Several intrinsic flaps have been used in recent decades. Among the more frequently employed are random-pattern flaps, which are the classic cross-finger flap or the thenar flap; and axial-pattern flaps, the prototypes of which were the Littler flap or the Hilgenfeldt flap (later described by Foucher as the "kite flap"), both used as heterodigital flaps for reconstructing the pulp of the thumb. On the basis of these classic descriptions and on additional anatomic studies, modifications, and refinements, new types of flaps have been developed and are described in more detailed below.
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