Osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children occur as a result of vitamin D deficiency or from a disturbance in its metabolism (see Table 3.3). The frequency of occurrence depends on the distribution of the populations affected. In the nineteenth century nutritional rickets were endemic in industrial cities of Britain due to the poor diet and environmental conditions of children. As a result of effective public health measures privational rickets virtually disappeared from the UK by 1940 (Maxwell, 2001). However, in the 1960s low vitamin D status was found to be common among immigrant Asian children, adolescents and women living in the UK due to a combination of factors including the type of vegetarian diet, which was high in phytate from unleavened breads (see section 3.11), low calcium intake and limited exposure to sunlight. A striking reduction in Asian rickets occurred in Glasgow when free vitamin D supplements were introduced for children up to 18 years old (Smith, 2000).
Experimental evidence from animals, both in vitro and in vivo, has shown an immunological role for 1,25 OHD3 in both lymphocytes and monocytes (Yang et al, 1993). Strict lactovegetarians, particularly in immigrant Asians, have an 8.5fold increased risk of tuberculosis compared with those who ate meat or fish daily. Since vitamin D deficiency is more common among vegetarian Asians and it is known to have effects on immunological function in animals, vitamin D deficiency may be responsible for reduced immunocompetence (Maxwell, 2001).
As described earlier, the content of the shadow and the anima or animus, with associated emotional conflicts or complexes, is part of the personal unconscious. The content of the shadow would be different if a person were raised with different messages about what is right and wrong. (For a vegetarian Hindu, such as Mahatma Gandhi, eating meat is a shadow characteristic for most Americans, it is not.) In a similar way, the content of the anima or animus varies according to the sex roles taught in a culture.
Only microorganisms synthesise vitamin B12 and the vitamin gets into the food chain from the bacteria present in the digestive system of herbivores. Herbivores are then eaten by animals higher in the food chain. For humans, food sources of vitamin B12 include almost all animal products, certain algae and bacteria. Vitamin B12 is not present in vegetables or fruits. The dietary intake of vitamin B12 is about 5 mg day (Weir and Scott, 1998). The current RDA for B12 in most countries is between 1 and 20 mg day the British RNI are given in Table 3.1. Since food sources of vitamin B12 are limited to those of animal origin, vegetarians and especially vegans are at risk of becoming deficient and should take an oral supplement. Studies on these groups have shown evidence of biochemical deficiency such as raised concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid
Recent research using both stable and radioisotopes has benefited from the development of detectors with ever-lower detection limits and the ability to distinguish different isotopes. An increasing range of software applications for the mathematical modelling of biological systems has also contributed to ongoing developments. One such application is SAAMII, produced in the University of Washington, Seattle.Arecentmass spectrometry technique currently being applied to human nutrition studies is Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometry. With a reported lower limit of detection below 1.4ng ml human plasma,114 it has recently been used to evaluate apparent copper absorption from vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets.67 Accurate assessment of functional copper status has long been hindered by the current lack of a plasma or tissue parameter suitable for use as an index of copper utilisation. Ongoing investigations attempt to identify such a marker. Although numerous copper-containing...
There are two principal kinds of polyphenism, sequential and alternative. Taking sequential phenotypes first, the cases include animals with complex life cycles of two or more different developmental stages (such as larva, juvenile, and adult). Most animal phyla inhabit the ocean, and most pass through strikingly different developmental stages. The larva might feed in the plankton-rich surface layer of the ocean, whereas the adult might live in the mud, sand, and rocks near the shore. In the case of ascidians (sea squirts), the larval and adult forms look so different that they were thought to be members of different phyla until the late 1800s, when the development of the larva to the adult was followed. Some parasitic flatworms (trematodes) have five or six successive forms, each highly specialized for different lifestyles in different hosts. Of course, for terrestrial animals, we are familiar with the vegetarian wall-eyed swimming tadpole as the amphibian larval phenotype and the...
At least 3 months reserve of vitamin B12 is usually stored in the liver. Vitamin B12 is mainly derived from meat, eggs and milk, with little in vegetarian foods. Vegans are therefore particularly at risk of deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency may also be caused by gastric pathology, such as atrophic gastritis, where IF is not synthesized, or terminal ileal disease, such as Crohn's disease, where the absorptive surface is damaged. The Schilling test can distinguish between these causes (see Chapter 46).
Typical Western omnivorous diets over the last 40 years have been relatively high in protein and fat with insufficient dietary fibre, fruit and vegetables. Meat intake is by definition the key difference between vegetarian and omnivorous diets, thus comparative studies have tended to exaggerate the health benefits of a vegetarian diet so reinforcing a negative health image for meat. It has long been recognized (Burr, 1988) that although vegetarianism seems to confer some protection against heart disease, it is not clear if this is due to abstinence from meat or high consumption of vegetables. Meat intake has provided a marker for a generally 'unhealthy' diet in the past (American Dietetic Association, 1993 COMA, 1991 Sanders and Reddy, 1994 Thorogood, 1994). Furthermore, vegetarians have tended to be more health conscious, they traditionally smoke less, consume less alcohol, tea, and coffee, and tend to exercise more, thus their good health could be attributed to any or a combination...
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) regards some HAs as possibly or probably carcinogenic to humans and recommends to minimise exposure to them (IARC, 1993). Data suggest that HAs are the only known animal colon carcinogens that humans other than vegetarians consume every day and, although very difficult, it would be desirable to control their level in food. A detailed overview of the risk assessment can be found in a review by Friedman (1996).
In theory, mate choice could be the single most powerful moral filter from one generation to the next. It could favor almost any degree of altruism or heroism, compensating for almost any risk to survival. If, for example, all females refused to mate with any males who ate meat, any genes predisposing individuals to vegetarianism (however indirectly) would spread like wildfire. The species would turn vegetarian no matter what survival benefits were conferred by meat-eating, as long as the sexual selection pressure against meat-eating held. Natural selection for selfishness would be impotent against sexual selection for moral behavior.
Large-scale effort to sanitize cities and bodies would also encourage putting self-polluters into insane asylums and then using them as a captive population for experimenting with advances in genital surgeries and devices of restraint. Even private entrepreneurs got into the sanitary game. Wellness centers sprung up all over the country, a good example of which is the Kellogg Center for Clean and Healthy Living (75). Not only were Kellogg's corn flakes sold as a healthy non-stimulant designed to dampen all sexual passions, but his centers were the hotbed for restraining techniques (41,76). Sylvester Graham, a Presbyterian minister, invented the Graham cracker, which, together with a mild vegetarian diet, was intended to reduce sexual cravings, while C.W. Post marketed his Postum cereal as the Monk's Brew.
Vitamin D supplements in therapeutic doses is the treatment of choice. Rickets can be prevented by making sure the infant is getting enough vitamin D, which is not difficult in the United states because virtually all cow's milk and all standard infant formulas are manufactured with added vitamin D. In addition, supplements are available for premature babies, vegetarians, and others who may not otherwise get enough vitamin D. Doctors often recommend vitamin D supplements to nursing mothers who are also vegetarians and who have dark skin. Foods that are high in vitamin D include liver, some fish, cod liver oil, egg yolks, butter, and vitamin D-fortified milk, margarine, and cereal.
Exposed, especially by his sister and an uncle, to left-progressive literature and discussions, and began to form at a very early age a world view and an interest in political-social-economic affairs that has continued throughout his life. Raised in a family that was very poor, atheist in a Jewish ethnic tradition, vegetarian, and politically radical, Staats always felt different. He thought differently than his peers, he read different things, he questioned ideas that others accepted, and progressively he became a radical and original thinker, in ways that permeated every aspect of his life, including his various fields of study.
Serum ferritin, the body's iron store, is strongly correlated with haem iron (Reddy and Sanders, 1990). Bioavailability of iron plays an important role in determining iron status. Studies have shown that despite the fact that vegetarians have either a similar or a higher iron intake than their omnivore counterparts, their iron status is lower (Nathan et al, 1996 Ball and Bartlett, 1999 Wilson and Ball, 1999). Vegetarians should consume iron-rich foods to compensate for the low bioavailability of non-haem iron from the foods they eat. All meats, but in particular beef, are excellent sources of dietary zinc. It takes 41 oz milk, 15 oz tuna or 6V2 eggs to equal the amount of zinc in an average 4oz portion of beef (Hammock, 1987). On average, meat and meat products account for a third of total zinc intakes (MAFF, 1999). Zinc absorption is suppressed by inhibitors such as oxalate and phytate which are found in plant foods (Johnson and Walker, 1992 Zheng et al, 1993 Hunt et al, 1995). On...
Studies have shown 25 percent of HIV-positive people have deficiencies in vitamin B12. It has an important function in nerve and spinal cord health. It is provided in the diet by meat, fish, and eggs, so vegetarians are particularly at risk of deficiency. AZT and d4T cause the creation of large red blood cells, as also occurs in deficiencies of B12. This is called pernicious anemia and causes a lack of oxygen in the blood. However, it has not been shown that these two issues are the same problem.
That the need for potassium salts in the diet is much greater than for sodium salts. The recommended daily intake is 3.5 g, whereas for sodium it is 1.5 g. Vegetarians take in a lot more potassium than non-vegetarians because potassium is abundant in all plant foods. We must have a regular supply of dietary potassium because we have no mechanism for storing it in the body, yet few people are affected by a deficiency of this metal because almost all we eat contains potassium. Some foods are particularly rich in it, such as raisins, almonds, peanuts, and bananas one banana will provide a quarter of our daily requirement. Other common foods with lots of potassium are potatoes, bacon, bran, mushrooms, chocolate, and fruit juices.
Most of the copper in human diets is supplied by vegetable foods, and vegetarian diets generally provide a higher intake. Plant materials, however, are generally less digestible than animal tissues. A substantial proportion of the copper in whole grains is associated with lectins and glycoproteins. Vegetable tissues frequently require more enzymatic attack to digest the copper-binding matrix than do animal proteins, which are generally more easily solubilised, so that percentage copper absorption may in fact be substantially higher from an animal protein diet than from a plant-protein diet.66 Even so, the greater copper content of a vegetarian diet is likely to provide more available copper.67 Dairy products contain relatively little copper, with cow's milk being particularly poor. Absorption is estimated at 24 for human milk and 18 for cow's milk. The quaternary protein structure is thought to exert an effect on the availability of copper in food, as cooked meat has been found to...
Poultry had an average of 0.070 ppm, then came cereals with 0.013, meat with 0.005, root vegetables 0.005 (but not potatoes, which had 0.002), and bread 0.004. Many foods had less than 0.001 ppm and almost all of it was organic arsenic. Things like eggs, greens, fruit, milk, cheese, etc. had amounts around the 0.001 level. The upshot of all this was that the daily intake of arsenic by the average person was 50 g of which only 1 g might be inorganic arsenic. In terms of dietary regimes there was no difference in arsenic intake between vegetarians and non-vegetarians.
Possible to have sex without using a condom, but as numerous patients have told me, it is not easy to remove from the back of the mind the worry that this might result in a lethal contamination. It is no longer possible to put a baby in a cot without thinking about which way around they should be lying, and without the occasional shiver running down the spine at the thought that they might not survive the night. People still lie in the sun on those rare occasions it appears in Britain's cloudy skies, but usually not without applying their sunscreen cream (even if they do not consult the daily Solar UV Index, and adjust their cream and exposure time according to their skin type, as the summer 1999 official campaign advised). Scarcely a week goes by without somebody asking me whether some harmless mole or minor skin blemish is the first sign of a malignant melanoma (in the ten years I have been running a minor surgery clinic, I have seen only two). Women still take the Pill, but now in...
Genes underlying neurological functions and behavioral dispositions evolve by natural selection just as do those for anatomical and physiological traits. Biologists are well aware that not only physical features but similarities in inherited behavior unite members of a species (and often higher taxonomic units). Adaptive coevolution between a species' behavior and its morphology, physiology, and ecology explains why we don't observe vegetarian
Meat protein has a higher biological value than has plant protein because some of the amino acids are limiting in plant protein. For example, lysine is the limiting amino acid in wheat, tryptophan is the limiting amino acid in maize and sulphur-containing amino acids are limiting in soyabean. It is necessary for vegans and vegetarians to eat a wide variety of vegetable protein foods to provide the necessary amounts of each amino acid. Meat is a rich source of taurine. Taurine is considered to be an essential amino acid for newborns, as they seem to have a limited ability to synthesise it. Taurine concentrations in the breast milk of vegans were shown to be considerably lower than in omnivores (Rana and Sanders, 1986). The significance of this finding is unknown.
Mediator processes are general strategic and problem-solving procedures, which are used to monitor the adequacy and plausibility of retrieved memories, but are not memory-specific processes, e.g. well, it wouldn't have been an Indonesian because I hate peanut butter, and it's unlikely to have been a chicken place because my company was vegetarian (Burgess & Shallice, 1996, p. 410). Burgess & Shallice (1996) propose that severe damage to these processes may result in bizarre or fantastic confabulations, such as described by Damasio et al. (1985).
The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent years (National Audit Office, 2001). Satiety influences the frequency of meals and snacks, whereas satiation influences the size of meals and snacks. Macronutrients have differing effects on satiety protein is more satiating than carbohydrates that are more satiating than fat (Hill and Blundell, 1986 Barkeling et al, 1990 Stubbs, 1995). The exact mechanism by which protein exerts its satiating effect is not elucidated, but it may involve changes in the levels and patterns of metabolites and hormones (e.g. amino acids, glucose and insulin), cholecystokinin and amino acid precursors of the neurotransmitters serotonin, noreadenaline and dopamine. A meat-containing meal was shown to have more sustained satiety than a vegetarian meal (Barkeling et al, 1990). Other studies have shown that different meats have different satiating powers (Uhe et al, 1992). These differences may be related to differences in amino acid profiles or...
Truswell summarised the evidence in 2000 and showed that 20 out of 30 case-control studies and 10 out of 14 prospective studies showed no relationship between meat intake and CRC with some of the results of the remaining studies being confused and one prospective study showing an inverse correlation between meat consumption and CRC risk (Hill, 2000). If meat consumption were associated with increased risk for cancer, one would expect mortality from cancer to be much lower among vegetarians. In a recent meta-analysis of five cohort studies, results have shown no significant differences in mortality from cancer in general, and more specifically mortality in stomach, breast, lung, prostate and colorectal cancer between vegetarians and omnivores (Key et al, 1998, 1999). If red meat consumption were associated with increased risk for CRC, one would expect a decrease in the incidence of CRC to occur over time as a result of decreasing meat consumption trends. During the past 30 years, red...
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