How I Put A Stop To Tourettes Tics
Many patients with Tourette's syndrome also have other conditions, such as attention deficit HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, or learning disability. up to 20 percent of children have at least a transient tic disorder at some point. once believed to be rare, Tourette's syndrome is now known to be a more common disorder that represents the most complex and severe manifestation of the spectrum of tic disorders. symptoms include obsessions, compulsions, impulsive behavior, and mood swings. Tourette's is commonly associated with other syndromes, including ADHD, anxiety, mood or panic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, behavior problems, and learning disabilities. Anxiety, stress, and fatigue often intensify tics, which usually diminish during sleep or when the patient is focused on an activity. Psychoactive drugs, particularly cocaine and stimulants, have a tendency to worsen tics. An accurate diagnosis is the single most important component in managing...
Movement disorders A group of neurological disorders that involve the motor and movement systems. some of the more commonly known movement disorders include Parkinson's disease, tremor, dystonias, Huntington's disease and tourette's syndrome. These disorders are all caused by problems in the basal ganglia, deep in the hemispheres of the brain. The movement disorders are characterized by problems that include the inability to move or by severe, constant, and excessive movements.
Multiple disorders may present with blepharospasm as part of their clinical spectrum, including neurological defects such as Parkinson's disease, Huntingtons's disease, Wilson's disease, Creutzfeld-Jacob disease, and postencephalitic syndrome. Psychological causes include habit spasms, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, and functional spasms. Blepharospasm can occur as a result of medical conditions such as myotonic dystrophy, tetany, tetanus, or seizures. Likewise, it can occur from systemic medications including antipsychotics, antiemetics, anorectics, nasal decongestants, and levodopa. A detailed history and physical exam should help differentiate essential blepharospasm and related dystonias from these other systemic conditions.
Less common side effects include stomach problems, headaches, lethargy, irritability, nausea, euphoria, depression, nightmares, dry mouth, constipation, anxiety, hallucinations, nervous tics, and tremors. In children at risk for tic disorders such as tourette's syndrome the medication may trigger the condition. Because individual reactions and needs change, it is very important that the use and result of the medication be monitored.
In other cases of childhood motor speech disorders, no abnormal neurological signs are observed in the child's early development, and signs of the motor speech disorder may be the first or only indication of neurological abnormality (Arvedson and Simon, 1998). In some of these cases, subsequent neurological investigation with electromyography, electroencephalography, neural imaging procedures such as magnetic resonance imaging, and metabolic testing identifies a neurological condition or lesion as the cause of the speech disturbance (e.g., seizures and brain dysmorphology in the bilateral perisylvian region, infection, tumor, progressive conditions such as facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy) (Hodge and Wellman, 1999). In rare cases, a motor speech disorder may result from treatment for another medical condition, such as surgery for cerebellar tumors or drug treatment for a debilitating movement disorder such as Tourette's syndrome. In still other cases neurological investigation...
In a few cases, disorders such as fragile x syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, untreated phenylketonuria (PKU), and congenital German measles cause autistic behavior. Other disorders, including tourette's syndrome, learning disability, and attention deficit disorder often occur with autism but do not cause it. While people with schizophrenia may show some autistic-like behavior, their symptoms usually do not appear until the late teens or early adulthood. Most people with schizophrenia also have hallucinations and delusions, which do not occur in autism. In addition, people with autism may have other disorders that affect brain function, such as epilepsy, mental retardation, down syndrome or genetic disorders such as fragile x syndrome or tourette's syndrome.
In the Olafsdottir et al. study (35), 47 patients (with and without cataplexy) from a more diverse ethnic pool were included, together with 75 control individuals. Coding exons of the three genes were all sequenced, and the common polymorphisms reported in the Peyron et al. (32) study were all confirmed. A few additional polymorphisms, many of which were ethnic specific, were also reported. None were associated with narcolepsy, and all were presumed to be benign. Finally, Thompson et al. (36) recently reported on single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of all HCRTR2 coding exons in 28 subjects with EDS and who were HLA negative patients, in 28 narcolepsy subjects, in 70 Tourette's syndrome subjects, and in 110 controls. Three coding and one noncoding variants were identified, including the Val308Ile HCRTR2 variant found in all groups with a similar frequency. A rare Pro10ser variant previously reported by Peyron et al. (32) in two sporadic HLA-positive narcolepsy...
T., Ingham, J. C., Collins, J., and Pridgen, S. (2000). TMS in developmental stuttering and Tourette's syndrome. In M. S. George and R. H. Belmaker (Eds.), Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in neuropsychiatry. New York American Psychiatric Press.
Tic disorders usually involve brief, very rapid repeated movements. The more common tics affect the motor systems or the voice. Motor tics often involve the eyelids, eyebrows, or other facial muscles, as well as the upper limbs. Vocal tics may involve grunting, throat clearing, coughing, or cursing. Individuals with tic disorders often describe a strong urge to perform the particular tic. The best-known tic disorder is tourette's syndrome, a condition of multiple motor and vocal tics that usually begins in childhood and is much more common in boys than in girls. The disease often gets better and worse intermittently, with periods of little activity alternating with times when some patients have trouble functioning at all. Medications that lower the amount of dopamine in the brain are affective in these cases, although they carry the risk of side effects.
Ritalin should not be used in children with anxiety, tension, agitation, irregular heart rhythms, severe angina pectoris, or glaucoma, or in anyone with motor tics or a family history or diagnosis of tourette's syndrome. Although a relationship has not been established, suppression of growth (such as weight gain and or height) has been reported with the long-term use of stimulants in children. Therefore, patients who need long-term therapy should be carefully monitored it may be a good idea to withhold the drug on weekends and during school holidays.