N Bladder

• The bladder is surveyed in longitudinal and transverse scans through the lower abdomen, occasionally with the transducer angled slightly cephalad.

• Scanning tip: Moving the patient to a lateral decubitus or knee-elbow position can be a helpful maneuver in differentiating wall thickening from clots and sediment.

• Ultrasound cystometry: see Function Studies, p. 52. n Genital organs:

• Transducer: 3.5 or 5 MHz A 7.5-10 MHz transducer is occasionally used for the penis and testis.

• The uterus, ovaries, prostate, and seminal vesicle are scanned from a suprapubic site with a full (not overdistended) bladder. They are surveyed in longitudinal and transverse sections.

• For optimum visualization of the male genital organs, the beam should be angled caudad from the bladder floor. As for the female genital organs, the uterus is cranial to the bladder, the cervix and vagina are posterior, and the adnexa are posterolateral.

n Kidney, ureter, and bladder: Section 16.2 deals with dilatations of the pyelocaly-ceal system (PCS) and ureter (urinary tract obstruction, UTO) and with wall changes and intraluminal changes in the bladder. n Genital organs: Sections 16.3 and 16.4 deal with the genital organs only to the extent that they are involved in pathologic conditions encountered in routine medical ultrasound. n Classification and overview:

• Renal pelvis, ureter, and bladder: see Table 67, p. 380.

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