World War I Ebooks Catalog
The toxin T-2 was isolated from the 'strain T-2' of F. sporotrichioides, which has been associated with cattle mortalities. The compound has been the subject of considerable toxicological interest because it is easy to isolate and purify. Although T-2 poising is uncommon because colonization by F. sporotrichioides is only possible when grain is physically damaged, it has affected both animals and humans. During World War II, large-scale poisonings occurred in the Soviet Union, caused by the consumption of grains damaged by wintering in the fields. This poisoning affected thousands of people, leading to the disappearance of entire villages.
Non-Hispanic whites employed Mexicans within the agriculture, mining, and railroad industries after the expansion of capital toward the West and increasing settlements. More job opportunities arose in the 1880s with an increasing wave of migration from Mexico to the United States between 1880 and 1929. Another factor that contributed to increased migration during that time was the Mexican Revolution (1910-1917) and the migration north to try to find better opportunities. After the economic depression beginning in 1929, the United States restricted the entry of Mexicans into the country, but this situation changed during World War II, when the United States needed additional agricultural labor and instituted the bracero program, which allowed Mexicans to work in the United States. Most of the workers in the agriculture, industry, and service fields were hired as cheap labor and experienced social and economic disadvantages, with low salaries, poor job protection, and poor job...
Penicillin was developed at a time when safety evaluation of drugs was limited. Furthermore the Second World War occurred shortly afterwards during which penicillin was used extensively and saved thousands of lives. This probably gave the drug impetus. Had the drug been tested by today's rigorous standards it might not have been accepted, certainly if it had been evaluated in guinea pigs, a species which is particularly susceptible.
Demonstrate that rather than blindness, his monkeys suffered a severe impairment in guiding their movements under visual control. Virtually identical symptoms were described by Rudolf Balint (1909) in a patient who had suffered bilateral lesions of the parietal lobes and by Gordon Holmes (1918b), who studied casualties among British soldiers in the First World War. Ferrier's monkeys, Balint's patient, and Holmes's soldiers were all unable to guide their movements accurately under visual control. The visual areas of the parietal lobe are principally concerned with spatial localization in the visual field (Ungerleider and Mishkin, 1982) and the visual guidance of movement (Glickstein and May, 1982).
Bacillary angiomatosis A bacterial illness commonly called cat scratch fever. It is caused by two varieties of Bartonella bacteria. Bartonella henselae is the known cause of cat scratch fever. Bartonella quintana is the known cause of trench fever, which was first diagnosed in soldiers in Europe during World War I. B. henselae is a bacterium that causes a minor infection in cats, passed usually through flea bites. It is generally seen in patients that live with cats. B. quintana has typically been seen in homeless people in the United States, it is passed by body lice. Most people that contract bacillary angiomatosis report being scratched or bitten by cats, but it is the flea bites that pass the bacteria. The bacteria causes a self-limiting, mild infection in healthy people.
I was one of Lord Adrian's very small number of graduate students. The Ph.D. was not a popular degree in Cambridge until well after the Second World War, and especially in physiology, even those going into academic research more often took a medical degree, as I had done myself. But when I qualified in 1947, I was faced with the choice of many years of internships and residencies to climb the medical ladder or having a go at physiological research, and I chose the latter. I needed a research studentship, so I came to Cambridge to explore the possibility of getting one.
Legislation was introduced in several countries during World War II which required the addition of iron and calcium, as well as of certain water-soluble vitamins, to bread and flour in order to combat nutritional deficiencies caused by food restrictions. The success of these measures in improving health led to the extension of the legislation into peacetime. Some countries, such as the UK, still require that bread and flour be fortified with calcium and iron (Statutory Instrument, 1984).
DeBa-key volunteered for military service and was assigned to the United States surgeon general's office, where he rose to the rank of colonel. During his years of service (1942-1946), he recognized the need for a mobile surgical unit that would allow soldiers to be treated on the combat field. He convinced the surgeon general of the importance of forming what eventually came to be known as Mobile Army Surgical Hospitals (MASH units). For developing these units, Dr. DeBakey was awarded the US Army Legion of Merit in 1945.
For the next 20 to 30 years, your workplace will be a chaotic, messy, and tense environment. For some, the confines of the emergency room seem like a more dangerous work environment than the clinic, operating room, or ward. You will often be performing invasive procedures under time pressure, with blood splattering everywhere. Patients may not necessarily divulge any possible pathogens they may be carrying. And, all sorts of nasty bugs and critters make the ED their very special home. Here, brave emergency physicians are at an increased risk for exposure to everything from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to hepatitis B and C, from HIV to potential biological warfare agents. The ED is, after all, one of the top locations where medical students have been exposed to accidental needle-sticks.2
In the years following World War I there were some notable arsenic poisoning cases, such as that of Major Herbert Armstrong who was hanged in 1922 for murdering his wife. He would have escaped detection had he not sent poisoned chocolates to a fellow solicitor who was threatening him financially. When these failed to do the trick, he invited the man to tea and fed him scones spread with butter and arsenic trioxide. They made him very ill but he survived and it was these clumsy attempts that led to Armstrong's arrest and the exhumation of his wife's corpse. She had died a year earlier and her body was found to be full of arsenic. Her liver alone contained 138 mg of the poison. The Armstrong case was a carbon copy of the Greenwood case of 1920. Both men were solicitors, both lived in the same part of the country, and both poisoned their wives with arsenic trioxide. The only difference was that Greenwood had been acquitted.
Winston Churchill, the British prime minister during World War II, may shed some light on this question. He was known as a great innovator, someone whose vision reached far beyond what seemed practical, and a communicator who was anything but conventional. Yet he surged forward during a very adverse time, being patient with himself, understanding his own capabilities as well as those of others around him, spurring others to believe what he knew to be true, that there could be success even in the midst of adversity. It was a time when one could only imagine the military capacity we have today, yet Churchill made a foundation for his effectiveness in his willingness to look beyond current reality to what could only be imagined. Believing that the British military could greatly improve, Churchill diagrammed the organizational chart and put the Naval War Staff into place just before World War I, converted the Navy's principal fuel to oil which allowed them to go faster than coal did and...
Two areas remain of concern in organ donation from dead bodies. The first is the respect that is owed to the dead. It might seem irrational to think in terms of harm when removing organs from cadavers, but certain other practices raise questions about it. When we honour the dead, at a funeral or cremation, or at a service of commemoration, such as of those who died in a war, the focus of our attention is the body which is committed for burial or cremation, or the graveyard where those who fell were buried. Even now, the crematoria of the dead of World War One in Northern France and Belgium are tended with supreme care, and still visited by thousands who, to judge by the comments they write in the crematorium registers, are profoundly affected by what they find there. The commemoration is not, of course, of dead bodies it is of the acts and qualities of the people who inhabited them. Nevertheless, respecting the physical remains is a way of showing respect for the person whose body it...
During World War II, General Douglas MacArthur had a penchant for consulting with the lower ranks of his staff before making a decision. Although he usually knew what his decision would ultimately be, he asked his followers, usually starting with the lowest-ranking ones, for their opinion. He realized that ultimately his decision making would be better if he was listening to everyone on his team, even though he himself possessed remarkable decision-making ability (Wall, Solum, and Sobol, 1992).
From Enhanced Responsiveness to Sustainable Innovation. Innovations are responses to challenging problems or even desperate situations. Creativity emerges when the existing solutions no longer serve their purpose and new responses are called for. For example, the digital revolution that is turning the business world inside out traces some of its technological roots to the struggle to prevail in World War II and the Cold War. As scientists and mathematicians on both sides searched for ways to automate the massive calculations required to break enemy ciphers and determine ballistic missile trajectories, they developed new technologies that became the seedbed for today's advances. In a period of crisis, a century's worth of abstruse theoretical work in mathematics was integrated into the foundations of a technological revolution that just keeps getting bigger.
This reflects the divergence and separate development of two distinct sectors following the Second World War. Lasker and colleagues observed, t he dominant, highly respected medical sector focused on individual patients, emphasizing technologically sophisticated diagnosis and treatment and biological mechanisms of disease. The considerably smaller, less well-appreciated public health sector concentrated on populations, prevention, nonbiological determinants of health, and safety-net primary care (Lasker et al., 1997 274). As disciplines and professional fields, medicine and public health evolved with minimal levels of interaction, and often without recognition of the lost opportunities to improve the health of individuals and the population. The health care and governmental public health sectors are also very unequal in terms of their resources, prestige, and influence on public policy.
Shortly after World War II, a new psychology existential psychology began to spread from Europe to the United States. Existential psychology is rooted in the philosophy of Soren Kierkegaard Friedrich Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre, and other European philosophers. The first existential psychologists and psychiatrists were also Europeans, and these included Ludwig Binswanger, Medard Boss, Victor Frankl, and others.
In the early part of the twentieth century, the first nurse instructors were instituted, and formal training programs were implemented at St. Thomas's Hospital. Not until 1927 was there a course that prepared nurses for teaching. By the 1930s, hospitals were evolving more rapidly than the nursing profession, and turnover and dropout rates of nurses were increasing. Work conditions declined, and women sought other types of work. By the World War II era, student nurses spent large increments of their nursing education performing domestic functions in a nursing education culture that tended to ignore the potential of bright, promising young professionals (Pfeill, 2003).
Psychosurgery remains a controversial treatment because, while benefiting some subjects, it involves destroying perfectly healthy brain tissue, it may have unpredictable results and may cause negative changes in intellect or personality. Critics of the procedure liken it to the abuses of human subjects during biomedical experiments in Germany during World War II. Proponents argue that
For many years, women used rags to contain menstrual flow. These were not very reliable and had to be soaked and laundered after use. The first disposable sanitary pad was created in 1896 by Johnson & Johnson (New Brunswick, New Jersey, U.S.A.) (Lister's Towels) but failed to catch on. In World War I, nurses found bandages to be an excellent absorbing material for menstrual flow. Soon thereafter, Kimberly-Clark introduced Kotex in 1921, and Johnson & Johnson introduced Modess , the first successful disposable pads. Disposable pads were definitely more effective and convenient than rags. However, they were a long way from current products. They had to be held in place with pins or special belts worn around the waist and a range of protective gear were available to compensate when the pads failed, such as special panties or sanitary aprons (made of cloth-coated rubber, and worn backwards over the buttocks) (33,45).
Walter Mischel was born in 1930 in Vienna, Austria. His family fled Europe to avoid the Nazi persecutions at the beginning of World War II, when he was a young boy. Like many Europeans, they immigrated to New York City, where Mischel later studied at the City College of New York. He became a social worker, focusing on juvenile delinquents.
Ultimately, what people think about stem cell research is rather incidental to what is actually taking place. It's much like thinking about the weather, the Internet, or the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Regardless of what one believes, from the staunchest opponent to the most radical proponent, the stem cell field and the results from its research are here to stay.
Perhaps the most astounding use of microbes can be found in the back rooms of major art institutions where the microbes' voracious appetites are being let loose on priceless masterpieces, such as the Conversion and Battle of Saint Efisio by Spinello Aretino. Many Italian works of art dating back to the fourteenth century were severely damaged during World War II. Attempts to repair them with glue and harmful cleaning solvents caused even more damage, and after sixty years they were thought to be hopelessly unrepairable.
Encephalitis lethargica Sleepy sickness vonEconomo's disease. An acute virally induced inflammation of the brain characterized by fever and sleep disturbances and followed by various persisting forms of nervous disorder (e.g. Parkinsonism) or by changes in character. It emerged as a new infectious disease near the end of the First World War, but by 1940 new encephalitis lethargica cases had almost entirely disappeared. Probably only of historical interest.
The breaching of the Berlin Wall on New Year's Eve 1989 was a highly symbolic event. It followed the collapse, one by one, of the Soviet-sponsored regimes of Eastern Europe, and it anticipated the collapse of the Soviet Union itself, in 1992. It marked the end of the world order established after the Second World War and consolidated through forty years of Cold War. Long fundamental divisons between East and West in foreign affairs, between Left and Right at home rapidly lost their force. The collapse of ancient polarities was linked to the decline of familiar collectivities (classes, unions, political parties, churches) and to the exhaustion of ideologies (socialism, communism, nationalism, even conservatism). In 1989 capitalism and liberal democracy claimed victory, but their triumphalism was always muted and the celebrations proved short-lived as the 1990s came to be dominated
Physical medicine and rehabilitation is one of the youngest specialties in the medical profession. It became a member of the American Board of Medical Specialties in 1947 after the veterans of World War II returned home with amputations and other combat-related injuries. The separate disciplines of physical medicine and rehabilitation became a single entity when two prominent physicians Howard Rusk (rehabilitation) of New York University and Frank Krusen (physical medicine) of the Mayo Clinic began collaborating. Through their efforts, with funding from the US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, opportunities for training in this new field of PM&R began to blossom. Now, more US senior medical students than ever before are choosing careers in physiatry. In the 2002 Match, nearly 70 of positions were filled by American medical graduates, its highest percentage ever, nearly twice the number filled in 1998.7
Much of the history of contemporary plastic surgery was shaped by war. Early twentieth century plastic surgeons such as Sir Harold Gillies3 and Vilray Blair4 served in World War I and helped develop many of the fundamental techniques and principles still used today. World War II, and the Korean and Vietnam wars later produced great numbers of complex wounds. Advances in critical care and trauma surgery meant that patients with increasingly devastating injuries could potentially be saved. In this setting, the plastic surgeon earned two relatively new responsibilities. First, it was recognized that acute wound coverage was necessary to prevent secondary infection of vital structures. Second, the functional and aesthetic demands of patients became a greater priority. Plastic surgeons realized that even if a soldier's life was saved, if he was so disfigured that he could not present himself in public, then he might consider his life not worth living. As such, they developed new procedures...
Although this specialty is one of the oldest in medicine, World War II marked the beginning of modern psychiatry. At that time, hundreds of recruits were found psychiatrically unfit for induction, sparking a renewed interest in mental health. The federal government devoted massive resources toward the field, particularly with the establishment in 1949 of the National Institute of Mental Health. Medical students of the 1960s, who viewed psychiatry as a means of social change, flocked into the specialty. But while becoming more biologically oriented, psychiatry lost much of its resources due to the nation's desire to produce more generalist physicians. Combined with encroachment from managed care and competition from other mental health care providers, recruitment among graduating medical students began to decline.8 In fact, the total number of US seniors entering psychiatry reached a low of 428 (52 of all applicants) in 1998.9 The trend, however, is now rapidly reversing as the need...
Transfusion, blood The replacement in the body of blood or one of its components. The modern era of blood transfusion started during World War II, when battlefield medicine became sophisticated in the use of blood and plasma. Today, blood transfusion is a highly complex field, combining the latest knowledge of immunology and physiology with practical management of a wide range of services. The key concept in modern transfusion medicine is the provision of integrated blood transfusion services. An integrated system, a reality in industrialized countries, seeks to ensure a timely supply of adequate amounts of safe blood and blood products, where needed and at an affordable cost. The integrated system must manage donor recruitment, collection, testing and storage of blood, preparation of appropriate blood products and their appropriate use, and complex record-keeping and logistical tasks. In many developing countries, even in the major hospitals, there are no such systems. Blood is...
Reality Two Views At the close of World War II Picasso is said to have been confronted by an American soldier who complained that he could not understand Picasso's paintings because everything was distorted the eyes were displaced, the nose in an odd place, the mouth twisted beyond recognition, and so on. And what do you think a picture should look like asked Picasso. The G.I. proudly whipped out his wallet and showed a tiny photograph of his girlfriend Like this Picasso studied the photograph and said, She's kind of small, isn't she
After serving in the Navy in World War II, Staats became a serious college student. In graduate school at the University of California at Los Angeles (LTCLA), his wide interests, combined with his drive for analysis in terms of basic principles, led him to complete the requirements for a Ph.D. in clinical psychology while taking his degree in General-Experimental Psychology. With his objective view of human behavior, he found valuable elements in behaviorism's science philosophy and conditioning principles. However, he saw deep and widespread weaknesses also, including behaviorism's focus on animal research, its rejection of traditional psychology, and its divisive internecine rivalry. While still in graduate school, he began a research program to extend learning principles broadly in the systematic study of human behavior, a new development. The approach he constructed was a behaviorism, but not an ordinary behaviorism. It became psychologized because it incorporated essential...
Cattell was born in 1905 in Staffordshire, England, the son and grandson of engineers. He had two brothers and was a bright student. As a boy, he witnessed the carnage and casualties of World War I. In 1941, at the invitation of Gordon Allport (American Psychological Association, 1997), Cattell accepted a lectureship at Harvard University. His office was next door to Allport's (Cattell, 1984, p. 141), and he remarked that in personality theory, Allport and I spoke a different language, which . . . was tough on students (Cattell, 1974, p. 71). These were bachelor years for Cattell. He worked long days and holidays, virtually living in his office. During World War II, he reluctantly interrupted his basic research to do some of the applied work expected of professionals during the crisis. He labored on developing objective personality tests for officer selection, but the research was interrupted by the end of the war.
During World War II and the next two decades, in the age before genetic engineering, scientists at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) at Fort Detrick, Maryland, clandestinely researched biological agents that in principle could far surpass the killing power of the most potent traditional weapons. So too did scientists in the former Soviet Union and at least a dozen other countries. No program was larger than that of the USSR's Biopreparat Agency, where microbes for fearsome diseases such as smallpox, plague, anthrax, tularemia, Q fever, brucellosis (undulant fever), Marburg virus, and Lassa virus were weaponized into bombs and other delivery vehicles. According to one former Soviet insider, the Biopreparat had hundreds of tons of anthrax ready for use at any time, and a 20-ton stockpile of the smallpox virus. It also reportedly tested such microbes in the open air, for example, on monkeys at Resurrection Island in the Aral Sea. Biological...
Antifreeze is used in car radiators to stop the coolant water freezing in the winter. It is almost always one chemical substance, ethylene glycol, although occasionally it is mixed with methyl alcohol to make an even more toxic cocktail. Ethylene glycol would be described by a chemist as a type of alcohol, and if drunk it would at first have similar effects to a glass or two of wine. It is, apparently, sweet-tasting and indeed it was once illegally used (as was a closely related substance, diethylene glycol) for increasing the sweetness of wine in Austria. This substance is anything but sweet-natured when someone drinks it either accidentally or intentionally. My father, who was an aircraft mechanic in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War, once told me that some of the men drank the antifreeze used for aircraft engines because the label on the drums included the word 'alcohol' (this may have been because methyl alcohol was one of the constituents).
In 1942-3, during the Second World War, thousands died in the Soviet Union after eating bread made from flour contaminated with mycotoxins. The flour was made from grain that had been left in the fields over the winter and had become wet and mouldy before it was harvested. The mould was of the Fusarium type which can infect a variety of crops from
A self-proclaimed holy man, who held great sway over the Tsarina of Russia in the early part of the twentieth century, Gregory Efimovich Rasputin owed his power to his apparent ability to heal her son, the Tsarevich. The Tsarevich suffered from haemophilia, a hereditary disease afflicting males, which was passed on through Queen Victoria to various members of the royal families of Europe, in which the blood fails to clot. The Tsarina became dependent on Rasputin, often sending for him to tend her son when he was bleeding uncontrollably upon the slightest injury. During the First World War the Tsar left Petrograd (as St Petersburg had been renamed) to take control of the army personally, and left the Tsarina in charge of affairs of government. Rasputin seized this chance to strengthen his hold on power. The other well-known event in which cyanide (as the volatile hydrogen cyanide, HCN) featured was the killing of millions of Jews, gypsies, and political prisoners in gas chambers by the...
Hitler's terrible realization of his failure as an artist was blunted by the outbreak of World War I. His fierce ambition could now be channeled hito behig a great war hero fighting for his homeland. Although he was no great hero, he was a responsible, disciplined, and dutiful soldier. After the war, however, he experienced more failure. Not only had his beloved nation lost, but revolutionaries within Germany had attacked everything that was sacred to Hitler's reactionary nationalism, and they won The victory of the revolutionaries gave Hitler's destructiveness its final and ineradicable form (Fromm, 1973, p. 394).
That same year Rotter accepted a position as clinical psychologist at Norwich State Hospital hi Connecticut, where his duties included training interns and assistants from the University of Connecticut and Wesleyan University. At the advent of World War II, he was drafted into the army and spent more than 3 years as an army psychologist.
The first is moral justification, hi which otherwise culpable behavior is made to seem defensible or even noble. Bandura (1986) cited the example of World War I hero Sergeant Alvin York who, as a conscientious objector, believed that killing was morally wrong. After his battalion commander quoted from the Bible the conditions under which it was morally justified to kill and after a long prayer vigil, York became convinced that killing enemy soldiers was morally defensible. Following his redefining killing, York proceeded to kill and capture more than 100 German soldiers and, as a result, became one of the greatest war heroes in American history.
During World War II, Fletcher, then director of physical research at Bell Telephone and chairman of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC), provided a description of at least some of the articulation index methods that had been developed at Bell Labs to Leo Beranek, then at Harvard University (Allen, 1996). Beranek was working on methods for improving communications for aircraft pilots as a part of the war effort under a contract from the NDRC. Allen (1996) reports that following the war, Beranek persuaded the Bell Labs group to finally publish a description of their work on the articulation index. The classic 1947 paper by N. R. French and J. C. Steinberg was the result. This paper was soon followed by Beranek's frequently cited paper on the articulation index (Beranek, 1947). These two papers together were to play highly influential roles in the future of the articulation index.
Conventional war, including terrorism and guerrilla warfare. In the 1980s, the low-intensity conflict doctrine, which was espoused by the Reagan administration, was a plan for U.S. aid to anti-Communist forces throughout the world as a way of confronting the Soviet Union without using U.S. combat troops. Despite the significant changes in the world since the inception of the low-intensity conflict doctrine, the probability of increasing numbers of small conflicts still exists. Although no evidence indicates that the United States would consider violating the 1972 BW convention and support biological warfare, the overall increase in low-level conflicts in the future may help create an environment conducive to the use of BW. Although BW may not be assessed as an effective weapon in a full-scale conventional war, limited use of BW agents may be perceived as advantageous in a small-scale conflict. Although strong deterrents exist for nuclear weapons, including unavailability and, most...
During World War I the first massive use of psychological tests of intelligence was begun with the testing of military recruits. Hundreds of psychologists and graduate students in psychology were recruited to administer the tests to recruits. After the war critics were outraged to find that the Army test suggested that southern and eastern Europeans were inferior to northern Europeans, and that blacks were inferior to whites. some believe it was these test results that prompted restrictive emigration policies in America in 1924 and fanned the flames of racial prejudice against blacks and other minorities.
Soap making remained largely a household chore until the mid-19th century. At about this time, high-yield methods were developed for making soda ash or sodium carbonate out of common table salt, thereby improving the quality and yield of soap products, lowering the cost, and facilitating a move toward the commercial manufacturing of soap. These discoveries, along with the development of power to operate factories, made soapmaking one of America's fastest-growing industries by 1850 and changed soap from a luxury item to an everyday necessity. Investigation into the use of synthetic detergents began in the early 1900s and, with the end of World War II, synthetics starting replacing soaps for some cleaning chores, such as laundry and household cleaning (Fig. 1B). As surfactant chemistry became more and more sophisticated,
We have scientific proof that Beethoven was afflicted with lead. It was common in the nineteenth century to cut locks of hair from those who had died and to put these in lockets. Beethoven died on 26 March 1827, in Vienna and the following day 15-year-old musician Ferdinand Hiller came to pay his last respects and was allowed to cut a lock of the great man's hair as a memento. Hiller, who went on to become a composer and conductor, put the hair in a locket which he later gave to his son Paul. Although it passed to other members of the family, its provenance was never in doubt, and descendants of Paul's used the locket to buy safe passage out of Nazi-occupied Denmark in World War II. Their escape to Sweden was organized by a Danish doctor, Kay Alexander Fremming.
Ivan Ivanovich Schmalhausen (1884-1963) expanded the Baldwin proposals in his book Factors of Evolution, completed in Moscow in 1943 in the depths of World War II while the city was under Nazi siege. Schmalhausen was a leading figure in Russian biology before the war and until 1948. At that point Fyodor Lysenko, the notorious Stalinist scourge of Russian genetics, brought him to trial for being a Weismannist-Mendelist-Morganist idealist. 4
At the time that Erikson was a professor of psychology and a lecturer in psychiatry at the University of California at Berkeley, the United States was undergoing a wave of concern about Communist infiltration in the schools. Faculty members were required to sign an additional loyalty oath, besides the oath in which they had already routinely pledged to uphold the national and state constitutions. Erikson and several others refused, resulting in their dismissal, although this was overturned in court. Since Erikson had become a U.S. citizen as an adult and conducted psychological research for the government during World War II, analyzing Hitler's speeches and conducting other war-related studies (Hopkins, 1995), he cannot be accused of anti-Americanism for his stance. In explaining his action, Erikson (1951b) argued that the anti-Communist hysteria that had prompted the requirement of a loyalty oath was dangerous to the university's historical role as a place where truth and reason can...
However, the warm association between Adler and Freud came to a bitter end, with both men hurling caustic remarks toward the other. For example, after World War I, when Freud elevated aggression to a basic human drive, Adler, who had long since abandoned the concept, commented sarcastically I enriched psychoanalysis by the aggressive drive. I gladly make them a present of it (quoted in Bottome, 1939, p. 64).
One of Jung's controversial ideas is that the collective unconscious follows the laws of genetic inheritance. It is different in humans than in other animal species, of course. Jung suggested that various races and families inherit somewhat different variations of the collective unconscious, just as they inherit different physical characteristics. This notion of a racial unconscious was exploited in the Nazi era as a scientific rationalization for the racially motivated extermination of non- Aryan people, especially Jews. Psychologists in the post-World War II era, horrified by the concentration camps, naturally
Has shown for Bayer, one of the major component companies of I.G. Farben, the establishment of research and its contribution to Bayer's success were the results of an evolutionary process in which legal and economic as well as scientific developments played important roles. Major components of this process included the opening of a main scientific laboratory in 1891 the building up of a research infrastructure to support the main laboratory, including a library, a literary department, a patent bureau, a control laboratory, a training laboratory, and an experimental dye house and the increasing focus of management on the organization of research and on the introduction of related managerial techniques, including labor contract regulations, financial incentives, conferences, regular progress reports, and creation of the role of research administrator. Research became increasingly differentiated, specialized, and decentralized with the setting up of new laboratories, including, by 1902,...
A 56-year-old white male presented with abdominal and ankle swelling of several months' duration. There was no history of chronic medical problems, except for impotence over the past 3-4 years for which he occasionally took sildenafil. The patient was on no other medications. He was a successful accountant, married with three children. He was a -pack day smoker and drank two or three beers each day. His father had been killed during World War II, and he had an uncle who died of liver cirrhosis 10-15 years previously. He had two brothers and two sisters who were all in good health.
The large-scale use of chemicals in warfare, especially the use of gases, began in the First World War. Some of the gases used in warfare, for example chlorine and phosgene, were already known but had not been designed for the purpose. Others, like lewisite, were specifically designed for warfare. During the First World War chlorine gas was first used in Flanders, where it was released by the Germans in April i9i5, killing 5,000 Allied soldiers and injuring a further 15,000. Other poisons used were phosgene, which replaced chlorine, and later in the war mustard gas and lewisite. The use of gas masks reduced the effectiveness of gas after the first few attacks. The Geneva Conference in 1925 outlawed the use of such gases, but it has not stopped them from being used altogether. In i936 the Italians used mustard gas against the Ethiopians in Abyssinia, and more recently Saddam Hussein used it in the war against Iran in the i980s, and in the massacre of thousands of Kurds in northern Iraq...
And Stalin) and at knowledge of public events, e.g. she was unable to provide any information about either the Second World War or the recent (at that time) assassination of the Italian Prime Minister. Cueing helped her in some instances, but she was never able to achieve detailed recollection of these public events. By contrast, not only did she remember personal incidents that had occurred before and after the acute stage of her illness, but she was well informed on current issues in her family, and she could recall the bulk of what had been done from testing session to testing session. A 20-item questionnaire was constructed about autobiographical memories, and her performance was generally very satisfactory. An MRI scan showed a large irregular area of increased signal density extending over the inferior and anterior part of the left temporal lobe, above and lateral to the temporal horn (which was enlarged), involving the amygdala, the uncus, the hippocampus and the...
One of the most unusual of Skinner's efforts was Project Pigeon. During World War II, he trained pigeons to guide missiles toward their targets, which were enemy warships on the ocean. Though an unusual technology, preliminary work showed that it was effective. The government abandoned the project, however, before it was implemented, and efforts were instead channeled into the development of the atom bomb CD. Cohen, 1977).
In 1986 an accident destroyed one of the nuclear reactors at Chernobyl in Russia with a resulting release of tons of radioactive materials into the air. Thirty-one people are reported to have died from radiation exposure, and millions of people were exposed to radiation dispersed across the surrounding countryside. Increased thyroid cancer and detectable DNA alterations in children of parents who were exposed to the radiation, as well as reports of increased mutation rates in plants in the region, all support the idea that chronic exposure to low levels of radiation can result in mutations at a level that should be of concern to us. Surprisingly, long-term follow-up of the children of the survivors exposed briefly to high levels of radiation when nuclear weapons were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 showed an apparently lower increase in the mutation rate than was expected. However, there is more than one way to look at mutation rates, and the studies in question only...
Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) reviewed the literature and history of workplace toxic exposures over many years starting after World War II. From its in-depth studies, it published limits of exposure which enable one to estimate the inherent toxicity of various substances. ACGIH proposed threshold values that represent exposure levels above which employees and others would suffer injury from toxins. Perhaps its major statistic is the TWA or threshold weighted average, the exposure level for a standard 8-hour day, 40-hour work week. In other words, an average individual exposed to a toxin at a level greater than the TWA for a 40-hour week would be expected to experience a toxic response. If the exposure was below the TWA, no injury would be expected unless an additional factor was present. An example of such a factor would be prolonged exposure. If someone were exposed to only 90 of the TWA but for 120 of 40 hours (48 hours) in a week, the weighted result would exceed the TWA.
Since World War II, agricultural land uses have intensified in much of North America and Western Europe (Freemark and Boutin, 1995 Benton et al., 2002). To increase yields, agriculture now relies relatively heavily on massive pesticide and fertilizer use, mechanization, and irrigation, leading to the widespread loss and degradation of field boundary features (Freemark and Boutin, 1995 Longley and Sotherton, 1997). The ecological outcome has been the simplification of agricultural systems, a reduction of natural enemy diversity (Freemark and Boutin, 1995 Wilby and Thomas, 2002), the loss of natural habitat (Burel et al., 1998 Benton et al., 2002), the fragmentation of landscapes, and the degradation of remaining habitats (Burel et al., 1998). The net result of agricultural development is a reduction in the capacity of the environment to support biodiversity (Gaston et al., 2003).
It is appropriate that the discoverer of radium should be given the last word in this historical review on the early history of radium brachytherapy. It is often thought that Marie Curie limited her scientific work to the chemistry of radioactive materials (except for her sojourn in World War I in the organization and operation of mobile x-ray lorries, known as Little Curies ) and that it was left to her Institut du Radium colleague Claudius Regaud to investigate brachytherapy (known in France as curietherapie). This is a misunderstanding as seen from two of her quotations,79 which clearly show that she was fully aware of the need for a good scientific basis for brachytherapy clinical practice.
10 PMMA was introduced to dentistry in 1937. During World War II shards of PMMA from shattered gun turrets unintentionally implanted in the eyes of aviators, suggested that some materials might evoke only a mild foreign body reaction (Ratner, B.D. et al., Biomaterials Science, Academic Press, New York, 1996, p. 1). PMMA was developed and marketed in the 1930s by the Rohm and Haas company under the name Plexiglas , and with lesser success by DuPont under the name Lucite .
Biological warfare An alternative theory of the origin of AIDS that holds that AIDS is the result of the deliberate manipulation of human genes to defeat the body's immune response, as part of a program of biological warfare. The culprit is typically said to be the pentagon or the now defunct Soviet Union. In some parts of Africa and among some people in the United States it is alleged to be an attempt to kill all people of African descent. Today, the theory that AIDS was created for or used as biowarfare, a descendant of any of a number of germ warfare programs, has been banished beyond the periphery of respectability. Numerous articles describing medical research and reports by the medical establishment and the press, including many alternative publications that cover AIDS extensively, have shown this legend not to be accurate or true.
In the short run, at least, neither form of optimism proved justified. Within months of Ehrlich's speech, the nations of Europe had embarked on a long and terrible war that would weaken or efface the internationalism of science. Achievement of an effective bacterial chemotherapy was to require not five years but more than two decades. Yet Ehrlich's talk gave voice to a burst of optimism and activity in chemotherapy in the years before and after World War I that his own work both exemplified and had a powerful role in creating. In another speech seven years earlier, at the inauguration of his Institute for Experimental Therapy in Frankfurt, Ehrlich had introduced the term chemotherapy to stand for the destruction of disease-causing microorganisms in the human or animal host by means of chemical compounds introduced into the host organism. Ehrlich's persuasive formulation of the theoretical basis of chemotherapy, derived in part from earlier work in biological staining and immunology...
It is clear that by the eighteenth century BW had become disease oriented, even though the causative agents and mechanisms for preventing the spread of diseases were largely unknown. The development of the science of bacteriology in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries considerably expanded the scope of potential BW agents. In 1915, Germany was accused of using cholera in Italy and plague in St. Petersburg. Evidence shows that Germany used glanders and anthrax to infect horses and cattle, respectively, in Bucharest in 1916 and employed similar tactics to infect 4500 mules in Mesopotamia the next year. Germany issued official denials of these accusations. Although there apparently was no large-scale battlefield use of BW in World War I, numerous allegations of German use of BW were made in the years following the war. Britain accused Germany of dropping plague bombs, and the French claimed the Germans had dropped disease-laden toys and candy in Romania. Germany denied the...
The tense political atmosphere of the period following the 1925 Geneva Protocol and the lack of provisions to deter biological weapons research had the effect of undermining the treaty. The Soviet Union opened a BW research facility north of the Caspian Sea in 1929 the United Kingdom and Japan initiated BW research programs in 1934. The Japanese program was particularly ambitious and included experiments on human subjects prior to and during World War II. Detrick) became operational as the center for U.S. BW research in 1943, and in 1947 President Truman withdrew the Geneva Protocol from Senate consideration, citing current issues such as the lack of verification mechanisms that invalidated the underlying principles of the treaty. However, there was no widespread use of BW in a battlefield setting during World War II. BW research, however, continued at an intense pace during and after the war. By the end of the decade, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada were conducting...
After World War II and the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, scientists at the Canadian National Research Council identified 60Co as a possible useful radioactive source for radiation therapy. This was due to the fact that in 1947 a heavy water reactor facility was available at Chalk River that made possible the production of large quantities of 60Co.
In 1998 a strange tale of mass arsenic poisoning was told by a 73-year-old Lithuanian Joseph Harmatz. He was one of a few who escaped from the Jewish Ghetto in the capital Vilnius, set up by the Nazis after they overran the country in World War II. Harmatz joined the partisans and spent the War living in the forests. After the War he and two other fighters vowed to take vengeance on their hated enemy. This was to take the form of poisoning Nazi SS men who had been guards in concentration camps and it was carried out in 1946. The group called themselves Din, Hebrew for 'revenge', and they obtained a large amount of poison in Israel, and they concealed this in cans labelled condensed milk. Their lethal cargo was discovered by British police on board the ship they were taking to return to Europe and they were arrested and sent back to jail in the then British colony of Egypt. The poison was thrown overboard.
Another very commonly used description of the reliability of a method is the so-called ROC (receiver-operating characteristic) curve. It was developed during World War II as a way to measure the ability of radar operators to distinguish between noise and real radar signals. The problem this approach is designed to solve is that sensitivity and specificity are correlated. Suppose we have two methods of predicting whether or not a site is a serine phos-phorylation site, and the predictions are based on some stringency value that is differently defined in the two cases. How can we compare the accuracy of the methods
Genomics was mentioned in Section 8.1 as the science dealing with a description of all the genes in an organism, its genome. Because of the known relationship of gene characteristics to disease, the decision was made in the mid-1980s to map all the genes in the human body. This collective body of genes is called the human genome, and the project to map it is called the Human Genome Project. The original impetus for this project in the U.S. arose because of interest in the damage to human DNA by radiation, such as that from nuclear weapons. But from the beginning it was recognized that the project had enormous commercial potential, especially in the pharmaceutical industry, and could be very valuable in human health.
In fact, Milroy and Milroy (2000) argue that contradictory and changing attitudes to the same linguistic phenomenon can emerge at different times in the history of a language. For example, as these authors note, before World War II, absence of postvocalic r in words such as car and park was not stigmatized in New York City. By 1966, however, r-lessness had become a stigmatized marker of casual style and lower social class. English dialects containing r-lessness continue to be stigmatized in the United States, but in England, English dialects with this same linguistic pattern have high status.
With the entry of penicillin into the Allied war effort in late 1943, the sulfa drugs began to be displaced from a central position in treatment of bacterial infections, a process that was to continue after the war with the introduction of other antibiotics. Never entirely eclipsed, and still in use today, sulfa drugs henceforth enjoyed a secondary status in the physician's armamentarium. Chronologically, therefore, the heyday of the sulfa drugs corresponds almost exactly to the rise and fall of the Third Reich. The global story of the sulfa drugs in this period comprises several distinguishable but closely related stories, among them the laboratory and clinical testing of Prontosil, the recognition and early testing of Prontosil's first offspring, sulfanilamide, the reception of both medicines by the medical community and their introduction into medical practice, the development of a new generation of sulfa drugs as derivatives of sulfanilamide by the pharmaceutical industries of...
Of the many different types of pesticides commercially available, the organophosphates (originally developed as nerve gas during World War II) are the most commonly used they include malathion, disulfotan, and dementon. Even a tiny amount of exposure to organophosphate may cause toxic mood disorders and neuropathy concentrated exposure can kill. Most neurological damage is reversible, once exposure has ended.
Later in the nineteenth century, the number of cases of arsenic poisoning decreased dramatically. This was primarily for two reasons. First, restrictions were placed on the sale of arsenic and preparations containing it. Secondly, with the introduction of the Marsh test in 1836 it became possible to detect arsenic in bodies reliably, at levels that were likely after poisoning. However, cases of homicidal poisoning have continued to occur, for example in 1968 and 1970. Suicidal poisoning by arsenic has been less common, although between 1918 and 1951 in New York, for example, there were 145 such cases. Arsenic has also been used for mass killing by poisoning, and was a key constituent of one of the poison gases used in the First World War (see p. 235).
Reported was after World War II, within a population in the lower basin of the Jintzu river, Japan. It was caused by consumption of rice that contained cadmium at a level of 0.6 to 1.1 mg per g. Undoubtedly, other plants that are cultivated in environments highly contaminated with cadmium may also be the cause of poisonings, as would foods of animal origin.
In contrast to locust bean gum, guar gum was introduced more recently to the Western world, as a result of a search aimed at finding replacements for other gums that became unavailable during the course of the second World War. However, commercialization of guar gum was very rapid after the war and its use as an industrial hydrocolloid now significantly outweighs that of locust bean gum (Glicksman, 1986). Guar gum is found in the seeds of two annual leguminous plants (Cyamposis tetragonolobus and psoral-oides), which were traditionally harvested by hand in India and Pakistan. In the last 40 years, however, guar gum has established itself as a commercially viable crop suitable for modern mechanical farm technology (Seaman, 1980b).
Understood or not agreed upon by the doers it will not happen. This is a major problem in the NHS where so many initiatives are seen as superfluous to the core business of health care. The argument that the latest initiative is just to tidy up the remaining loose ends does not ring true either. The last push is seen by most clinicians in the same light as a subaltern's in the first world war ordered to make the final push , rather than the midwife urging a final push when all but the baby's legs are in view. How do we control the flow of projects Essentially, it is a matter of managing up , as described earlier, something of which boards, executives, and senior managers do too little and to which the NHS Executive, regions, and colleges are too impervious. It would be nice if there were coupons or some form of rationing for the DoH and the NHS Executive. If they were only allowed five new initiatives a year they might think through the ones they proposed a little more carefully and...
Throughout history there have been numerous attempts to suppress and even deliberately destroy the Deaf community.Alexander Graham Bell (inventor of the telephone and leader of the eugenics movement) delivered a paper in 1883 called 'Memoir Upon the Formation of a Deaf Variety of the Human Race' to the National Academy of Sciences. In this he advocated that deaf people should marry hearing people (as opposed to other deaf people) so that they could reduce the chances of passing on deafness to their children (Bell, 1883). Despite his great respect for d Deaf people (his own mother was deaf and so too was his wife) he took the view that deafness was a great disability and should be avoided if at all possible. Hitler during the Second World War advocated that d Deaf children and adults should be sterilised so that they could not pass on deafness to their children indeed 16,000-17,000 deaf people suffered sterilisation. In addition to this, other d Deaf people were killed as part of...
The respective roles of maternal and postnatal nutrition have been examined by a series of epidemiological studies of the Dutch Famine that occurred during World War II (Ravelli, Stein and Susser, 1976 Ravelli etal., 1999 Roseboom etal., 1999, 2000b, 2001b). It was defined both by its severity, with adult rations of
Partially as a result of his unhappy experiences during World War I and partially as a consequence of the death of his beloved daughter Sophie, Freud (1920 1955a) wrote Beyond the Pleasure Principle, a book that elevated aggression to the level of the sexual drive. As he did with many of his other concepts, Freud set forth his ideas tentatively and with some caution. With time, however, aggression, like several other tentatively proposed concepts, became dogma.
Heinz Kohut (1913-1981) was born hi Vienna to educated and talented Jewish parents (Strozier, 2001). On the eve of World War II, he emigrated to England and a year later, he moved to the United States, where he spent most of his professional life. He was a professional lecturer in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Chicago, a member of the faculty at the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis, and visithig professor of psychoanalysis at the University of Cincinnati. A neurologist and a psychoanalyst, Kohut upset many psychoanalysts in 1971 with his publication of The Analysis of the Self which replaced the ego with the concept of self. In addition to this book, aspects of his self psychology are found hi The Restoration of the Self (1977) and The Kohut Seminars (1987), edited by Miriam Elson and published after Kohut's death.
Arsenic as an agent in warfare languished for many centuries until it was revived in World War I. In that war various chemical agents were used in an effort to break through the lines of trenches that stretched for hundreds of miles along the Western Front. The Germans tried chlorine gas on 22 April 1915 and this had a devastating effect on the unprotected British soldiers as it rolled over no-man's-land and into their trenches. Five thousand men died and more than 15000 were permanently lung-damaged. In September of that year the British retaliated with mustard gas, a sulphur compound, but the attack was totally ineffective. The disadvantage of these types of chemical agents was that they made the target area unsafe to occupy and it hindered rather than helped the attacking forces. The search was on for 'better' weapons. Several arsenic-based chemicals were found such as Lewisite, Sneeze Gas, and Adamsite, their chemical names being 2-chlorovinyldichlorarsine, phenyl-dichlorarsine,...
Motivated by concerns about controlling the spread of rumors during World War II, All-port and Postman (1947) studied rumors in the laboratory and offered advice to the government. Their book, The Psychology of Rumor, illustrates the interplay between history and psychological work, beginning with classifying the rumors that circulated following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. It is an early example of applied social psychological research, and it interweaves experimental laboratory studies of basic processes with socially relevant descriptions of real rumors and strategies in an effort to prevent them from undermining the national interest.
As a girl, Agnes Bojaxhiu (Mother Teresa's birth name) was the youngest of three children. She witnessed political upheavals in Albania that led to the F irst World War, and her father died possibly murdered for his political views when Agnes was only 8. Her mother was devoutly religious in the minority Roman Catholic religion of Albania, and she modeled charity to her daughter by helping those who were even poorer than they were. The future Mother Teresa reports feeling called to the life of a nun when she was 12. At 18, with her mother's blessing, she left home and began the process of becoming a postulant and eventually a nun, learning English and traveling to India to help combat illness and poverty. She did not, however, construe the missionary work as social work, but instead as a religious contemplation, in which she and the other nuns with whom she served encountered the divine and suffering Jesus through the needy persons whom they served. She witnessed suffering not only...
To Harvard University and awarded a scholarship there, he could not afford to attend. His brother's bout with tuberculosis had been costly.) After college, Nixon attended Duke University Law School on a scholarship he was an excellent student. He later became an attorney in California. During World War II, he volunteered for the Navy, though as a Quaker he would have qualified for conscientious objector status. He was popular in this structured environment. He was also very good at poker, winning enough to start a political campaign for Congress when the war ended.
Saccharin, as it became, was first commercially manufactured in Germany in 1894, and then in the USA in 1901. Under the US Food and Drug Act of 1906 it was allowed to be used as a sweetener, and in the early years of the twentieth century it became increasingly popular as a sweetener. Its purpose was to provide people with sweet food and drinks without their gaining weight as they would have done with sugar, and it has continued to be widely used by diabetics. Although safety tests were not required at the time, evidence of its safety was eventually demanded and human volunteers took relatively large amounts (5 g per day for six months) without apparent harm. Despite this, the recommended intake was later restricted to 0.3 g per day. By the time of the Second World War it was used by millions of people and continued to be popular up to the 1970s. It was used in sweeteners such as Sweet 'n Low, in processed foods, and in diet drinks. In 1959, owing to its apparently safe use for fifty...
Shortly after the end of World War II, several movements and activities were born that were dedicated to European unification. As an overall result, the Council of Europe was founded as an international political institution in 1949. It is designed only with international cooperation in mind. The general aims of the Council of Europe are to
The German dialects go back to the dialects of the West Germanic tribes, Franks, Saxons, Hermunduri (Thuringians), Alemanni, Suebi (Swabians) and Bavarians, who settled in the area roughly corresponding to Germany west of the Elbe and Saale, present-day Austria and German-speaking Switzerland. From the time of Charlemagne up to the eighteenth century, a colonizing and merchandizing movement took these dialects eastward, primarily into Bohemia, Slovakia, Upper Saxony, Silesia, Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Pomerania, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, and even created linguistic enclaves as far east as the Volga or southeast as the Romanian Banat. With the resettlements in the aftermath of the Second World War, some of the eastward expansion was undone, so that except for some isolated speakers and enclaves and some border regions, the German Slavic-Hungarian border has joined the modern state borders of Germany and Austria. century. In the east, however, the nineteenth century saw the...
Besides factors, Cattell's theory suggests that individuals learn to channel their basic motives into sentiments and attitudes. Einstein clearly had a sentiment against power issues in interpersonal relationships. He disliked dealing with people of power, according to Robert Oppen-heimer (Clark, 1971 1984, p. 719). At the level of the attitude, Einstein clearly opposed the arms race in public statements after his reluctant endorsement of such a race during the crisis of World War II (Cuny, 1965).
Handling this while it was raining were overcome by it. The rain reacted with the dross to release arsine which affected them, and the men had to be rushed to hospital where one of them died. Arsine gas has a special affinity for the haemoglobin of red blood cells and this is what makes it so dangerous. It could even be formed inside lead accumulators, the electrodes of which were made of lead plates alloyed with a little arsenic to strengthen them, and these were used inside the storage batteries of British submarines in World War I. The batteries were sealed units but on board one submarine there was an escape of arsine gas and the crew of 30 men were all exposed to the same concentration of this dangerous gas for the same length of time. Yet they did not all react in the same manner and it was this that made the incident interesting from a medical point of view. One man was not affected in any way. Seven men suffered anaemia and jaundice and were hospitalized, while the rest showed...
Allport (1954) wrote a classic text on prejudice, 71.ie Nature of Prejudice. In this comprehensive work, he examined such factors as in-group and out-group influences, ego defenses, cognitive processes, the role of language, stereotypes in culture, scapegoating, and learning prejudice in childhood. Allport understood prejudice from the point of view of the individual, instead of from a social historical viewpoint that emphasizes oppression of groups, such as the analysis of W. E. B. DuBois (Gaines & Reed, 1995). The ideas he offered about loyalty to in-groups, in preference to out-groups, continue to be discussed by social psychologists (Brewer, 1999). In addition to his academic analysis, All-port offered practical strategies for the reduction of prejudice. He thought, for example, that when different races worked together for the common good in the war effort (World War II), this cooperation would reduce prejudice. He listed four conditions for groups to interact without prejudice...
Organophosphates (OPs) are a group of chemicals with similar structures and similar modes of action, which includes the nerve gases. Only the pesticides will be considered in this chapter. Organophosphates were developed during the Second World War as insecticides and chemical warfare agents. The first was parathion, which is very toxic compared to DDT and to other OPs and is no longer used in most countries (see box and Table 1).
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