Measurement of Outcome

In developing an outcome measure the concepts of validity, reliability, and responsiveness are vital.

Validity is the extent to which a questionnaire measures what is intended. This usually is assessed by comparing a new measure with an established one (this is known as criterion validity). In the absence of a gold standard, construct validity can be measured; this allows comparison of a new tool with objective or clinical findings.

Reliability is the degree to which measurements on the same individual are similar under different conditions. Test-retest comparisons are the most appropriate method for assessing reliability if the instrument is intended as an evaluative tool. Reliability can also be assessed using internal consistency; this checks the extent to which similar questions give consistent replies.10

Responsiveness considers whether the tool is sensitive to assess measurable change. If meaningful comparisons are to be made then a standardized measure of responsiveness is required. The standardized response mean allows such a comparison (this represents the mean change in score over two points in time divided by the standard deviation of the score differences).11

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.

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