An herbal alternative to tonsillectomy
Strep throat The common term for streptococcal pharyngitis, a bacterial throat infection caused by group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, a bacterium also known as S. pyogenes. Only group-A strep causes the infection known as strep throat most kinds of sore throats are not strep infections. Strep throat usually affects school-age children in the winter and spring in temperate zones of North America. Some children have a tendency toward developing multiple strep throat infections, while others rarely come down with the disease. It is rare in children under age three. Because there are many types of group-A strep bacteria, one bout of strep throat does not confer long-term immunity children can therefore come down with repeated episodes. Children are most infectious in the beginning of the illness untreated, a child is infectious for 10 days to three weeks. Carriers are infectious for two to three weeks, although the bacteria may be carried in nose and throat for several months. Those...
Bacteremia The presence of bacteria in the bloodstream, which is a common occurrence a few hours after minor surgery. It may also occur with such infections as tonsillitis. If a child's immune system has been weakened, either by illness or by major surgery, the presence of bacteria in the blood may lead to septicemia and shock. In those with abnormal heart valves because of rheumatic fever or a congenital defect, the bacteria may cause endocarditis. Bacteremia usually resolves without treatment. Bacteria that cause this problem may get into the blood during dental procedures, tonsillectomy, or adenoidectomy, examination of the respiratory passageways with a rigid bronchoscope, or during certain types of surgery on the respiratory passageways, the gastrointestinal tract, or the urinary tract.
And muscles, unrefreshing sleep, tender lymph nodes, sore throat, and headache. Symptoms vary from person to person and fluctuate in severity. Specific symptoms may come and go, complicating treatment and the patient's ability to cope with the illness. Most symptoms are invisible, which makes it difficult for others to understand the vast array of debilitating symptoms.
A cold is not the same thing as influenza. The common cold is usually limited to the head, whereas the flu will affect the entire body. A cold usually begins slowly, with slight sore throat, mild chills or aches, and mild fever not usually over 100 F. The common cold causes a scratchy throat, runny nose, and itchy eyes.
Coxsackieviruses are separated into group A and group B viruses, with group B causing more serious infections. These viruses infect a child primarily via the gastrointestinal tract, although they may also enter the body through the respiratory tract via mucous droplets, especially when the droplets come from people with tonsillitis,
Some patients have symptoms of acute HiV infection within days or weeks after infection. These symptoms are similar to those of many viral illnesses and include a nonspecific rash, fever, sore throat, headache, cough, flulike symptoms, mouth ulcers, diarrhea, enlarged lymph nodes, and arthralgia. The acute illness settles spontaneously over a few weeks and is followed by a period, which may last years, during which patients do not have symptoms. As the immune system becomes more severely affected, patients develop symptoms of AIDS such as loss of weight, diarrhea, enlarged lymph nodes, and opportunistic infections (infections that are not common in healthy people).
Symptoms usually appear within four to six days after infection. The mild illness usually lasts only a few days and includes ulcers inside the cheeks, on gums, or tongue, together with a fever, achiness, sore throat, headache, and poor appetite. Two days later, a rash on palms, fingers, soles, and diaper area appear this is the signal that the virus is abating.
A 43-year-old male presented to the infectious disease clinic with a 2-month history of worsening skin rash and lesions. The lesions were not painful and were predominantly on his face and forearms, but also covered the palms of his hands and soles of his feet. He was treated one month prior to this presentation with azithromycin, and the rash had improved slightly. In addition to the worsening rash and skin lesions, he noted the development of painless lesions on his penis that were resolving at the time of presentation. He also reported a history of night sweats, which coincided with the appearance of the rash, a sore throat, mild weight loss, headaches without visual alterations, and mild neck stiffness. The day prior to presentation he noted a single episode of anal discharge that was yellow and nonbloody. He had no history of fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or penile discharge.
Secondary syphilis is characterized by systemic manifestations of the disease. The presenting feature is usually a rash and lesions on the mucous membranes. The rash is typically rough, red, or brownish red, and found mainly on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.1 Rash may be accompanied by fever, swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, patchy hair loss, headache, weight loss, muscle ache, and fatigue.1 The rash can appear concurrent with a healing chancre or can appear several weeks to years later. The rash will resolve without treatment, but without treatment the risk of developing late or tertiary disease is greater.
Staphylococcus aureus is known for its ability to produce a variety of toxins and many disease syndromes. One of the most frequently observed diseases is staphylococcal tonsillitis. These bacteria are frequently present on tonsils of healthy carriers. Patients that are affected by tonsillitis swallow staphylococci hidden in tonsil crypts. However, in this case staphylococci do not cause any gastrointestinal symptoms in the host organism, even if they enter the gastrointestinal tract. The barrier of gastric juice and conditions in a small intestine inhibit the outgrowth of staphylococci and toxin production -gastroenteritis is caused solely by a toxin produced outside the host organism.
Mechanisms are not capable of staving off the invasion and multiplication, the local infection may persist and spread. Infections occur more readily when the bone marrow's ability to produce white blood cells is decreased and the immune system response is lowered. Symptoms of an infection include fever, chills, sweating (especially at night), loose bowels, a burning feeling when urinating, a severe cough, and or a sore throat. An infection with bacteria that invade the bloodstream is referred to as bacteremia. Bacteria that release by-products into the bloodstream may cause septicemia, which may progress to shock. Infection with viruses in the bloodstream is known as viremia. Fungus in the blood is known as fungemia.
A 44-year-old woman donated blood for a coagulation test reference range study. Her activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) was 2 standard deviations above the reference interval mean, and she was referred to a hematologist by her internist. During a bleeding history interview, she reported that she had always bruised easily, bled severely following surgery to repair a congenital mandible defect during adolescence, and had a hysterectomy in her 30s for menorrhagia. However, her three pregnancies and deliveries had been uneventful. Her family history was positive for a father who bled extensively after tonsillectomy, and recently had repeated gastrointestinal hemorrhages requiring multiple blood transfusions since starting on warfarin following mitral valve replacement. One sister also bled excessively after tonsillectomy. Four other siblings were asymptomatic. Her three teenage daughters also had negative bleeding histories. Vital signs were normal and physical exam was...
A 5-year-old boy presented with a history of chronic tonsillitis, which was treated by tonsillectomy. During gross inspection of the resected tonsils, it was noted that they did not have the normal appearance of inflamed tonsils. They were enlarged but were yellow-orange in color. Histologic examination revealed the presence of many macrophages, which contained numerous small intracellular droplets that stained positive for neutral lipids.
A 51-year-old Caucasian male was hospitalized in a local hospital after presenting to the emergency room with a 2-day history of pain in the hands and shoulders and upper extremity weakness. He was febrile and reported a sore throat. Creatine kinase (CK) level and electromyography (EMG) were normal. Antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor were absent. A throat culture grew group A streptococcus, and penicillin was given. On the third hospital day he developed difficulty walking due to pain in the knees and left ankle, and he was then transferred to the university hospital with fever and polyarthritis. The patient gave a history of occasional sore throats that were rarely treated with antibiotics and a history of intermittent knee pain for several years. He complained of dysuria of one-week duration. He had no regular sexual partner and reported a new sexual contact one month previously. Social history revealed a seventh-grade education and employment as a parking lot attendant....
Mononucleosis An acute herpesvirus infection caused by the Epstein-Barr (EBV) virus and characterized by sore throat, fever, swollen lymph glands, and bruising. Transmitted in saliva, young people are most often infected. In childhood the disease is often mild the older the patient, the From four to six weeks after infection, classic mononucleosis begins gradually with symptoms of sore throat, fatigue, swollen lymph glands, and occasional bruising. Although the symptoms usually disappear after about a month, the virus remains dormant in the throat and blood for the rest of the child's life. Periodically, the virus can reactivate and be found in saliva, although it does not usually cause symptoms. sometimes the disease can start abruptly with a high fever and severe, swollen throat similar to a strep throat. Rarely, about 10 percent of patients have a third type, which causes a low persistent fever, nausea and vomiting, and stomach problems.
Orofacial myofunctional disorders may be due to a familial genetic pattern that determines the size of the mouth, the arrangement and number of teeth, and the strength of the lip, tongue, mouth, or face muscles (Hanson and Barrett, 1988). Environmental factors such as allergies may also lead to orofacial myofunctional disorders. For example, an open mouth posture may result from blocked nasal airways due to allergies or enlarged tonsils and adenoids. The open-mouth breathing pattern may persist even after medical treatment for the blocked airway. Other environmental causes of orofacial myofunctional disorders may be excessive thumb or finger sucking, excessive lip licking, teeth clenching, and grinding (Van Norman, 1997 Romero, Bravo, and Perez, 1998). Thumb sucking, for example, may change the shape of a child's upper and lower jaw and teeth, requiring speech, dental, and orthodontic intervention (Umberger and Van Reenen, 1995 Van Norman, 1997). are identified with orofacial...
Rye to rice, and produces tricothecene mycotoxins (see below, this page). The disease caused by these toxins, alimentary toxic aleikiia, has a high mortality rate and a confusing variety of signs and symptoms, as described below.9 Symptoms such as a persistent sore throat and fever often led to the belief that victims were suffering from infectious diseases like diphtheria or scarlatina. The effect of the toxins on the immune system may indeed have increased susceptibility to infection. Fusarium species produce a number of toxic tricothecene alkaloids T2 toxin, nivalenol, and deoxynivalenol can all be readily detected and measured. Contamination with deoxynivalenol, particularly of wheat and wheat products, seems to be the most common. The symptoms vary, depending on the extent of contamination and therefore the level of exposure to the toxin. In relatively mild cases the victim suffers from headaches, nausea and vomiting, painfully inflamed tonsils, sore throat, and skin eruptions....
Infectious mononucleosis due to EBV infection is frequent in adolescents and young adults, but can also be observed in older adults. It usually presents with sore throat, malaise, lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Typical peripheral blood findings include increased WBC, ranging within 12-25 x 103 mL, and absolute lymphocytosis with numerous large, transformed lymphocytes with immature nuclear chromatin and increase in the amount of basophilic cytoplasm or monocytoid lymphocytes. These changes are not pathognomonic for EBV, and can be seen in other infections, such as cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, and infectious hepatitis. EBV virus attaches to C3d complement receptor (CD21) on B lymphocytes and stimulates proliferation and production of polyclonal immunoglobulin. The cellular immune response consists of activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes, usually during the second week of illness, and occurs as a reaction to B-cell activation. These actually represent the atypical...
Lead was also used in medicines, and in pastes for the treatment of skin diseases 2,000 years ago. In the nineteenth century some doctors recommended lead acetate and opium mixtures for the treatment of diarrhoea. This was described in early versions of the British Pharmacopoeia (Pil. Plumbi cum Opio). Certain lead salts were believed to be powerful astringents which would help in the treatment of wounds and promote healing. Thus Goulard's extract (liquor plumbi subacetatis fortis, or lead acetate) was still recommended in textbooks in the early twentieth century10 in dilute form for the treatment of ulcers, acute inflammatory skin conditions, and eczema and as a gargle in tonsillitis. Lead compounds have also been used to treat inoperable cancer.
First symptoms usually include evidence of a primary staphylococcal infection, such as impetigo, conjunctivitis, ear infection, or sore throat with fever. The center of the face gets tender and the skin around the mouth becomes red, weeping, and crusting. The trunk also may be affected. in some patients the rash stabilizes, while in other cases flaccid blisters begin to develop all over the skin within 24 to 48 hours. Large areas of skin slough off, and hair or nails may be lost.
Another cause of myocarditis, rheumatic fever, falls somewhere between an infectious and an autoimmune disease. Rheumatic fever is an autoimmune reaction to a streptococcal infection, usually a strep throat, but by the time myocarditis occurs, the organism may already be gone.
Upper respiratory tract infections often cause pharyngitis and may cause tonsillitis. Common pathogens include viruses, such as influenza and the Epstein-Barr virus, and bacteria, such as streptococci. Group A b-haemolytic streptococci may also cause rheumatic fever, a systemic autoimmune disorder that can affect the skin, heart and brain. Diphtheria is a serious cause of pharyngitis that is preventable by immunization.
Diphtheria usually develops in the throat, causing fever, red sore throat, weakness, and headache. There may be swelling and a gray membrane that completely covers the throat. This membrane can interfere with swallowing and talking and causes an unpleasant, distinct odor if the membrane covers the windpipe, it can block breathing and suffocate the patient. Other symptoms include slight fever and chills. in the skin variety, skin lesions may be painful, swollen, and red.
There has been some controversy among medical authorities concerned with the problem of domestic violence about whether or not all patients should be asked, as a matter of routine, whether they are currently experiencing any form of assault from their partner (BMA 1998). If women are asked about domestic violence only if they come in with a black eye, then many instances of abuse, which may leave less conspicuous but no less profound injuries, may go unrecorded. If, on the other hand, all women are asked routinely, then this reduces the stigma surrounding the whole issue and makes it easier for them to disclose the nature and extent of their victimhood. Such direct questioning may, however, upset some women who only came to see their doctor with a sore throat or a verruca.
Obstructive sleep apnea, on the other hand, is more common and is caused by excessive relaxation during sleep of the muscles of the sort palate at the base of the throat and the uvula. These muscles block the airway, making breathing labored and causing loud snoring. A complete blockage will halt breathing, making the sleeper stop snoring. As the pressure to breathe makes muscles of the diaphragm and chest work harder, the blockage is opened and the patient gasps and briefly wakes. This type of sleep apnea may also be caused by enlarged tonsils and adenoids, a large tongue, or a small airway.
Pharyngitis An acute inflammation of the part of the throat between the tonsils and the larynx (the pharynx). Especially sore throats should be reported to a physician, who may take a throat culture and prescribe antibiotics. In addition to the sore throat, there may be pain when swallowing together with a slight fever, earache, and tender, swollen lymph nodes in the neck. In very severe cases the fever may be quite high, and the soft palate and throat may swell so that breathing becomes difficult. Extensive swelling and fluid buildup in the larynx can be life threatening.
By 1935, enough clinical experience was available to show Prontosil effective against severe streptococcal sore throat, erysipelas, scarlet fever, puerperal sepsis, and other streptococcal infections. Striking as these successes were, they also put in relief the conditions in which Prontosil was useless or of uncertain activity, including infections caused by staphylococcal, pneumococcal, gonococcal, and anaerobic bacteria.2
Rheumatic fever An inflammatory disease that may appear as a delayed reaction to inadequately treated strep throat, which can damage the heart. About 1 percent to 3 percent of untreated children come down with rheumatic fever from 10 days to six weeks after getting over a strep throat or scarlet fever. Rheumatic fever usually appears in children between five and 18 and may affect the brain, joints, skin, or other tissues. Once diagnosed, the disease will tend to recur whenever the child gets a strep infection. Rheumatic fever is a delayed complication of group A strep infection, usually following either a strep throat or scarlet fever. it occurs because the patient's body creates antibodies to get rid of toxins produced by the strep bacteria in the process, those antibodies mistakenly attack the host's own tissues in the joints, heart, skin, or nervous system. Scientists are not sure why some people develop rheumatic fever, but it may be a combina The onset of the disease is usually...
Total laryngectomy is usually performed to remove advanced cancers of the larynx, most of which arise from prolonged smoking or a combination of tobacco use and alcohol consumption. Laryngeal cancers account for less than 1 of all cancers. About 10,000 new cases of la-ryngeal cancer are diagnosed each year in the United States, with a male-female ratio approximately 4 to 1 (American Cancer Society, 2000). The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program of the National Cancer Institute (Ries et al., 2000) reports that laryngeal cancer rates rise sharply in the fifth, sixth, and first half of the seventh decades of life (Casper and Col-ton, 1998). The typical person diagnosed with cancer of the larynx is a 60-year-old man who is a heavy smoker with moderate to heavy alcohol intake (Casper and Colton, 1998). Symptoms of laryngeal cancer vary, depending on the exact site of the disease, but persistent hoarseness is common. Other signs include lowered pitch, sore throat, a...
In normal development, castration anxiety is repressed. LTnconscious castration anxiety may be displaced, experienced as the fear of tonsillectomy (Blum, 1953, p- 87) or as the fear of disease. Freud believed that syphilidophobia, fear of being infected with syphilis, is derived from castration anxiety (Freud, 1933 1966a, p. 552). Presumably, he would regard exaggerated fear of AIDS as evidence of a similar displacement today.
Scarlet fever An infectious bacterial childhood disease characterized by a skin rash, sore throat, and fever. It is much less common and dangerous than it once was. No longer a reportable disease, no one knows for sure how many cases occur today in the United states, although it is believed that the disease has been on the increase in the past few years. In the past the disease was associated with poor living conditions that once swept through large cities, killing large numbers of children. Inexplicably, by the 1920s the death rate of the disease dropped to 5 percent, for reasons that are still not completely understood. It is believed that the bacteria underwent a natural mutation that made it less deadly. The introduction of penicillin reduced the death rate even more. because the incidence of all strep infections is rising, prompt medical attention is important when strep is suspected. A child with a sore throat or skin rash should see a doctor. After an incubation period of two...
This viral infection causes problems ranging from slight disability to total paralysis. About 85 percent of children infected with the virus have no symptoms at all the rest have a short illness with a slight fever, sore throat, headache, and vomiting that lasts for a few days, after which most children recover completely.
Symptoms Symptoms usually appear quite suddenly, with a high fever, severe headache, nausea and vomiting, and stiff neck. There may be sensitivity to light and noise, sore throat, or eye infections. There also may be accompanying neurological problems, such as blurred vision. Most people recover completely within two weeks, although there may be muscle weakness, tiredness, headache, muscle spasms, insomnia, or personality changes such as an inability to concentrate for months afterward. These are rarely permanent.