Smoked Fish

Smoked fish contains much more BaP than fresh - about 0.05 to 60 ng per g of product. The BaP levels in smoked fish depend on the contamination and composition of the raw material, parameters of smoking, quality of smoke, and protection of the edible parts by the skin (Petrun and Rubenchik, 1966 Tilgner and Daun, 1969 Wierzchowski and Gajewska, 1972 Steinig and Meyer, 1976 Steinig, 1976 Lawrence and Weber, 1984 Nistor, 1985). The surface layers of fish, which are exposed to the smoke -...

Residues in Organic foods

Much of the rapid growth in the consumption of foods labeled as 'organic' may result from the perception among consumers that organic foods may be healthier than conventional foods. While some pesticides are allowed for use on organic foods, it is logical to assume that the pesticide residue profiles for organic and conventional foods should differ, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Analysis of PDP data from 1994 to 1999 showed that 73 of approximately 27,000 food samples that had no...

References

Ascheiro, A., Stampfer, M.J. and Willett W.C., Trans fatty acids and coronary heart disease. Background and scientific review, www.hsph.harvard.edu reviews transfats.pdf Bartoszek, A. (2002). Mutagenic, carcinogenic and chemopreventive compounds in foods, in Sikorski, Z.E., ed., Chemical and Functional Properties of Food Components, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, 307-336. Belitz, H.-D., Grosch, W. and Schieberle, P. (2001). Lehrbuch der Lebensmittelchemie. F nfte, vollst ndig berarbeitete...

Coprin

3.5.1 Mushrooms Producing Coprine During autumn (fall), mushrooms with egg-shaped, grey-white fruiting bodies occasionally appear, very often on road-sides, which after a few days deliquesce into an ink-colored liquid. The mushroom, Coprinus atramentarius, or inky cap, is edible when young, but can cause alcohol incompatability when consumed before, or together with, ethanol. The offending toxin is a conjugate of cyclopropanone and glutamine, called coprin (Figure 3.4a). In the liver, the...

Mushrooms Causing Gastrointestinal Disorders

This large group of mushrooms accounts by far for the largest number of mushroom poisonings, but fatalities are very rare, possibly absent. In the great majority of cases the toxins involved remain unidentified, and may differ from species to species. This mushroom was originally classified in the genus Lepiota, and is also known as Lepiota morgani or Lepiota molybditis (false parasol). It is a species often involved in poisonings in the U.S. and throughout the world, but apparently not in...

The Food Industry In Flanders Invest In Flanders Mail

Poisonous and medicinal plants. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Beasley, V. (1997). A systems affected approach to veterinary toxicology. Reference Notes for Toxicology, University of Illinois. Beier, R.C. and Norman, J.O. (1990). The toxic factor in white snakeroot Identity, analysis and prevention, Hum. Vet. Toxicol., 32, 81-88. Binns, W., Shupe, J.L., Keeler, R.F. and James, L.F. (1965). Chronological evaluation of teratogenicity in sheep fed Veratrum...

Aflatoxin Producing Fungi

Aflatoxins were discovered in the early 1960s, following the death of 100,000 turkeys in the United Kingdom. Analysis of the groundnut meal contained in the turkey feed led to the discovery of A. flavus, a major aflatoxin-producing fungus. Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic polyketide (Figure 9.1) and is a frequent contaminant of corn, peanuts, cotton, sorghum, and other oil-seeds. Other Aspergillus species known to produce aflatoxins are A. parasiticus and A. nomius. In general, A. flavus produces...

Beneficial And Adverse Effects Of Phytoestrogens In Humans

The bulk of the available data on the effects of phytoestrogen on humans is mostly from postmenopausal women, and in particular on the effects on hot flushes. Data are beginning to emerge on the effect of phytoestrogens in bone, but very little is known about the effects of these compounds on the uterus and breast. This information is urgently required to allow evaluation of long-term safety of these compounds, particularly in view of long-term treatment of postmenopausal women for the...

Chemistry and Action

Amatoxins are a family of cyclic peptides, with a-amanitin and b-amanitin (Figure 3.1) accounting for > 90 of the total amatoxins. In A. virosa, mushrooms collected in Virginia a-amanitin found to be completely replaced by amaninamide (Figure 3.1). The peptides are not destroyed by cooking and Figure 3.1 Structures of the main amatoxins a-amanitin, b-amanitin, and amaninamide. Figure 3.1 Structures of the main amatoxins a-amanitin, b-amanitin, and amaninamide. can be kept for years if dried,...

Conclusion

Fortunately, of the vast number of mushroom species that exists, only a few produce secondary metabolites that cause fatal poisonings. If toxins causing benign symptoms, such as abdominal pain and diarrhea, hallucinations, or alcohol incompatibility, are disregarded, the most significant mushroom toxins are the extremely hazardous compounds of amatoxins, orellanine, and, to a lesser extent, methylhydrazine and its derivatives. Consequently, there is only a handful of mushroom species that one...

Oh

A second pair of dehydroxyindolizidine alkaloids (also epimers of each other) was isolated from locoweeds. Lentiginosine is a potent inhibitor of amyloglucosidase, but the 2-epilentiginosine epimer is not, thus demonstrating again the unique specificity of these compounds to inhibit only specific enzymes. Lentiginosine and its epimer are present in some locoweeds as minor components, however they are potent inhibitors of cellular enzyme function and most likely contribute to the emaciated...

Effect Of Processing Phytoestrogens And Their Activity

The bulk of data available about the processing of phytoestrogens again reflects the primary interest in the isoflavones subclass of phytoestrogen. Before 1990 the composition of isoflavones in soy foods was thought to be largely determined by whether the food had been fermented. Fermented foods (e.g., miso and tempeh) contain the unconjugated isoflavones agycones, while non-fermented food (e.g., tofu, soy flower, and soy milk) contain the conjugated glucoside. Subsequent experiments have...

Signs and Symptoms of Marine Phycotoxin Associated Diseases

People suffering from signs and symptoms of human illnesses associated with eating seafood contaminated with marine phycotoxins (Table 7.1) typically present at emergency departments or their physicians' offices with the acute onset (within minutes to 24 hours) of gastrointestinal symptoms. Victims also may exhibit a wide range of signs and symptoms involving many organ systems, including respiration (e.g., difficulty breathing), the peripheral nervous system (e.g., diverse paresthesias), the...