Quality Stress Management Course
It's difficult to concentrate when you're under severe stress, and poor attention is one of the main barriers to effectively encoding new memory. The physiological features of the fight-or-flight response interfere with mental focusing in the moment. Living with chronic significant stress can impair your memory over the long term high levels of cortisol, a stress hormone, are harmful to the hippocampus. You can't control all the stressful events in your life, but you can control your reactions to them. There's no magical stress buster that works for everyone. You need to find activities and coping strategies that are effective for you. For some people, the answer is yoga or a nature walk for others, it might be listening to music or having a heart-to-heart conversation with a close friend. Exercise is a proven method of relieving stress. Aerobic exercise, such as running, brisk walking, bicycling, and swimming, is an excellent way of burning off stress and negative emotions....
Sometimes people appear to have seizures, even though their brains show no seizure activity. This type of phenomenon has various names, including nonepileptic events and pseudoseizures. Both of these terms essentially mean something that looks like a seizure but isn't one. Nonepileptic events that are psychological in origin may be referred to as psychogenic seizures. psychogenic seizures may indicate dependence, a need for attention, avoidance of stressful situations, or specific psychiatric conditions. some people with epilepsy have psychogenic seizures in addition to their epileptic seizures. Other people who have psychogenic seizures do not have epilepsy at all. Psychogenic seizures cannot be treated in the same way as epileptic seizures. Instead, they are often treated by mental health specialists.
A number of societal and cultural factors make the psychiatric diagnoses of Latinos difficult (Flaskerud and Hu 1992 Rogler 1993). Latinos in the United States often live under stressful life conditions, which may include poverty, low occupational status, lack of proficiency in English, and undocumented legal status. Immigration and associated problems such as separation from family members, the effects of having witnessed brutal acts of war and violence, having lived under political oppression, or having experienced torture can ex
A patient may experience the recommendation for psychiatric consultation as being based on the primary care physicians belief that the symptoms are imaginary or all in the head or that the patient is not really suffering. Because such patients feel betrayed and lose trust in the physician, the latter should convey an appreciation of the reality of the patients suffering. To diminish the likelihood of this type of reaction, the physician might say I know you are suffering greatly with your pain, nausea, weakness . The purpose of a psychiatric consultation is to explore all possible causes of your illness because emotional troubles and stressful circumstances can cause symptoms such as yours and produce real suffering. I want to find out what is causing the problem and help you do something about it.
With many stressful events occurring at the same time, the ability of an emergency physician to triage patients becomes even more important. Based on the French word trier, meaning to sort, triage involves allocating treatment to patients based on a priority system that assigns resources to where they are most needed. As patient advocates, these doctors must recognize the difference between the truly sick and those with less urgent problems. After all, some patients are not as sick as they think, and others are not as well as they wish. 1 This is where triaging comes in. Without it, many people desperately in need of medical care might not receive it while their physician's attention is focused elsewhere. All emergency physicians learn to master this skill. After sorting patients correctly when many arrive at once, emergency doctors take care of them all the way through discharge or admission.
Summary Researchers investigated the effects of epilepsy on psychological adjustment, coping behavior, and transition to adulthood among 36 people age 16 to 21 years with epilepsy and a control group of 31 of their peers. Participants were recruited from neurologists' offices. Each participant received a mailed questionnaire that measured psychological adjustment (self-efficacy, negative and positive affect, use of coping style, self-esteem, and strategy related to transition to adulthood) and adolescent coping. Participants with epilepsy also provided information on acceptance of illness, seizure severity, use of coping style, perception of control over seizures, and strategy related to epilepsy. Data analysis indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the groups on measures of self-esteem, affect, and self-efficacy. Members of the group with epilepsy had significantly more non-productive coping than members of the control group. The control group had...
In the early days of weaning, the additional administration of antioxidants, enzymes (brome-laine, trypsine, rutoside), phospholipids, and fatty acids (omega-3 fatty acids) was regarded as un-proven adjuvant supplementation however, the number of articles has dramatically increased that certify favorable effects on cardiac function and oxidative stress reduction 46-62 . As heart failure per se is correlated with a high degree of oxidative stress, the use of a mechanical assist device enhances that further. According to the still preliminary experience, the nutritional supplementation reduces the number of infections and possibly the number of thromboembolic events, makes the blood cells shear stress resistant, improves the rhe-ology by cell membrane stabilization, and reduces the proinflammatory cytokines 63-65 .
A medical student who had completed his required clerkship in obstetrics and gynecology commented that the attending physicians seem like very energetic and outgoing people. Self-confidence and a strong personality are necessary to deal with the stressful events and tense situations you face daily. There is little room for indecisiveness, meekness, or timidity within this specialty. Because gynecologic surgeries start quite early in the morning and deliveries or ruptured ec-topic pregnancies can occur during the middle of the night, you must be able to function at all times of day or night. Even when tired or agitated, OB GYN physicians have to be sensitive to the emotional and psychosocial needs of their patients. Your common sense and experience are calming and reassuring for an expectant mother about to deliver her first child, a preoperative gynecologic patient, and a woman struggling with the loss of a pregnancy.
SD is an example of a focal dystonia, a disorder of muscle tone affecting one specific anatomic site. Other focal forms of focal dystonias include blepharospasm, torticollis (cervical dystonia), oromandibular dystonia, and writer's cramp. Focal dystonias have an estimated prevalence of 30 cases per 100,000 population (11,12). Of the focal cranial dystonias, SD is the third most prevalent form cervical dystonia affects nearly 5.4 per 100,000 and blepharospasm 3.1 per 100,000 (13). The average age of onset ranges from 39 to 45 years, and there is a 63 to 79 female predominance (14,15). Between 0 and 12 of patients report a history of dystonia within first- or second-degree relatives. Many patients report a history of an upper respiratory tract infect (30 ) or major stressful event prior to the onset of symptoms (14-16).
All patients with heart disease should discuss any exercise program with their doctor BEFORE they begin. Along with personal advice, he or she will tell you to not do any activity that causes chest pain (angina) or that exceeds the activity threshold documented on your stress test.
The research by Snowdon and others explored parents' understanding of randomization. Three observations should be made about the study before looking at those findings which have implications for right-based problems with consent. First, the parents concerned were in an extremely stressful situation with a newborn baby who was critically ill and needed treatment quickly. Second, although parents were given letters and information leaflets about the trial which had been prepared by the trial steering committee, some centres were required by local research ethics committees to amend or replace the trial documentation, and in some instances to use locally idiosyncratic consent forms. Additional information would have been given to parents at the discretion of the participating centres' staff, since they were asked to expand on the written information. Hence, the basic information given to parents was not uniform. Third, there was widespread belief amongst parents that ECMO was the...
No matter how old you are, it's not too late to take steps to prevent memory loss. In this chapter, I review thirteen strategies for achieving and maintaining optimal memory. Some are good health habits that can reduce the risk of illnesses that might impair your memory as well as the likelihood that you'll need medications with memory-related side effects. Others are strategies that appear to strengthen the brain and enhance cognitive function. Best of all, they're neither expensive nor difficult to carry out. Obtain regular exercise Put out the cigarettes Take vitamins Involve yourself with others Maintain healthful nutrition Aim for a good night's sleep Learn something new Moderate alcohol intake Engage in life Manage stress
There are several reasons that maintaining an active social life may help prevent memory loss. Interpersonal engagement may increase the likelihood of ongoing involvement in intellectually stimulating activities I discuss the link between lifelong learning and preservation of cognitive function later in this chapter. Social connectedness also helps cushion the blow from stressful life events and therefore reduces the negative effect that stress can exert on the brain.
However, problematic stress lies over the line of exhilarating challenge in a job. As leaders, we want to provide employees with sufficient challenges without stretching them to the point of exhaustion. On the other hand, we do not want our departmental or corporate culture to be driven by the need for stress management. In other words, creating an empathic, emotionally relevant culture will alleviate some of the ill effects of stress, but relieving stress should not be the ultimate goal of creating such a culture.
Khoshaba's work inspired a flurry of research and it now appears that this measure of hardiness provides a good index of general mental health. Compared to low scorers, people with high total scores have less depression, anxiety, and suspicious-ness of others, and fewer insecurities and health problems. Hardy personalities cope effectively with stressful events, and they tend to be assertive, independent people. Several studies
Attachment styles continue after infancy (Hazan & Shaver, 1994). Attachment in adulthood helps regulate emotion and reduce stress (Feeney & Kirkpatrick, 1996 Silverman, 1998). In the language of another theorist, Erik Erikson, infant relationships provide a person with an enduring sense of trust or mistrust of people that remains significant throughout life. Researchers have found that, indeed, securely attached adults feel more trust toward their partners than do those without secure attachment (Mikulincer, 1998b) and are able to resolve conflicts within relationships more maturely (Corcoran & Mallinckrodt, 2000). They also describe their parents more positively (Levy, Blatt, & Shaver, 1998). Adolescents hospitalized for psychiatric disorders are reported to be insecurely attached, as are their mothers (Rosenstein & Horowitz, 1996). Furthermore, the specific kind of insecure attachment predisposes individuals to particular kinds of psychiatric disorders. Dismissing attachment, in...
To test this model, Caprara et al. collected data over a 2-year time period on Italian adolescents between the ages of 14 and 17. At thne 1, the sample averaged 15 years of age, and at time 2, they averaged 17 years of age. Such a longitudinal design allowed Caprara and colleagues to test the causal sequence from thne 1 to thne 2. Measures included self-efficacy to regulate negative emotions and to manage positive emotions. Example items included I can calm myself in stressful situations and I can feel gratified over achieving what I set out to do. Interpersonal self-efficacy was measured by a 30-item questionnaire and included efficacy questions about people hi general as well as parents. Emotional stability (neuroticism) was measured by a 24-item scale of an Italian version of the Big-Five Questionnaire. Only shyness was assessed at thne 1 and time 2.
Catanzaro and Mearns have conducted a number of studies to better understand the difference between people who are good at regulating their negative moods and those who are not. They have been able to rule out several explanations. There do not appear to be any differences in personality or temperament between the two groups, nor is it the case that high scorers simply experience fewer stressful events. The critical difference appears to be that high scorers have a firm belief that they can influence their moods, while low scorers feel relatively helpless when they experience distressing emotions. So, it would do little good to make specific suggestions to those who cannot turn their negative emotions around. Recommending that a depressed or anxious person visit a friend or see a movie would probably have little effect. They would claim that it wouldn't do any good. They simply do not believe there is anything they can do about their bad feelings.
Complementary and alternative therapies are used in an effort to prevent illness, reduce stress, prevent or reduce side effects and symptoms, or control or cure disease. Some commonly used methods of complementary or alternative therapy include mind body control interventions such as visualization and relaxation, manual healing including acupressure and massage, homeopathy, vitamins or herbal products, and acupuncture.
Fugue states are characterized by a sudded loss of personal identity and of all autobiographical memories, usually associated with a period of wandering, which lasts a few hours or days and for which there is a virtually complete amnesic gap upon recovery. They are generally recognized as being psychogenic (Stengel, 1941 Kopelman et al., 1994a, 1994b). Like TGA fugue states can be triggered by emotionally stressful events or by mild head trauma. Fugue states differ from TGA by the loss of personal identity and by the absence of repetitive questioning and of dense anterograde amnesia. It may, however, be questioned
Primiparous females (first birth cycle) differ in their maternal behavior from postpartum multiparous females (more than one birth cycle) It makes sense to predict that an initial rearing experience should have an impact on future maternal competence and efficiency during subsequent breeding episodes because the experienced mother would be expected to have learned how to best handle her infant under a variety of stressful situations. In seeming support of this view, Hrdy (1999) notes that, under natural conditions, firstborn primate infants die at higher rates than do future offspring. Indeed, mortality rates of firstborn infants can be higher than 60 in some populations of monkeys and apes. It needs to be emphasized, however, that this kind of correlational field data does not allow us to definitely conclude that the maternal experience gained by firsttime mothers makes them more proficient in their future maternal behavior. First-time mothers are generally younger than multiparous...
Spiritual and psychological approaches seek to provide a holistic balance to complement other treatment strategies for HIV AIDS. Although benefits are highly individual and subjective, they can contribute to an overall state of health. Treatments include hypnotherapy, meditation, psychotherapy, spiritual healing, stress reduction, and visualization.
Adjustment disorder A maladaptive emotional or behavioral reaction to a stressful event or change in a child's life, such as a family move, divorce, loss of a pet, or birth of a sibling. The reaction must occur within three months of the stressful event to be considered an adjustment disorder. Because adjustment disorders are a reaction to stress, there is not a single direct cause between the stressful event and the reaction.
Adjustment disorder with anxiety may cause nervousness, worry, jitteriness, and fear of separation. adjustment disorder with anxiety and depressed mood is a combination of symptoms from both of the above subtypes. adjustment disorder with disturbance of conduct may be characterized by violating the rights of others, truancy, destruction of property, reckless driving, or fighting. adjustment disorder with mixed disturbance of emotions and conduct involves a combination of all of the subtype symptoms (depressed mood, anxiety, and conduct). adjustment disorder unspecified Reactions to stressful events that do not fit in one of the above subtypes is referred to as unspecified and may include behavior such as social withdrawal or reluctance to do homework or after-school chores.
Individual psychotherapy uses cognitive-behavioral approaches to improve problem-solving skills, communication skills, impulse control, anger management skills, and stress management skills. Family therapy is often focused on making changes within the family system, such as improving communication skills and family interactions, as well as increasing family support among family members. Peer group therapy is often focused on developing and using social skills and interpersonal skills.
The occurrence of stressful life events before episodes of major depression is not uncommon early in the disorder, but as the patient gets older, episodes occur more frequently, tend to be more severe, and begin without any apparent precipitant. In fact, the presence or absence of psychosocial stressors at any age is irrelevant to the diagnosis of major depression. Moreover, situations that seem at first to have triggered a depression turn out to have been caused by it. Because depression can make people irritable, withdrawn, and inefficient, personal relationships and productivity at work eventually suffer.
Conversion Disorder (Acute Hysteria ). Hysterical behavior may begin abruptly in the setting of a stressful situation such as a deteriorating marriage, an unpleasant job, a motor vehicle accident, combat, or bereavement. The nature of the patient's complaint may involve the unconscious copying of an illness previously experienced by a family member or other person known or seen by the patient. The complaint may also convey something about the meaning of the person's distress, which is symbolically communicated through body language. The diagnosis ultimately rests on recognizing (1) a vulnerable personality, often with self-dramatizing, passive, or immature features (2) a situation understood as stressful and disruptive to the person involved (3) symptoms or signs unexplained by physiologic processes and (4) the purpose the behavior serves in solving a life problem.
You can control the harm that stress does to your memory by finding ways to modify your response to stressful life events. Vigorous physical activity helps some people overcome stress others use meditation or relaxation techniques. For some, it's a matter of learning their limits how much stress they can take on and developing assertiveness in politely but firmly declining a task or commitment. Everyone's different. What's important is that you find stress-management activities that are effective for you. I discuss scientifically proven stress-reduction techniques in Chapter 9.
A patient may experience the recommendation for psychiatric consultation as an insult. Additionally, the patient may fear the physicians or another significant persons disapproval should a psychiatric disorder be diagnosed. In some instances, the patient is responding to a realistic perception of the physicians attitude toward psychiatric disorder and psychiatric patients. The physician can express positive regard for the patient and support the latter's self-esteem by conveying an empathic understanding of the patients dilemma. When, for example, the patient is distressed by the proposal of a consultation, the primary care physician might say I'm sorry you're upset by my suggesting you see a psychiatrist. I'm concerned about you, and I want you to feel better. I know that sometimes complaints like yours can be due to emotional troubles or stressful circumstances, and you owe it to yourself to have that possibility checked out. Acceptance of a consultation is more likely when the...
The Dominican Republic does not have a unified system of health services. Services are provided in a structure that includes the public and private sectors also playing a part is the traditional medicine curanderismo, a system of self-medication in which individuals use common knowledge to determine what type of herbs or tizanas (tea brews) will cure a specific ailment or stressful situation.
In drug dosing, or other noted adverse drug effects should be recorded. The duration of each attack as well as quality of the pain (e.g., dull, sharp, throbbing, aching, electrical, pressure sensation) provide important clues to differentiate between myogenic and neuropathic pain. Finally, the patient should be asked about mitigating or alleviating measures, including medications, stress relief, sleep, or preference for a dark, quiet location.
The CDDP was developed in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA to determine if a low intensity community-based intervention could alter the natural history of insulin resistance, IGT and type 2 diabetes67. Subjects were identified using a simple screening interview, then randomized to a nutrition, physical activity and stress management intervention group or control, as described in Table 6.3. After two years, this low intensity intervention has reported no differences in diabetes incidence between intervention and control groups, however, four-year follow-up is currently being completed, with results to be reported in the near future. The other lifestyle studies underway differ from this community-based low intensity approach by including higher risk subjects and using more intensive interventions.
To stressful events (Winslow and others 2003). Other potential benefits of companionship include increased disease resistance (Shively and others 1989) and improved immune response (Lilly and others 1999 Schapiro and others 2000). However, these relationships are more complex than these descriptions imply. For example, in Shively and colleagues' (1989) study, socially housed female macaques showed less coronary artery disease than singly housed monkeys, but this difference was evident only for dominant socially housed females. Another important benefit of social housing is that there is greater correspondence to the human situation. In a recent study, intracerebroventricular infusions of corticotropin-releasing factor caused depressive-like symptoms, but only in socially housed monkeys (Strome and others 2002).
How to Deal with Stress and Cope in the 21st Century
Learn How Helping Others Benefits You And How You Can Begin Accomplishing Powerful Goals In The Process. The secrets behind Gaining Optimal Living and Inspiring Others.