How to Reverse Testicular Atrophy
Ambiguous genitalia in the newborn may be caused by a number of different conditions, including the incomplete form of androgen resistance syndrome (testicular feminization), gonadal dysgenesis, and inability to convert testosterone to its active metabolite, dihydro-testosterone, due to deficiency of the nonadrenal enzyme 5a-reductase. Initial evaluation of all such patients should include karyotype analysis, radiographic imaging of the pelvis to identify internal genital anatomy, and basal and appropriately stimulated concentrations of hormones in the mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid, and sexsteroid pathways. The diagnosis of 21-hydroxylase deficiency is strongly suspected in a female when the karyotype is 46,XX, a uterus is detected, and there are no male (wolffian) internal genital structures. In newborn males, the first manifestation of the disease is salt-wasting adrenal crisis. Clues to the diagnosis in older males are usually rapid linear growth and signs of androgen excess...
However, comparisons of male testicles across species reveal that penises did not evolve purely for spermatic firepower. Among primates, the intensity of sperm competition correlates much more strongly with testicle size than with penis size. For example, male chimpanzees face much greater sperm competition than humans. When female chimps ovulate, they copulate up to fifty times a day with a dozen different males. In response, male chimps have evolved huge, 4-ounce testicles to produce sperm, but only small, thin penises to deliver it. At the other extreme, male silverback gorillas guard their harems vigilantly and violently, and tolerate no sperm competition, so they have evolved very small testicles. Humans have moderately sized testicles by primate standards, indicating that ancestral females copulated with more than one male in a month fairly often. Sequential fidelity to different men in different months would not produce any sperm competition, because each egg would be exposed...
For this reason, doctors use the lowest possible doses of radiation and give this treatment only to children who cannot be treated successfully with chemotherapy alone. Radiation to the testicles is likely to affect both fertility and hormone production, and most boys who have this form of treatment are not able to have children later on. Some may need to take hormones.
The practical and achievable limit of 10mW cm2 is justified because the microwaves that are used are identical with those used in therapy. (For therapeutic effects the energy density must be well above a level of 100mW cm2.) There are numerous studies to determine damage thresholds and it has been observed that no permanent effects occur at levels below 100mW cm2. For a critical organ, the eye, it was observed that cataract formation may occur at 150mW cm2 when the microwaves are applied for more than 90 minutes. Within certain limits the body can absorb energy including microwaves and compensate for the temperature increase easily by removing excessive heat by means of blood flow. There are certain avascular structures in the body that may have a relatively poor heat exchange this is possibly true for testicles and temporary sterility has been reported after microwave exposure. The energy flow from the sun may be considered for comparison on a sunny day in summer the infrared portion...
The effects of chronic liver disease and portal hypertension include weight loss, loss of body hair, loss of libido, testicular atrophy, jaundice, abnormal coagulation, fluid retention in the form of ankle swelling and ascites, and chronic hepatic encephalopathy. Hepatic encephalopathy can cause mood and sleep disturbances, a characteristic flapping tremor of the hands and reduced ability to perform simple mechanical tasks, such as joining dots on a page (constructional apraxia). Hormonal and vascular changes induce the formation of cutaneous spider naevi, which are arteriolar vascular malformations.
The biochemistry of thallium has not yet been completely researched, so its mode of operation within the body is still not fully understood. In addition to mimicking potassium, it interferes with the operation of the B vitamins and with calcium and iron. Comparison of the effects of thallium with those of thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency show such remarkable similarity that it would seem that the metal is somehow interfering with the body's thiamine metabolism. Another vitamin that thallium disrupts is riboflavin (vitamin B2), which is also involved in energy production within the body.f Thallium upsets the sugar metabolism of the body and produces symptoms of diabetes. In addition to all of this, men are affected sexually and become impotent. Its most dangerous impact is on the central nervous system, particularly damaging organs that have high energy requirements, such as the skin, testicles, and heart.
The key to teasing out potential genetic variables in a patient's family history is to look for unusual and infrequent features against a background of common diseases and normal physical variation. Male infertility is common, but a man with infertility, small testes (hypogonadism), and absence of the sense of smell (anosmia), may have a rare inherited condition called Kallman syndrome. Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic disorder, but a person with diabetes, seizures, hearing loss, and an unsteady gait may have a mitochondrial myopathy.
Computed tomography of the head was normal. Bone age based on x-ray examination of the wrist was read as compatible with a maturation of 12 years 9 months. Ultrasonographic examination of the testes showed no masses. The history of chronic accelerated growth velocity accompanied by signs of sexual maturation, the presence of relatively small testes for the degree of masculinization, and markedly elevated concentrations of serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone, the principal substrate for 21-hydroxylase, led to the diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
More recently, it has been found that substances such as DDT and other organochlorine compounds can have other effects on wildlife, again affecting the reproductive process and leading to reproductive failure, but also causing deformities in reproductive organs. This effect, now called endocrine disruption, was first noticed in fish in rivers in the USA and the UK where there may be many causes (see pp. i3i-6). One of the most celebrated cases was in Lake Apopka in Florida. The population of alligators in this lake was found to be in decline and there seemed to be poor reproductive success among the animals. Both male and female animals had abnormalities in their reproductive organs. It was then found that there were very high levels of the DDT breakdown product metabolite DDE in the lake. This was due to spillage of a related pesticide called dicofol, which was contaminated with DDE. The latter substance has been found to be capable of causing these effects under experimental...
Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) or Kallman syndrome is characterized by hypogonadism. Most patients experience a delay in puberty although those with less severe defects may present with only infertility. Other findings include anosmia, small testes and occasionally renal agenesis, bimanual synkinesia, cleft lip and dental agenesis. When anosmia is not present, the condition is termed IHH. Testicular biopsies display a wide range of findings from germ cell aplasia to focal areas of complete spermatogenesis (Patrizio and Broomfield, 1999). The condition is inherited as a familial disorder in one-third of cases. Both X-linked and autosomal inheritance patterns have been described (Bhasin et al., 1998 Layman et al., 1998). In the X-linked recessive form, deletions occur in Kalig-1 (kallman-interval 1 or KAL1), a gene responsible for the migration of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons to the pre-optic area of the hypothalamus during development (Bick et al.,...
In response to this sexual selection for good sperm, male chimpanzees have evolved large testicles, copious ejaculates, and high sperm counts. Female primates face a trade-off. They can select for the best-swimming sperm by mating very promiscuously, or they can select for the best courtship behavior by mating very selectively. Or they can do a little of both, selecting a small group of male lovers for their charm and then letting their sperm fight it out.
Urology is a surgical subspecialty focusing on the urinary tract of men and women, as well as the reproductive system of men. A common perception of urologists is that they operate on men's private parts and, well, that's about it. Although urologists do in fact operate on the male genitalia (penis, testicles, and scrotum), there is much more to the practice of urology than the penis. They are experts on the diagnosis and management of diseases involving the kidney, ureters, prostate, bladder, urethra, and male genitalia.
On physical examination the patient was well developed, looked tanned even though it was winter, weighed 196 lb (89 kg), and had normal vital signs. The patient had several prominent stigmata of chronic liver disease, including spider angiomata on his chest, palmar erythema, Dupuytren's contractures, testicular atrophy, and female escutcheon however, he was anicteric. He had normal chest and normal cardiac findings, and his abdomen was protuberant, but not tense. There was no palpable or ballotable liver edge, but his spleen was felt just under the left costal border. On digital rectal examination he had prominent hemorrhoids and a normal prostate. A stool sample was brown and negative for occult blood. He had 2+ pitting ankle edema.
One is to study modern people directly and describe what they do as the human mating system The answer is usually monogamous marriage. A second way is to look at human history and divine from our past what sexual arrangements are typical of our species But history teaches a dismal lesson A common arrangement from our past was that rich and powerful men enslaved concubines in large harems A third way is to look at people living in simple societies with Stone Age technologies and conjecture that they live much as our ancestors lived ten millennia ago. They tend to fall between the extremes less polygamous than early civilizations, less monogamous than modern society The fourth technique is to look at our closest relatives, the apes, and compare our behavior and anatomy with theirs The answer that emerges is that men ' s testicles are not large enough for a system of promiscuity like the chimpanzee s, men s bodies are not big enough for a system of harem...
Iron loading in HH can affect several organs, with the manifestations of end-organ damage usually appearing in the 40s-60s age range in men and slightly later in women. Women are somewhat protected since they lose iron over many years with menses. In the liver, iron overload can lead first to occult, then clinically evident cirrhosis, and eventually to development of malignant hepatoma. In the pancreas, iron loading of the islets of Langerhans causes glucose intolerance or frank diabetes. Cardiomyopathies and arrhythmias can develop with iron deposition in cardiac myocytes. Testicular atrophy and impotence occur in men as a result of decreased gonadotropin production by the iron-loaded pituitary. Women can develop secondary amenorrhea. Chondrocalcinosis develops in joint synovia and leads to a pseudogout picture. Hyperpigmentation of skin may be observed, but is actually due to increased melanin rather than iron deposition. Because each of these manifestations more often are caused by...
The effects of both Klinefelter and Turner syndrome's on gonad development and fertility reflect the fact that inactivated X chromosomes of XXY males are reactivated in the germ cells of the testes create, which creates an excess of X-linked genes in the testes. Similarly, in normal XX females the inactivated X is reactivated in the germ cells and oogenesis requires two active Xs. Thus, X0 females will lack the necessary second X in their oocytes. Although one X does inactivate in the germ cell progenitors of early female embryos, it is eventually reactivated in oocytes before meiosis. This reactivation reflects a stringent requirement for two X chromosomes in oogenesis. The absence of the second X chromosome in Turner syndrome females causes rapid death (atresia) of oocytes during fetal development. The result is both sterility and small rudimentary ovaries. Similarly, Klinefelter men also reactivate the second (inactivated) X chromosome in the developing testis. The presence of the...
Testosterone produced by his genetically determined testicles alter the brain inside his mother s womb in such a way that later, at puberty, it will react to testosterone again Miss out on the genes for testicles, the testosterone burst in the womb, or the testosterone burst at puberty any one of the three and you will not be a typical man Presumably, a man who develops a preference for other men is a man who has a different gene that affects how his testicles develop or a different gene that affects how his brain responds to hormones or a different learning experience during the pubertal burst of testosterone or some combination of these
Scientists used to think of mutations as rare events. But in recent years they have gradually come to realize how many mutations happen. They are accumulated at the rate of about one hundred per genome per generation in mammals. That is, your children will have one hundred differences from you and your spouse in their genes as a result of random copying errors by your enzymes or as a result of mutations in your ovaries or testicles caused by cosmic rays. Of those one hundred, about ninety-nine will not matter they will be so-called silent or neutral mutations that do not affect the sense of genes. That may not seem many, given that you have seventy-five thousand pairs of genes and that many of the changes will be tiny and harmless or will happen in silent DNA between genes. But it is enough to lead to a steady accumulation of defects and, of course, a steady rate of invention of new ideas.
This very rare condition is characterized by downward slanting eyelids, cleft palate, recessed lower jaw, small cup-shaped ears, and a broad nasal ridge. There are also shortened bowed forearms, incompletely developed bones in the arms, missing or webbed fingers and toes, and abnormal growth of the bones in the lower legs. occasional problems include heart defects, lung disease, extra nipples, stomach or kidney reflux, undescended testicles, or dislocated hips.
In addition to mental retardation, the syndrome is characterized by large testicles, protruding long ears, and a pronounced nose, chin, and forehead those affected tend to be tall and physically strong. The syndrome affects every 2,000 to 3,000 births a child of a mother who carries the fragile X chromosome has a one chance in two of inheriting the disorder.
Almost no subject is more steeped in myth and lore than the business of choosing the gender of children. Aristotle and the Talmud both recommended placing the bed on a north-south axis for those wanting boys. Anaxagoras s belief that lying on the right side during sex would produce a boy was so influential that centuries later some French aristocrats had their left testicles amputated. At least posterity had its revenge on Anaxagoras, a Greek philosopher and client of Pericles He was killed by a stone dropped by a crow, no doubt a retrospective reincarnation of some future French marquis who cut off his left testicle and had six girls in a row.
(failure of the testicles to descend) in boys. Interest in HCG was stimulated by anecdotes of Kaposi's sarcoma regression in two pregnant women. In the first human trial with HCG, intralesional injection of a formulation of HCG was shown to reduce the size and occasionally lead to complete regression of the treated KS lesions. Investigators observed that the active material is not the normal HCG molecule, but something that accompanies it in the crude material, in the pregnant woman's urine. Whatever the active component, it appears to induce apoptosis (a form of cell suicide) in the lesion. Several studies were conducted using the hormone in Kaposi's sarcoma treatment in the mid-1990s, but the results were not clearly positive enough to warrant further work using HCG.
This disorder, also termed spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, is a debilitating, neurodegenerative condition that begins by age 30 and consists of muscle cramping and atrophy as well as testicular atrophy. The genetic basis for the disease is not exactly a mutation but a variation in the length of the AR gene in a specific region (transcriptional activation domain) that results in decreased androgen-binding ability. The AR gene on Xq has eight exons and it is clear that a critical region of CAG-nucleotide repeats, usually 15-30 in number, exists in exon 1. Elongation of
Puberty, precocious The onset of puberty before age seven in girls and age nine in boys. The signs of the condition include the development of breasts and pubic hair or the beginning of menstruation in girls, and pubic or facial hair, a deepening voice, or enlarged penis or testicles in boys. Acne also can occur with these other changes. Although sexual maturity does not occur at the exact same age for every person, there is a limit to how soon the signs should begin to appear. Girls are five to seven times more likely than boys to develop the condition.
Antioxidants applied to fats to protect against rancidity do not cause immediate acute poisonings. However, such substances may accumulate in the human body due to their ability to dissolve in fats. Butylated hydro-xyanisole may undesirably influence their production process and cause cirrhosis of liver in experimental animals. Esters of gallate are known to inhibit enzymes, such as alcaline phosphatase, lipase, tetrapeptidase, cause degenerative changes in testicles, and in animal experiments, inhibit the growth of young animals.
Sparkes's trouble began on the evening of Wednesday, 10 February when he had a conversation with Young, who gave him a glass of water. During the night he was violently sick and had diarrhoea, which persisted for four days, accompanied by pains in his testicles. When he next played football the following Saturday he was still unwell and after a few minutes of play he had to leave the field. About six weeks after this incident Sparkes spent an evening with Young and drank some wine, after which he was again very ill. He went on Thursday, 8 April to see his doctor who diagnosed a urinary infection. Luckily Sparkes left Slough on Friday, 30 April and never saw Young again until his trial 15 months later. However, his troubles persisted throughout the summer of that year he was twice examined in hospital where he was treated for strain and muscular troubles, and it was not until the autumn of that year that he began to recover.
Genitourinary tract The system involved in reproduction and elimination of urine. In women this consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and vagina. In men it is the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, testicles, prostate gland, vas deferens, and seminal vesicles. The genital and the urinary systems are distinct, but they are so closely related develop-mentally and functionally that they are often studied and treated together.
Much the same applies to human beings. Here the evidence comes from a series of natural and unnatural experiments. Nature has left some men and women with abnormal hormonal doses, and in the 1950s doctors changed the hormonal conditions of some wombs by injecting some pregnant women with certain hormones. Women with a condition known as Turner s syndrome (they are born without ovaries) have even less testosterone in their blood than do women who have ovaries (Ovaries produce some testosterone, though not as much as testicles do.) They are exaggeratedly feminine in their behavior, with typically a special interest in babies, clothes, housekeeping, and romantic stories Men with less than usual testosterone in their blood as adults eunuchs, for example are noted for their femininity of appearance and attitude. Men exposed to less than usual testosterone as embryos for example, the sons of diabetic women who took female hormones during pregnancy are shy, unassertive, and effeminate Men...
The glands that produce sperm are the testes. Prior to copulation, the sperm are stored and undergo further development in the epididymis, located on the testicles. For delivery, sperm are incorporated into seminal fluid produced by seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and the bulboure-thral gland, and ejaculated through the urethra of the penis. The process of forming sperm and other male sexual functions and characteristics are promoted by testosterone, the male sex hormone.
The daily intake of selenium depends on the foods we eat. The average person takes in about 65 g day, which is enough to prevent selenium deficiency, although it is less than the recommended intake for men of 75 g. Selenium levels are highest in hair, kidneys, and testicles, where it is needed to protect sperm. Most people get their selenium from breakfast cereals and bread, especially wholemeal bread, two slices of which will provide up to 30 g depending on the soil of the farm from which it came. Foods particularly rich in selenium are Brazil nuts, molasses (black treacle), tuna, cod, salmon, liver, kidney, peanuts, and bran.
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