Other focal forms of focal dystonias include blepharospasm, torticollis (cervical dystonia), oromandibular dystonia, and writer's cramp. Focal dystonias have an estimated prevalence of 30 cases per 100,000 population (11,12). Of the focal cranial dystonias, SD is the third most prevalent form cervical dystonia affects nearly 5.4 per 100,000 and blepharospasm 3.1 per 100,000 (13). The average age of onset ranges from 39 to 45 years, and there is a 63 to 79 female predominance (14,15). Between 0 and 12 of patients report a history of dystonia within first- or second-degree relatives. Many patients report a history of an upper respiratory tract infect (30 ) or major stressful event prior to the onset of symptoms (14-16).

Three Phases Of Evolution Of Mind

Looking back over the vastness of evolutionary time, one realizes that the only constant is change. Every form of life changes, both within the life span of its individuals and within the life span of its species. The capacities of the human mind have changed in much the same way that cognitive capacities with children change with age. The existence of distinct phases of mind over the course of evolution is hard to dispute. The question is not one of whether phases or categorical stages of mental development exist but rather of where the transitions are. On this question there is relative agreement the major cognitive shifts occurred around 4.5 mya, 2.0 mya, and 200,000 years ago (kya).25 These breaks can be seen both in major morphological change (in brain and body) and in cultural-behavioral change. In my model of cognitive evolution, I borrow from and add to other theoretical attempts to describe phases of human cognitive evolution, primarily those of Merlin Donald, Richard Klein,...

Formulation of health policy

The political reality that the ministers wish to retain their posts and the party wishes to remain in power. Beyond these simple principles and a few political fashions health policies and priorities are a set of compromises between the Department of Health, the Treasury, party ideologues, the BMA, the universities, the Royal Colleges, the patients even. A complex web of mutual dependencies supporting a shifting assembly of pacts and bargains, both formally negotiated and tacitly understood ,2 or to quote another writer, policy paradigms are a curious mix of psychological assumptions, scientific concepts, value commitments, social aspirations, personal beliefs and administrative constraints .3 However capricious policy may eventually seem to the end user, it must, in addition, be formulated within inescapable and constantly fluctuating constraints such as demographic change increasing the numbers of the elderly, European law changing workers' hours, unpredictable economic growth, the...

The obsession with control

Financial stability, with the belief that frontline professionals are the agents of wilful and inappropriate spending coupled with a loss of respect for the autonomy of professional groups, has trapped recent governments into an ever-tightening demand for control while publicly sounding off about devolvement of power. This is politely described as the move from public administration to public management . As with traditional administration, public management is often offered as a set of neutral reforms for increasing the efficiency and responsiveness of public service delivery in a more complex economic and social environment. However, as several writers have argued, this perspective should be regarded with suspicion, not least because public management carries with it its own set of values and assumptions which if cultural change is to be achieved may be used to supplant those of the administrative cultures it seeks to replace or control.14 Simon Jenkins in his book, Accountable to...

Clinical trials and evidence

Or because the ethics and human dilemma of discussing such interventions with patients is too complex. In the view of this writer there is equipoise in undertaking clinical trials because it is equally as unethical to encourage patients to undergo a procedure of unknown benefit as it is to deny patients the advantage of new advances in medical care.

Levels of Personal Dispositions

Central Dispositions Few people have cardinal dispositions, but everyone lias several central dispositions, which include the 5 to 10 most outstanding characteristics around which a person's life focuses. Allport (1961) described central dispositions as those that would be listed in an accurate letter of recommendation written by someone who knew the person quite well, hi the section titled The Study of the Individual, we will look at a series of letters written to Gordon and Ada Allport by a woman they called Jenny. The contents of these letters constitute a rich source of information about the writer. We will also see that three separate analyses of these letters revealed that Jenny could be described by about eight central dispositions that is, characteristics sufficiently strong to be detected by each of these three separate procedures. Similarly, most people, Allport believed have 5 to 10 central dispositions that their friends and close acquaintances would agree are descriptive...

News Media As A Catalyst To Promote Health At The Community Level

Over a period of 6 months in 1998, Laura Saari, a writer for the Orange County Register, brought to light the sharp social and economic contrast that exists in one of California's more affluent counties, where one in five children lives in poverty. The article on motel children uses the voices of children to poignantly communicate the impact of poverty on their lives (see Box 7-1).

Key Terms and Concepts

Erik Erikson (see Chapter 9) believed that people go through a series of identity crises, or turning points, that leave them vulnerable to major changes in how they see themselves. One such person was Fred, a man who experienced at least two such crises, and each led to significant turns in his life's course. His first identity crisis occurred during young adulthood, when, armed with an undergraduate degree hi English, Fred returned to his parents' home hoping to shape his identity hi the world of literature. His father reluctantly agreed to allow Fred 1 year to carve out a niche for himself as a writer. He warned his son of the necessity of finding a job, but he allowed Fred to convert the third-floor attic into a study. Every morning, Fred clhnbed the two flights of steps and began his job as a writer. But nothing happened. After only 3 months of trying to become a creative writer, Fred realized that the quality of his work was poor. He blamed his parents, their home town, and...

Characteristics of Science

Science, in contrast to art, philosophy, and literature, advances in a cumulative maimer. The amount and nature of scientific knowledge that today's high school students have of physics or chemistry is vastly more sophisticated than that of even the most educated Greeks 2,500 years ago. The same cannot be said for the humanities. The wisdom and genius of Plato, Michelangelo, and Shakespeare are clearly not inferior to the wisdom and genius of any modern philosopher, artist, or writer. However, cumulative knowledge is not to be confused with technological progress. Science is unique not because of technology but rather because of its attitude.

Higher Mental Processes

The concept of mutation is crucial to both natural selection and creative behavior. In both cases, random or accidental conditions are produced that have some possibility of survival. Creative writers change their environment, thus producing responses that have some chance of being reinforced. When their creativity dries up, they may move to a different location, travel, read talk to others, put words on their computer with little expectancy that they will be the finished product, or try out various words, sentences, and ideas covertly. To Skinner, then, creativity is simply the result of random or accidental behaviors (overt or covert) that happen to be rewarded. The fact that some people are more creative than others is due both to differences in genetic endowment and to experiences that have shaped their creative behavior.

Twenty Years Out Living In A State Of Punctuated Equilibrium

West's many talents is that he is an engaging writer. In his 2003 book, The Immortal Cell One Scientist's Quest to Solve the Mystery of Human Aging, he documents his personal quest to find and alter or shut down the biological machinery that relentlessly works to limit our lifespan beyond what is theoretically feasible.

Pakistani Muslim Communities In The Uk

Despite the widespread use of this framework, however, the use of ethnic groupings has been criticised by a number of writers. As a concept, ethnicity is recognised as underdeveloped in its ability to recognise diversity (Ahmad, 1999). There are many views of how ethnicity or the contested term 'race' can be used. Stephen Rose talks of the term 'biogeographic ancestry' as a more accurate one. It does at least cover all the options

Beryllium a gem of a metal but deadly

In 1955 the science writer Isaac Asimov wrote a prophetic short story called 'Sucker Bait', in which a space expedition goes to investigate a fertile planet where the original colony of settlers all suffered from a mysterious disease, which made breathing progressively difficult, and which killed them within a few years. The planet had abundant plant life and seemed ideal for human settlement. So what had happened Their symptoms suggested a slow poison and yet tests revealed nothing, until it was finally discovered that the planet's soil contained high levels of beryllium, and that was what had killed them.

Charles Darwin To Jd Hooker

I received last night your 'Introduction,' for which very many thanks I am surprised to see how big it is I shall not be able to read it very soon. It was very good of you to send Naudin, for I was very curious to see it. I am surprised that Decaisne should say it was the same as mine. Naudin gives artificial selection, as well as a score of English writers, and when he says species were formed in the same manner, I thought the paper would certainly prove exactly the same as mine. But I cannot find one word like the struggle for existence and natural selection. On the contrary, he brings in his principle (page 103) of finality (which I do not understand), which, he says, with some authors is fatality, with others providence, and which adapts the forms of every being, and harmonises them all throughout nature.

Committee Biographies

George Strait, M.S. (MedComm Inc.) is a recognized media expert in health and science and chief executive officer of MedComm Inc. His most recent position was managing editor with the Kaisernetwork.org. Previously, he was the senior vice-president for media and distribution for The Dr. Spock Co., a media company. From 1977 until 2000 he was ABC News's primary correspondent for medical and health news and was named senior medical correspondent in 1983. In that capacity, he contributed to World News Tonight with Peter Jennings and Nightline on such issues as health care reform, the medical and ethical concerns regarding new technologies, and AIDS. Mr. Strait was the first U.S. network correspondent allowed to enter The Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) to report on the AIDS epidemic in Africa. He also reported in depth on the former Soviet Union's health care system. In 1995, for the second time, Mr. Strait received the broadcast news industry's highest award, the Alfred I....

Biography of B F Skinner

As a child Skhmer was inclined toward music and literature. From an early age, he was hiterested in becoming a professional writer, a goal he may have achieved with his publication of Walden Two when he was well hito his 40s. At about the time Skinner finished high school, his family moved about 30 miles to Scranton, Pennsylvania. Almost immediately, however, Skinner entered Hamilton College, a liberal arts school hi Clinton, New York. After takhig his bachelor's degree hi English, Skhmer set about to realize his ambition of being a creative writer. When he wrote to his father, informing him of his wish to spend a year at home working at nothing except writing, his request was met with lukewarm acceptance. Warning his son of the necessity of making a living, William Skinner reluctantly agreed to support him for 1 year on the condition that he would get a job if

The development of the modern hospice movement in the UK

The modern conception of the self, rather than being simply a reaction to the limitations of hospital culture per se (see Walter 1994 42). Hospice pioneers advocated a model of care in which patients were informed frankly and openly of their condition, and were actively encouraged to participate in all the decisions surrounding their treatment and care (Abel 1986 73). Hence, one sees a distinct congruence here between the hospice concept and the contemporary notion of the consuming and choosing self as discussed by writers such as Rose (1990 1996) and Giddens (1991). Indeed, one of the central goals of the modern hospice movement, as Kearl highlights, is to enable patients to retain control of their lives until death (1989 439), since their 'basic human rights are seen to be violated when they lack the knowledge and power to make decisions' (1989 438).12 The hospice movement, in the same spirit, pioneered more effective forms of pain control as an additional way of helping dying...

Contending Interpretations

To begin with, I will not cut is not representative of Greek thinking in 400 BCE. The medical writings of that time show an undefensive pride in surgery.17 Non-physician writers of that time, including Plato and Sophocles,18 accept surgery as a part of a physician's work, even though some persons were recognized as experts in particular procedures. The extensive writings about surgical prowess are entirely unlike the reticence about taboo acts (e.g., giving poison, administering abortive pessaries, or having sexual relations with patients). Although those writings discuss controversies about the relative merits of medical versus surgical approaches to specific conditions,19 the merits of surgery as a medical skill do not appear to be controversial except in this one passage. I will not cut was not a part of Greek medical ethics in 400 BCE.

Lead and the decline of empires

Lead contaminated the homes of Romans in many different ways. Drinking water was transported along lead-lined aqueducts, through lead pipes, stored in lead cisterns, and maybe drunk from lead pewter vessels. The walls and woodwork of rooms were painted with lead-based paints. But one item in particular must have contributed to the lead in their diet, and that was a sweetening agent known as sapa. The famous Roman writer Pliny (23-79) gives the recipe for making sapa and specifically mentions that it must be made in lead pans.

Issues in teaching and learning braille

In the light of Millar's suggestion that the introductory signs be as perceptually different from one another as possible. A potential danger in implementing these technical recommendations is that teachers and other writers of texts for very young children may be unduly constrained in the range and originality of the themes and stories that would engage the attention, and the imagination, of these young learners. Striking a balance between these sometimes competing approaches is part of the teacher's professional expertise.

Genetic Sovereignty

The thesis that the origins of human morality lie in biology is far from new, having been discussed by numerous writers. For a history and compilation of such thought, see R. D. Alexander, The Biology of Moral Systems (New York Aldine De Gruyter, 1987). Not all biologists agree, however. For example, the prominent evolutionary biologist and Christian ideologist David Lack maintained that morality was of divine source e.g., D. L. Lack, Evolutionary Theory and Christian Belief The Unresolved Conflict (London Methuen, 1957).

Speech and Language Disorders in Children Computer Based Approaches

Computer software for use in speech and language intervention has progressed significantly from the early versions, which were based primarily on a drill-and-practice format. Cochran and Nelson (1999) cite literature that confirms what many clinicians knew intuitively software that allows the child to be in control and to independently explore based on personal interests is more beneficial than computer programs based on the drill-and-practice model. Improvements in multimedia capacities and an appreciation for maximally effective designs have resulted in a proliferation of software packages that can be effectively used in language intervention with young children. As with any tool, the focus must remain on the target linguistic structures rather than the toys or activities that are used to elicit or model productions. In addition to therapeutic benefits, computers offer reasonable compensatory strategies for older, school-age students with language-learning disabilities (Wood and...

The Ancient Medical Treatises

The authors of the medical works are anonymous. It was probably so in the earliest editions to reach major libraries, because librarians carefully recorded the authors of books entering their collections.6 It is not known why these authors did not announce their names. Anonymity does not lessen the importance of these works or their distinctive voices, however.7 These authors were familiar with the ideas, if not the texts, of other medical writers. Some were aligned with incompletely delineated geographical or conceptual schools of thought. For example, the author of Regimen in Acute Diseases begins a smashing critique with this coy opening The authors of the work entitled Cnidian Sentences have correctly described the experience of patients in individual diseases. but my judgment in these matters is in many things different from their exposition. 8 The various positions taken by these anonymous authors are not simply differences between schools of thought. They reveal an embryonic...

Person self and identity

Whilst there is a substantial and internally highly varied literature outside social anthropology which traces the emergence of the modern sense of 'Western' personhood (see, for example, Taylor 1989 Elias 1994 Foucault 1987 Rose 1990, 1996 Lukes 1973), within the discipline itself greatest attention to this phenomenon has been paid by writers such as Mauss (1985) and Dumont (1985). Both have, in similar ways, pointed to broader cultural changes and, in particular, to the transition they see as having occurred from 'holistic' societies based on ascribed statuses to 'individualistic', achievement-based societies. With such a transition, they argue, modern 'Western' persons have ceased to be enmeshed within kinship structures and other political, economic and religious systems which define and constrain who and what they are as Dumont suggests, the ' individual' him or herself, rather than ' society', has now become the 'paramount value' (1985 94 see also Macfarlane 1978). With this...

Chemicals Used to Kill

Poisoning was thus very common in earlier centuries. It was so common that in the twelfth century a Jewish philosopher and physician, Moses Maimonides, wrote a book entitled Treatise on Poisons and their Antidotes. He may have been one of the first toxicologists. It was the Italians, however, in cities like Florence and Venice, who really developed and used poisoning as a political tool. For example, members of the Borgia family in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries perfected the art of poisoning. It was used with great effectiveness to remove unwanted husbands, rivals, and political opponents. Some poisoners have even become household names, for example Dr Crippen who was convicted of poisoning his wife in 1910. Similarly, some of the poisons themselves, such as cyanide, arsenic, and strychnine, have become well known and associated with murder in the popular mind. The prolific writer Agatha Christie used the names of some of these poisons in her book titles, for example Arsenic...

Primary Writing Tremor

Primary writing tremor is part of a larger category of task-specific movement disorders that are characterized by the appearance of an involuntary movement only or at least predominantly during a specific task. Patients with primary writing tremor experience shaking of the hand when writing, yet, surprisingly, they are able to carry out other equally dexterous tasks and maintain posture with little or no tremor. Closely related is dystonic writer's cramp, a task-specific form of dystonia, which is a syndrome of sustained, stereotyped muscle spasms causing twisting or turning movements or abnormal postures. Some patients with dystonic writers cramp have an associated tremor, often referred to as a dystonic tremor. Many patients adapt by using pencils rather than pens, using wider writing instruments, or holding writing instruments in a unique manner for instance, gripping a pencil in the palm as though holding an ice pick. People who have writing tremor often respond to medications...

Background of Existentialism

Existentialism also permeated 20th century literature through the work of the French writer Jean-Paul Sartre and the French-Algerian novelist Albert Camus religion through the writings of Martin Buber, Paul Tillich, and others and the world of art through the work of Cezanne, Matisse, and Picasso, whose paintings break through the boundaries of realism and demonstrate a freedom of being rather than the freedom of dohig (May, 1981). After World War II, European existentialism hi its various forms spread to the United States and became even more diversified as it was taken up by an assorted collection of writers, artists, dissidents, college professors and students, playwrights, clergy, and others.

Arsenic is everywhere

The Romans knew of arsenic materials, as did the contemporary civilizations of China and India. The Chinese used them to kill flies and rodents, and the Indians used them to preserve paper from attack by insects. The Roman writer Dioscorides (40-90) wrote De Materia Medica Medical Matters in which he listed scores of remedies, mainly of the herbal kind, but also of the mineral variety and among these he mentioned orpiment and realgar, both of which are natural arsenic sulphides. The former he called arsenikon, which he said could be used to repress 'excrescencies', in other words warts and other skin eruptions, although he did warn that using it might cause the hair to fall out. The latter he called sandarache and recommended it for 'spitters of rotten matter' and wrote that it should be mixed with rosin and heated and the smoke that evolved should be breathed in, thereby curing such coughs and also asthma.

Mercury metal and mercury vapour

Soon large amounts of the metal were sloshing about below decks and indeed some of the officers had it rolling about on the floor beneath their bunks. The Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal of 1810 published a short letter from a reader in Lisbon which told of the incident and in which the writer speculated that it was an 'effluvia' caused by the interaction of the mercury and the leather of the bags that was to blame for the illnesses that afflicted the men. As more and more sailors became affected it was clear that the mercury was to blame and indeed the Phipps was beached and holes were bored in its bottom to allow the mercury to run out.

Punishment from the Gods

Prior to the 1800s most people believed that epidemics like the plague and smallpox were punishments from God. Describing the plague that hit Italy in 1347, the Italian writer Giovanni Boccaccio suggested that the plague signified God's anger at people's wicked way of life. And when the Black Death ravaged England three years later, the archbishop of York said, This surely must be caused by the sins of men. 10 The earliest written record suggesting that invisible living things might cause illness came from the Roman writer Marcus Terentius Varro. In the first century a.d. he wrote, Care should be taken where there are swamps in the neighborhood, because certain tiny creatures which cannot be seen by the eyes breed there. These float through the air and enter the body by the mouth and nose and cause serious disease. 11

Introduction to Adlerian Theory

Although Alfred Adler has had a profound effect on such later theorists as Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney, Julian Rotter, Abraham H. Maslow, Carl Rogers, Albert Ellis, Rollo May, and others (Mosak & Maniacci, 1999), his name is less well known than that of either Freud or Carl Jung. At least three reasons account for this. First, Adler did not establish a tightly run organization to perpetuate his theories. Second he was not a particularly gifted writer, and most of his books were compiled by a series of editors using Adler's scattered lectures. Third many of his views were incorporated into the works of such later theorists as Maslow, Rogers, and Ellis and thus are no longer associated with Adler's name.

Brown Sequard Charles Edouard

The heaviest known normal human brain belonged to the Russian writer Ivan Turgenev, who died in 1883. His brain weighed 4.43 pounds, more than a pound heavier than the average male brain. The smallest known normal brain belonged to a woman who died in 1977 her brain weighed just 2.41 pounds.

The expansion and transformation of the modern hospice movement in the UK

A number of hospice professionals and researchers have expressed concern about the impact these economic and organisational changes have had upon the hospice movement (Clark 1993 Wilkes 1993). Because the movement started off as a critique of the practices occurring within hospitals, it initially, and intentionally, developed outside the framework of the NHS.20 However, as we have seen, hospice services are progressively 'entering into partnership with the same system that they broke away from' (Ahmedzai 1993 142) a partnership which, as some writers have suggested, may cause their overriding ideological goals to become compromised. James, for example, has pointed to the 'routinisation' that can occur within NHS-sponsored hospices, with a shift in emphasis taking place from the spiritual, emotional and social care of dying patients to a concentration upon their physical symptoms (James 1986, 1994 see also Johnson et al. 1990 Wilkes 1993 2 Abel 1986). Neale has expressed similar...

Quantum Processing by Microtubules and Neurocognition

The challenge is to show how brain-cell firings and communication between cells may be influenced by weak and delicate, very small-scale quantum processes. To put it another way, we need to answer At what level of organization are quantum effects required in order to explain biological phenomena Can that level, in turn, influence activities at the neural level The search for answers to these questions is, in a nutshell, the objective of this book. We have solicited contributions from a number of eminent scientists in the field, some very original thinkers, and several well-known science writers. We are hoping that this book will set the tone for future explorations in this field by new generations of scientists. It would be gratifying if this volume made many of its readers think about the concept of consciousness as a journey of scientific discovery.

Nobel Prize and Jail Time

Domagk's Nobel award created yet another point of friction between the National Socialist state and the Elberfeld research establishment. In 1936, the German pacifist writer Carl von Ossietzky, then in a concentration camp for opposition to the regime, had been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Infuriated, Hitler had issued a decree forbidding any German to accept a Nobel Prize. Ossi-etzky died in the camp in 1938, but the decree remained in force. In that year, Do-magk was nominated by French and American scientists for the prize in physiology or medicine. At least in the case of the French nominator, P. Mar of the Pasteur Institute, a second, non-German name was also submitted in view of the widely publicized prohibition by the German government. The Nobel committee deferred a decision on Domagk, in part because of insufficient clinical documentation on use of the sulfa drugs in Sweden, in part in the hope that talks then under way between Hitler and representatives of other states...

Voice Quality Perceptual Evaluation of

Ciated certain kinds of voices with specific character traits for example, a nasal voice indicated a spiteful and immoral character. Ancient writers on oratory emphasized voice quality as an essential component of polished speech and described methods for conveying a range of emotions appropriately, for cultivating power, brilliance, and sweetness, and for avoiding undesirable characteristics like roughness, brassiness, or shrillness (see Laver, 1981, for review).

Rutherford Bohr Atom

The conception of the nuclear constitution of atoms arose initially from attempts to account for the scattering of a -particles through large angles in traversing thin sheets of matter.32 Taking into account the large mass and velocity of the a -particles, these large deflections were very remarkable, and indicated that very intense electric or magnetic fields exist within the atom. To account for these results, it was found necessary to assume29,30 that the atom consists of a charged massive nucleus of dimensions very small compared with the ordinarily accepted magnitude of the diameter of the atom. This positively charged nucleus contains most of the mass of the atom, and is surrounded at a distance by a distribution of negative electrons equal in number to the resultant positive charge on the nucleus. Under those conditions a very intense electric field exists close to the nucleus, and the large deflection of the a -particle in an encounter with a single atom happens when the...

Guides Action

Prompted research on recovered memories, a topic very important to the legal profession. Also, Carl Jungs theory is of great interest to many theologians and lias captured the imagination of popular writers such as Joseph Campbell and others. Similarly, the ideas of Alfred Adler, Erik Erikson, B. E Skinner, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Rollo May, and other personality theorists have sparked interest and action in a broad range of scholarly fields.

Myth And Nature

Writers from as far back as ancient Greece claimed that many creatures could regrow parts of their bodies, particularly their limbs. Undoubtedly, the best known of all of these accounts is the story of the Greek hero Hercules and his battle with the Hydra. The gods had ordered Hercules to serve Eurystheus, the king of Mycenae, for twelve years. As part of his sentence, Hercules had to perform twelve Labors, feats so difficult that they were deemed impossible to carry out by ordinary men.

Arsenic

Theophrastus, Aristotle's pupil and successor and who lived around 300 bc, recognized two forms of what he referred to as 'arsenic' although these were not the pure element, but the arsenic sulphide minerals orpiment (As2S3) and realgar (As4S4). The ancient Chinese also knew of them and the encyclopaedic work of Pen Ts'ao Kan-Mu mentions them, noting their toxicity and use as pesticides in rice fields. The mineral realgar was recommended as a treatment for many diseases as well as for banishing grey hair. Arsenic compounds are also referred to in Democritus's Physica et Mystica, and the Roman writer Pliny wrote that the Emperor Caligula (12-41 ad) financed a project for making gold from orpiment and while some was produced it was so little that the project was abandoned.

Heroin

Paracelsus prepared opium dissolved in alcohol which was known as laudanum and used it as an analgesic for pain relief. Opium was also used to induce sleep and for the treatment of diarrhoea (morphine is still used for this). As a result of trading and invasion, the use of opium spread throughout the Middle East, parts of Europe, and the Far East. Opium taken in preparations by mouth as tinctures, or even in cakes by the Chinese, proved to be very popular and to have many uses. It was widely used both for medicinal purposes and for the euphoric effects it induced as described by writers and poets, for example Thomas De Quincey in Confessions of an Opium Eater.

Neurology

Ally, the letter writers may have personal contacts at hospitals where they completed their residency or fellowship, which could increase your chances of matching. But make sure that you have worked with them enough to elicit a good letter a lukewarm one may actually hurt your application. Although the personal statement is less important, a poorly written essay especially if filled with bad humor or philosophical diatribes would undermine an otherwise stellar opinion of your candidacy.

Gastroenteritis

Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC) An AIDS service organization (ASO), one of the first, in New York City. In the United States, as in other countries, privately organized prevention programs started before official government programs. In New York City, the threat of HIV was recognized by a small group of men, who, in September 1981, gathered in the apartment of the writer Larry Kramer in order to do something about the new epidemic in their midst. That day they created the Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC). In the following two years, after its example, similar organizations were formed in other major United States cities. Today, the GMHC is recognized not only as one of the premier ASOs, but also as a major nongovernmental HIV AIDS prevention and care organization.

Types of Alexia

Deep alexia or deep dyslexia is a pattern that arises when there is damage to both GPC mechanisms and another component of the semantic route of reading the semantic system and or the phonological output lexicon (see Coltheart, Patterson, and Marshall, 1980). Semantic paralexias and functor substitutions are invariably produced, although visually similar word errors and derivational errors (e.g., write writer predicted prediction ) are also common. Concrete words are read more accurately than abstract words, and there is the following grammatical category effect nouns adjectives verbs functors (nouns most accurate). Table 2 characterizes patterns of performance across tasks in patients with deep dyslexia with damage to different components of the semantic route. It has been argued that the pattern of reading errors reflects reliance on the nondominant hemisphere's rudimentary language capabilities (Coltheart, 1980), although direct evidence for this proposal is lacking.

Slippery Chopsticks

One question on many researchers' minds was How did Hwang and his team achieve a tenfold improvement in their embryo cloning process Rick Weiss, the science writer for the Washington Post, reported that the secret was Hwang's manual dexterity under the microscope. It was this delicate touch that had allowed him to tease out the minute cells as well as the nucleic cell structures that were to be implanted. Hwang attributed this amazing ability to the Korean tradition of eating food with difficult-to-master steel chopsticks.

Dialect Speakers

A dialect refers to any variety of language that is shared by a group of speakers. It is not possible to speak a language without also speaking a dialect (Wolfram and Schilling-Estes, 1998). Although all dialects of a language are equally systematic and complex, on a social level, dialects are often described as falling on a continuum of standardness. The most standard dialect of a language generally reflects an idealized prestige form that is rarely spoken by anyone in practice. Rules for producing this standard, however, can be found in formal grammar guides and dictionaries. Versions of the standard can also be found in formal texts that have been written by established writers. Next in standardness are a number of formal and informal oral dialects. These dialects reflect the language patterns of actual speakers. Norms of acceptability for these dialects vary as a function of the regional and social characteristics of different communities and of different speakers within these...

Related Research

Writers such as Camus and Sartre) is that humans are first and foremost motivated by fear of death. Moreover, many of these thinkers see human creativity, culture, and meaning as unconscious defenses agahist mortality. The work of Becker, in particular, has been a major source of inspiration for terror management theorists.

Hybris

There are several reasons why it seems fair to conclude that physicians would think about voluntary and destructive injustice as a form of hybris. First, it was a civil as well as criminal offense and thus extended beyond what was required by law. Second, hybris presumed an advantage in terms of status, opportunity, or power that a physician as a respected guest who was granted great intimacy would be well placed to abusively exploit. Third, it included actions that could be physically violent, or verbal or nonverbal insults to honor.20 Athens explicitly applied hybris to instances of sexual abuse, exploitation, and assault (especially of children). In such usage it included acts that were either coercive or consensual and ranged from rape to seduction. Fourth, many Greek writers analogized a just society to a healthy body.21 In that metaphor, hybris was seen as akin to an imbalance of humors a fascinating link between health and ethics that would have plausibly been appealing to...

Food Additives

What was in the sapa that caused these effects We have come across these symptoms before but in a different context. The sweetening agent sapa was made by boiling grape juice or wine, often after it had started to turn to vinegar. The boiling was done ideally in lead pots, most of the liquid evaporating to produce a syrupy solution. In describing the process, the Roman writer Pliny (ad 23-79) said that the use of a lead pot was essential for good sapa. In grape juice or wine there are acids like tartaric acid and citric acid, and in vinegar the alcohol in the wine has been turned into acetic acid by bacteria. When the grape juice was boiled in lead pots, these acids reacted with the lead-producing salts, for example lead acetate, which were soluble in water. The lead acetate was very sweet it was called 'sugar of lead' in later times when its deadly composition was known. The concentrated solution, or the crystals that formed from it, were used to sweeten food and wine. It also...

Postmodernism

Postmodern scholars hold that notions of progress, science, objectivity, and validity are nothing more than a house of cards built by those in power as attempts to hold on to their power. Ironically, a number of such theorists have latched on to and co-opted such scientific and mathematical concepts as relativity, chaos, and nonlinearity. As Gross and Levitt point out ruthlessly, postmodern writing is replete with superficial understanding of science at best and misunderstanding at worst, which makes their claims to destroy its meaning all the more reprehensible. What does appear to be a major shortcoming of postmodern thought, to be less harsh than Gross and Levitt, and a bit ironic, is the lack of training and understanding of scientific principles and the touting of such ignorance with pride. As leading postmodern writer Andrew Ross, an English professor at Princeton, has written in his influential book Strange Weather Culture, Science and Technology in the Age of Limits This book...

Deconstruction

The idea that the brain has quantum degrees of freedom in its functioning has been around for close to forty years, yet its revolutionary coterie remains small. Of course, quantum brain theory's lack of cachet may be deserved, but what catches the deconstructionist eye is the emotional intensity of the opposition to quantum brain theory. Marginalia are the facts of deconstructionists. To see this emotional intensity one must look to the margins of a text, since science practitioners strive for an image of emotional neutrality. But here are two science writers - unlike scientists, writers are allowed more freedom of emotional expression - who clearly have an attitude toward quantum brain theory. Seife 24 sneers, in the highly respected journal Science, The idea attracted a few physicists, some consciousness researchers, and a large number of mystics. McCrone 18 opines it is hard to report the various claptrap ideas with a straight face . Such strong words in the margins of scientific...

Y Questions

Maya Angelou is a U.S. writer of prose and poetry who has published several autobiographical works (1969, 1974, 1976, 1981, 1986, 1 993b). Her vivid descriptions of her own experience make it rather easy for the reader to understand life from her point of view, as Rogers urges for those who would truly understand another person.

Michael D Kopelman

Various forms of terminology are commonly used in discussing this issue. The present writer favours the term psychogenic amnesia , because it does not make any assumptions about mechanism (as does dissociative amnesia ) or about the degree to which memory loss results from unconscious processes ( hysterical amnesia ), rather than motivated deliberate conscious processes ( factitious or exaggerated amnesia). The term functional amnesia is somewhat unsatisfactory in that there are, of course, deficits in function (or processing ) in organic amnesia, and the salient feature of psychogenic amnesia is that, in some sense, it is always dysfunctional . On the other hand, it can be argued that the term psychogenic makes assumptions about underlying aetiology and begs questions about when, and in what circumstances, a psychological stress is sufficient to become psychogenic . However, similar criticisms can be made in cases of organic amnesia, where the markers of pathophysiology are not...

Poetic Handicaps

Meter, rhythm, and rhyme make communication harder, not easier. They impose additional constraints on speakers. One must not only find the words to express meaning, but, to appropriate Coleridge, the right words with the right sounds in the right order and the right rhythm. These constraints make poetry more impressive than prose as a display of verbal intelligence and creativity For example, literary scholar John Constable has noted that poetic meter is a kind of handicap in Zahavi's sense. A metric line must have a regular number of syllables. Across different poetic styles, languages, and cultures, this number is usually between six and twelve syllables. Constable showed that even successful writers such as George Eliot have trouble composing metric poetry His evidence shows that on average they use shorter words when writing metric poetry than when writing prose, because shorter words are easier to fit together into regular line lengths. Meter imposes a measurable cost on the...

Prosodic Phenomena

As a very rough principle, compounds with an adjective as first element are stressed on the second part, as with jongjaam 'young woman'. Those with nouns as first element are generally stressed on the first part xheiteldn 'fatherland'. Most suffixes are unstressed lskriuwster '(woman) writer' *boadskip 'message' xsmoargens 'dirt'. Exceptions to this rule are -esse and -inne (both creating a female agent) and -erij freonxdinne 'girlfriend' prinlsesse 'princess' bakke'rij 'bakery'. Prefixes operate much like those in Dutch and German. Some are never stressed (such as be-,fer- and te- others (like oar- in oarsaak 'cause' and ant- in antwurd 'answer') always are. In addition, Frisian parallels German and Dutch in having separable and inseparable prefixes, with similar stress patterns.

Sedgwick

Lucas, one of the staff of the Times writers at that day, in what I suppose was the ordinary course of business. Mr. Lucas, though an excellent journalist, and, at a later period, editor of 'Once a Week,' was as innocent of any knowledge of science as a babe, and bewailed himself to an acquaintance on having to deal with such a book. Whereupon he was recommended to ask me to get him out of his difficulty, and he applied to me accordingly, explaining, however, that it would be necessary for him formally to adopt anything I might be disposed to write, by prefacing it with two or three paragraphs of his own.

My a Angelou

Maslow's theory does not emphasize the cultural context of need fulfillment. That is unfortunate in Angelou's case because her autobiography suggests that experience among blacks in Africa who were not wounded by racism had a healing effect on her self-esteem, freeing her to explore higher levels of personal growth. Her experience with the civil rights movement in the United States mobilized important self-respect, but it was only after a period of living in Africa that she moved toward the higher levels of self-actualization. Besides finding a way around the racial issue, her esteem needs were also met by success in the creative arts, first as a singer and then as a writer.

Driving you hairless

Agatha Christie built one of her murder mysteries around thallium poisoning. In 1952 she wrote The Pale Horse, in which the murderer used it to dispose of people's unwanted relatives and disguised his activities as black magic curses. The plot involves a murdered priest and a pub owned by three modern-day witches.* Christie described the symptoms of thallium poisoning very well lethargy, tingling, numbness of the hands and feet, blackouts, slurred speech, insomnia, and general debility, and she is sometimes blamed for bringing this poison to the attention of would-be poisoners. However, her book was responsible for saving the life of one young girl as we shall see. In any case Christie was not the first mystery writer to employ this deadly agent.

Lead and dead

GOUT was once a common malady that immobilized many of the upper class males of ancient Rome and imperial Britain. Both societies blamed it on too much rich food and wine, and they may have been right. The Roman writers, Seneca, Virgil, Juvenal, and Ovid all poked fun at the sufferers of gout, as did the London cartoonists the popular belief was that it was a just punishment for over-indulgence. Physicians knew of the pain it caused and discovered that it was due to sharp crystals of uric acid between the joints of the bones but what caused these to form

The alchemists

The 1600s saw the gradual emergence of chemistry from alchemy and in this period we find several men we now recognize as true scientists who were in their time secret alchemists, such as Robert Boyle, John Mayow (164179), and Isaac Newton (1642-1727). By the end of the 1700s, however, alchemy was no longer respectable, at least in scientific circles, although even in the late nineteenth century some alchemists were still at work, including August Strindberg (1849-1912) the great Swedish writer. He devoted a considerable amount of effort to the project and believed he had succeeded in 1894 when he sent samples of his 'gold' to the University of Berlin and published his method in a fringe journal, L'Hyperchimie. Like all before him he was deluded, and later analysis of his samples showed them to be iron compounds, which can sometimes appear a deep gold colour.

Mercury

Mercury has a strong affinity for sulphur atoms, and the two combine to form insoluble mercury sulphide, HgS, which is how it occurs as the main mercury ore, bright red cinnabar. When used as a pigment, cinnabar is known as vermilion and it was even used by cave painters 20000 years ago in Spain and France. Vermilion was especially popular with the Romans, who decorated whole rooms in their villas with it. The Roman writers Vitruvius and Pliny refer to mercury metal but were of the opinion that the mercury which was found naturally in the mines of Spain was somehow superior to that which was obtained by roasting cinnabar the former they referred to as argentum vivum (living silver) and the latter as hydrargyrum

The chemical machine

Figure 1.1 The Writer , built in the middle of the eighteenth century by the Swiss inventor Pierre Jacquet-Droz, is a beautiful automaton sitting at a writing desk that dips his pen into the inkwell, shakes off the excess ink, and writes Descartes' famous motto Cogito ergo sum. The automaton is still fully operational and survives in a Neuchatel museum. Figure 1.1 The Writer , built in the middle of the eighteenth century by the Swiss inventor Pierre Jacquet-Droz, is a beautiful automaton sitting at a writing desk that dips his pen into the inkwell, shakes off the excess ink, and writes Descartes' famous motto Cogito ergo sum. The automaton is still fully operational and survives in a Neuchatel museum.

Antimony

The accumulated knowledge about antimony appeared in a very influential book published in 1604 and called The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony. It opens with an introduction about the author, a mysterious monk called Basil Valentine who apparently lived in the 1400s, and belonged to the Order of St Benedict. We are told that Valentine hid his manuscript inside a pillar of the church in Erfurt where the monastery was located, and there it rested until one day a bolt of lightning split open the pillar and it was revealed. In fact there never was a Benedictine monastery at Erfurt and no monk of this name has ever been traced, although that did not prevent other writers mentioning him and his book and even putting his date of birth at around 1400. The book popularized the use of antimony and its compounds in the treatment of disease, and thus started the widespread use of antimony which continued for 300 years.

Neophilia

Creativity is not just a production line for churning out random ideas. It depends on both selective retention and blind variation. A capacity for novelty production will yield interesting entertainment only if it is combined with a huge knowledge base, virtuoso expression, and good critical judgment. It also demands the social intelligence necessary to figure out how to express a novel idea in a comprehensible way. As all writers know, it is one thing to have an idea in one's head, and quite another to put it on paper in a way that will evoke it in someone else's head. In his classic 1950 book The Creative Process, Brewster Ghiselin noted that Even the most energetic and original mind, in order to reorganize or extend

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