Beneficial And Adverse Effects Of Phytoestrogens In Humans

The bulk of the available data on the effects of phytoestrogen on humans is mostly from postmenopausal women, and in particular on the effects on hot flushes. Data are beginning to emerge on the effect of phytoestrogens in bone, but very little is known about the effects of these compounds on the uterus and breast. This information is urgently required to allow evaluation of long-term safety of these compounds, particularly in view of long-term treatment of postmenopausal women for the...

Chemistry and Action

Amatoxins are a family of cyclic peptides, with a-amanitin and b-amanitin (Figure 3.1) accounting for > 90 of the total amatoxins. In A. virosa, mushrooms collected in Virginia a-amanitin found to be completely replaced by amaninamide (Figure 3.1). The peptides are not destroyed by cooking and Figure 3.1 Structures of the main amatoxins a-amanitin, b-amanitin, and amaninamide. Figure 3.1 Structures of the main amatoxins a-amanitin, b-amanitin, and amaninamide. can be kept for years if dried,...

Conclusion

Fortunately, of the vast number of mushroom species that exists, only a few produce secondary metabolites that cause fatal poisonings. If toxins causing benign symptoms, such as abdominal pain and diarrhea, hallucinations, or alcohol incompatibility, are disregarded, the most significant mushroom toxins are the extremely hazardous compounds of amatoxins, orellanine, and, to a lesser extent, methylhydrazine and its derivatives. Consequently, there is only a handful of mushroom species that one...

Oh

A second pair of dehydroxyindolizidine alkaloids (also epimers of each other) was isolated from locoweeds. Lentiginosine is a potent inhibitor of amyloglucosidase, but the 2-epilentiginosine epimer is not, thus demonstrating again the unique specificity of these compounds to inhibit only specific enzymes. Lentiginosine and its epimer are present in some locoweeds as minor components, however they are potent inhibitors of cellular enzyme function and most likely contribute to the emaciated...

Effect Of Processing Phytoestrogens And Their Activity

The bulk of data available about the processing of phytoestrogens again reflects the primary interest in the isoflavones subclass of phytoestrogen. Before 1990 the composition of isoflavones in soy foods was thought to be largely determined by whether the food had been fermented. Fermented foods (e.g., miso and tempeh) contain the unconjugated isoflavones agycones, while non-fermented food (e.g., tofu, soy flower, and soy milk) contain the conjugated glucoside. Subsequent experiments have...

References

Albertazzi, P., Pansini, F., Bonaccorsi, G., Zanotti, L., Forini, E. and De Aloysio, D. (1998). The effects of soy supplementation on hot flushes, Obstet. Gynecol., 91, 6-11. Alekel, D.L., Germain, A.S., Peterson, C.T., Hanson, K.B., Steward, J.W. and Toda, T. (2000). Isoflavone-rich soy protein isolate attenuate bone loss in the lumbar spine of perimenopausal women, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 72, 844-852. Anderson, J.W., Johnstone, B.M. and Cook-Newell, M.E. (1995). Meta-analysis of the effects of...

Signs and Symptoms of Marine Phycotoxin Associated Diseases

People suffering from signs and symptoms of human illnesses associated with eating seafood contaminated with marine phycotoxins (Table 7.1) typically present at emergency departments or their physicians' offices with the acute onset (within minutes to 24 hours) of gastrointestinal symptoms. Victims also may exhibit a wide range of signs and symptoms involving many organ systems, including respiration (e.g., difficulty breathing), the peripheral nervous system (e.g., diverse paresthesias), the...