Info

Brain damage

1,300

Death

Note: These levels are only approximate, as the length of exposure will be an important factor.

1 The effects on IQ have been questioned and some studies have not replicated these effects. The most recent publication (R. L. Canfield et al., 'Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 ^g per deciliter', New England Journal of Medicine, 348 (2003), 1517-26) suggested effects occurring at levels below 100 ^g/litre and reported a correlation between blood lead levels and IQ. They found a decrease in IQ as blood lead increased from 10 to 100 ^g/litre. However, measurement of IQ is not precise and has many potential confounding factors. In rats the no adverse effect level (NOAEL) is 50 ^g/litre.

Note: These levels are only approximate, as the length of exposure will be an important factor.

1 The effects on IQ have been questioned and some studies have not replicated these effects. The most recent publication (R. L. Canfield et al., 'Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 ^g per deciliter', New England Journal of Medicine, 348 (2003), 1517-26) suggested effects occurring at levels below 100 ^g/litre and reported a correlation between blood lead levels and IQ. They found a decrease in IQ as blood lead increased from 10 to 100 ^g/litre. However, measurement of IQ is not precise and has many potential confounding factors. In rats the no adverse effect level (NOAEL) is 50 ^g/litre.

similar in principle to the modern jet aircraft, which may have two or more engines but can fly normally and safely with only one if the others should fail. By being aware of the very real dangers of lead and its sources it is possible to reduce exposure to levels at which toxicity is unlikely.

Another current but occasional source of lead poisoning that is still a potential hazard are some cosmetics and herbal remedies imported from countries such as India.

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