Treating Social Phobias and Social Anxiety
Bandura argued that the personality system obtains its coherence and formation by and through interactions with the social world. It is from these social interactions that beliefs and evaluations about the self develop, the most important of which is self-efficacy. What impact do these social cognitive beliefs about the self have on long-term and stable personality development That was the fundamental question that Gian Caprara, Patrizia Steca, Daniel Cervone, and Danielle Artistico (2003) set out to answer. More specifically, they examined the impact that self-efficacy beliefs have on dispositional shyness. Although shyness lias a strong temperamental and biological basis (Kagan, 1994), it also has been shown to be malleable by environmental events and experiences. For instance, consistent with Kagan's view that shyness levels can change, Sclunidt and Fox (2002) reviewed the literature demonstrating that temperamentally shy children who attend day care are less likely to become shy...
Social phobia usually emerges in the mid-teens and typically does not affect young children. Children and adolescents with this disorder have a constant fear of social or performance situations, like speaking in class or eating in public. They are always afraid of being embarrassed in these situations. This fear is often accompanied by physical symptoms, such as sweating, blushing, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, or muscle tenseness. Young people with social phobia are often overly sensitive to criticism, have trouble being assertive, and have low self-esteem. Social phobia may be limited to certain situations so that the adolescent may experience a sense of dread in relation to dating or recreational events but may be confident in school and work situations.
Condition characterized by sustained problems with social interactions and social relatedness, and the development of restricted, repetitive patterns of interests, activities, and behaviors. The disorder is named after Hans Asperger, a Viennese pediatrician who first documented this cluster of characteristics in the 1940s.
Many Latino patients adhere to the cultural script referred to as personalismo (formal friendliness). In busy clinical practices, physicians may operate under time constraints conducive to a directed, businesslike approach to the delivery of health care. For Latinos, the issue of confianza, or trust in the medical practitioner, is paramount. Because personalismo is a preferred mode for social interactions, Latino patients, in general, may tend to discuss nonmedi-cal issues and routinely inquire about the well-being of the physician and his or her family. A certain amount of self-disclosure on the part of the physician can facilitate an openness and sense of trust on the part of the Latino patient.
Fortunately, most of the risk factors for coronary artery disease can be partially or totally addressed. Many are unhealthy habits, such as smoking and lack of exercise. Others, such as high blood cholesterol and obesity, can be partly or mostly due to poor diet choices, although genetic susceptibilities can dramatically influence the response to those choices. Some are treatable illnesses such as depression and high blood pressure. And still others are circumstances, such as social isolation and stress, that can be mitigated to some degree. By addressing the risk factors that you have some control over, it's possible to reduce your vulnerability to coronary artery disease by a third or more.
Reproductive studies on Eurasian Parids have traditionally focused on topics that arise from the ability to induce large numbers of individuals to nest in easily accessible boxes, such as optimum clutch sizes, reproductive success, and reproductive timing in relation to abiotic factors (see Chapter 5). Fewer long-term research programs have been initiated on chickadees and titmice, possibly due to the greater difficulty in establishing box-nesting populations with the same high-density breeding potential exhibited by great and blue tits. While long-term studies on natural-cavity-nesting Parids are increasing, research on North American Parids has tended to focus on the topics of intra and interspecific interactions and their influence on reproductive ecology, evolution, and behavior. Whereas the previous section of this book focused on the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that affect behaviors, including reproduction, it is the influence of social interactions between and within...
Pattern detection is, therefore, a process that generally occurs within the context of social interactions. Children are naturally interested in detecting patterns in the stimulation they receive, and the patterns they detect depend at every point of development on the level of pattern detection they have so far attained. But it is often adults who present stimulation in a way that is tuned to the children's level of development. Cognitive development depends on both the natural propensities of children to try to understand their world and the tendencies of adults to structure that world in a way that it can be more easily understood.
Morbidity (from seizures and AED's), social isolation, unemployment, and an overall diminished quality of life. There is some evidence that refractory epilepsy is a progressive disorder, which if controlled early enough, might be prevented from developing into a full syndrome. The problem lies in identifying at an early stage patients whose disease is likely to progress to intractability. Although there are some epileptic syndromes, such as medial temporal lobe epilepsy, that appear to be progressive and if allowed to progress presents a risk of becoming refractory, there exist no known markers that can enable clinicians to identify with confidence cases that are likely to progress to intractability. It may be possible, however, to predict refractory epilepsy early by using epidemiologic data, genetic analysis, neuroimaging techniques, and syndrome classification. predicting intractability in children is not as easy as in adults, where lack of a satisfactory response to a second AED...
This category is the description of events where communication has been difficult resulting in a relational aspect including loss of face and embarrassment. In this extract the respondent describes feelings of stress and embarrassment at the inability to converse with both friends. Hallberg and Carlsson (1991) show categories describing examples of restriction in social interactions. Within this are two categories, 'Frustration and aggression' and 'Frustration of the need of self-assertion'. In extract 11 the respondent's description of her meeting with friends falls under both categories with their examples under the frustration and aggression category, 'the hearing person is irritated at the environment' and under the frustration of the need of self-assertion category, 'being left out' being shown in this extract. Those authors described situations of hearing-impaired people being unable to follow group conversations which causes frustration not only with their surroundings and the...
One way to organize the literature is by putting the dispositions into higherorder categories, such as cognitive, social, motivational, and affective. By so doing, dispositions are organized into related clusters. Whether a trait is social or not is determined by the extent to which it concerns one's attitudes toward and interactions with others. For instance, the tendencies to question social norms and to be relatively independent of group influence are social dispositions commonly found in creative people. Also, having a greater than normal desire to remove oneself from social interaction and being overstimulated by novel social situations (introversion) is frequently observed in highly creative people, including the sciences.
These extracts describe coping mechanisms for everyday tasks, such as doing the shopping or going to church. The first extract shows the participant not bothering to listen at church, and not having developed any form of coping mechanism to help her hear better in church. She is still attending church so is not 'avoiding the social scene' as described by Hallberg and Carlsson (1991). However, her behaviour is included in their description of 'Maintaining social interactions'. This is a way of coping with an everyday task by maintaining the task (going to church) and trying to make the best of it and not 'become a bother'. By doing this she has become tolerant of the environment around her and the public's lack of understanding of hearing loss. Hallberg and Carlsson (1991) continued to describe the cost involved in preserving such social interactions. 'More things have to be regarded as not so important, and restricted involvement in conversations have to be tolerated.' From this we...
In summary, for children with severe spoken communication disabilities, the AAC assessment is an ongoing process that includes information about the child's communication development, the child's environments, and the child's physical abilities. Children with severe language disorders who use AAC systems can demonstrate communication achievements far beyond traditional expectations. Recommended assessment and intervention practices are continuing to develop. The use of appropriate AAC systems enables the child to communicate effectively at home, school, play, and work. In addition to the development of communication skills, AAC increases social interactions with family and friends and participation in life activities.
In summary, functional approaches rely on a real-world perspective. Clinicians typically ask, How will this affect this person's daily life, and that of his or her family Finally, functions of language, such as being able to invite, deny, or request, are essential to daily social interactions, and therefore to functional approaches.
The cells of the adrenal cortex (a part of your adrenal gland) also produce low levels of both estrogen and testosterone. Sometimes as a consequence of overactivity of the adrenal gland during development or of a defect in hormone synthesis, high levels of either estrogen or testosterone can be produced by the adrenal cortex. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is not an inter-sex condition for males, but it is for females. Thus a developing female fetus could be exposed to high levels of both testosterone (from the adrenal cortex) and estrogen (from the ovaries). The result is a mixture or confusion of developmental processes, resulting in a newborn whose genitals seem to be a little of both, or in some cases may even appear to be clearly male. These cases of ambiguous genitalia are quite disturbing to some parents and physicians, who may rapidly push to make the child's situation unambiguous at a very early age, before the child begins experiencing a wide array of sex-specific social...
As far back as the early 1980s, Hochschild (1983, p. 7) described emotional labor as the management of feeling to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display. Management of emotions requires effort and often involves a form of acting, especially in a workplace that tends to encourage positive expressions over negative ones (Staw, Sutton, and Pelled, 1994 Elfenbein and Ambady, 2002 Hochschild, 1983 Grandey, 2000). Elfenbein and Ambady (2002) cited Swann, Stein-Seroussi, and McNulty (1992), Tesser and Rosen, (1975), and DePaulo (1992) in observing that emotions are often masked in order to conform to standards, but in social situations, negative interpersonal feelings are apt to show up through poorly controlled media such as vocal tone. Even in a group setting where everyone is trying to agree, there is the potential for vocal tone to break through the fa ade and create conflict. In situations of conflict, the offended is often heard to say, It's not what you said it's how...
So what progress has been made toward the development of commonsense psychology as the child becomes a participant in social interactions and then relationships We have seen from the various approaches to studying dyadic interactions considered in this chapter that infants become attuned to the quality of the interactions with their mothers during the period from about 2 to 5 months. Within dyadic interactions, the infants' and mothers' actions become increasingly coordinated. Mothers attempt to respond contingently to their infants' actions and infants progressively do the same. Gradually therefore, the first-person information provided by the infants' action and the third-person information provided by the mothers' action are coordinated in time. As the regularity of this coordination increases, infants are able to detect and recognize the persistent patterns of information created by combining both kinds of information. In effect, infants' participation in dyadic interactions comes...
Across populations of children, difficulties in all domains of language, semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic, have been found. Current thinking in speech-language pathology, however, is not to address individual skills in isolation but to focus on broader aspects of the child's language and the learning environment that will best promote the child's current and future communicative success (Fey, Catts, and Larrivee, 1995). This includes recognizing the link between language, especially phonological awareness (awareness of the sound structure of words), and literacy skills (Catts and Kamhi, 1999). Oral narrative production is another area that has received attention, in part because the ability to tell a cohesive story rests on other language and cognitive skills and in part because good narrative skills seem to be associated with good academic performance (Hughes, McGillivray, and Schmidek, 1997). Also, children with language disorders are at risk for fewer and less effective social...
Many of these patients, who suffer injury to the medial aspect of the frontal lobes, are also apathetic and indifferent about their situation and about social interactions. It is unlikely that someone who is unaware of a deficit and seems to be indifferent to it would feel a need to resort to confabulation in order to alleviate anxiety associated with embarrassment or memory lapses. Stuss et al. (1978) have even postulated that the lack of concern about performance is one of the frontal characteristics necessary to produce confabulation. DeLuca (2000a) points out that confabulation often tends only to appear early following the injury, while the amnesic disorder is long-lasting, raising the question of why should patients only fill in gaps early in their illness. These clinical observations, however, do not rule out the possibility that a tendency to fill in gaps in memory plays some role in confabulations.
Anthropologists define culture as learned behavior (Parvis, 2003). Sometimes, specific behaviors in individuals are attributed to that individual's cultural background. For example, how one celebrates a holiday or one's tendency toward shyness might be explained partially by the fact that one was reared in a particular country or as a member of a particular ethnic group. As a result, culture has become ingrained in many of our minds as a differentiating factor between individuals and groups. In recent times, increasing efforts have been made to cross the implicit boundaries imposed by culture, so that now we have philosophies that promote experiencing other cultures and breaking down cultural barriers. Surely, in the eclectic society that is the United States, we need these principles to communicate with and relate to neighbors and friends who come from diverse origins and experiences.
Recorded from young males before and after coun-tersinging interactions to see if song plasticity decreases. In their studies of song development in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), Olveczky et al. (2005) found that acoustic variation in juveniles had a neurological basis. After they inactivated a particular group of neurons located in the basal ganglia of the songbird brain, variation in the vocal output of juveniles decreased. The neural circuits involved in song learning are plastic to some degree (Brenowitz and Beecher 2005) and may rewire themselves in response to particular social interactions. Perhaps countersinging interactions stimulate the inactivation of the neural circuits of the basal ganglia in a developing bird, thus resulting in decreased song plasticity, although this idea has not been tested.
The sociocultural account too makes no differentiation in ToM across reasoning about self and others' mental states. The contextual variables said to affect development of ToM reasoning would do so comparably for reasoning about own and others' representations. These sociocultural variables include the semantics of language (Vinden, 1996), conceptions of self and personhood (Vinden & Astington, 2000), and social interactions (Dunn, Brown, Slomkowski, Tesla & Youngblade, 1991 Perner, Ruffman & Leekam, 1994 Lewis, Freeman, Kyriakidou, Maridaki-Kassotaki & Berridge, 1996 Hughes & Dunn, 1998 Ruffman, Perner, Naito, Parkin & Clements, 1998).
First, the theory of mind literature itself speaks to the basis of theory of mind in social interactive processes. The metarepresentation evident in false belief develops more readily in children who have social interactions with siblings (Dunn et al., 1991 Perner et al., 1994 Lewis et al., 1996 Ruffman et al., 1998) and with friends, with whom they engage in frequent reference to mental states (Hughes & Dunn, 1998), and with adult kin (Lewis et al., 1996). Success on false belief tasks also depends on Finally, Mead (1934) proposes that the self is the product of social interactions. The self is something which has a development it is not initially there at birth, but arises in the process of social experience and activity. (Mead, 1934, p. 135). Moreover, social interaction and others are primary and precede the existence of self. The process out of which the self arises is a social process which implies interaction of individuals in the group, implies the pre-existence of the group....
Among the socialization experiences likely fostering Social ToM is an interdependent or collectivist self-concept. Hereon the self is understood fundamentally in terms of one's relations to others (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). Maintaining one's relationships with others and ensuring positive social interactions requires knowing how others are feeling, thinking, and likely to act and should lead to more readily accessible knowledge of the other (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). Indeed, Chinese children, who presumably have an interdependent self-concept, show greater perspective-taking ability than Australian children, with presumably an independent self-concept (Fu-Xi & Keats, 1989). Additionally, 4- and 5-year old Japanese children (who presumably have an interdependent self-concept) perform successfully on the other-belief false belief task, while generally failing an own-belief ( source ) task (Ruffman et al., 1998).
Domestic violence, also referred to as partner or wife abuse, is a pattern of coercive behaviors that involves physical abuse or the threat of physical abuse. It also may include repeated psychological abuse, sexual assault, progressive social isolation, deprivation, intimidation, or economic coercion. Domestic violence is violence perpetrated by adults or adolescents against their intimate partners in current or former dating, marital, or cohabiting couples of heterosexuals, gay men, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered people.
Lisa Berkman, Ph.D. (Harvard School of Public Health), is a social epidemiologist whose work focuses extensively on psychosocial influences on health outcomes. Her research has centered on understanding social inequalities in health related to socioeconomic status, different racial and ethnic groups, and social networks, support, and social isolation. The majority of her work is devoted to identifying the role of social networks and support in predicting declines in physical and cognitive functioning, onset
Females of other females' infants does increase toward the end of pregnancy (Maestripieri & Zehr, 1998). Perhaps in multiparous macaques, hormonal changes associated with pregnancy termination are necessary to decrease fear-fulness, in this way permitting a female to approach and contact an infant that is being guarded by its natural mother (it is also possible, of course, that such endocrine changes increase infant attractiveness, in this way causing approach behavior to be higher than avoidance). Second, as reviewed in Chapter 3, rhesus monkeys that are raised in social isolation and those that are peer-reared show deficits in maternal behavior as primiparous females. These deficits have been related to an increase in general fearfulness among these females. One interpretation of these results is that there is a normal spectrum of general fearfulness (temperament) that is compatible with normal maternal behavior in rhesus females, but if anxiety to novel stimuli becomes too great,...
As has been the case at every point in development we have so far examined, children's participation in social interactions plays a formative role in the continued progression toward a mature commonsense psychology. Social interactions provide both the emotional and the communicative context in which more sophisticated concepts of commonsense psychology are elaborated (Carpendale & Lewis, 2004 Dunn, 1988). Two changing aspects of these interactions are noteworthy. First, whereas in infancy, interactions with adults play almost an exclusive role, in the preschool period sibling and peer interactions start to take on a greater significance. Of course, interactions with adults are still important. For example, there is evidence that parents who make frequent references to their young children's thoughts, feelings, and intentions, as they talk to them, have children who develop commonsense psychology earlier on average (Meins et al., 2002). So, children who have parents that openly
Lacking a shared theoretical understanding, the field of personality is fragmented, although there are increasing movements toward integration. Multiplicity of theory is not necessarily undesirable (Koch, 1981). Having a number of limited-range theories, each developing concepts to understand a relatively narrow range of phenomena, may at some stages of scientific development lead to faster advances than a more comprehensive, but less precise, theory. Now, though, personality seems to be moving toward more communication among its component parts. Developmental processes of learning are building upon biological foundations that include descriptions of individual differences (e.g., J. A. Gray's theory). Trait descriptions are being considered in an integrated way with dynamics of social interactions (e.g., Walter Mischel's theory).
In some ways, the attainment of a level of commonsense psychology in which differing perspectives on the world are recognized represents a crowning achievement in the psychological development of the preschool child. In particular, the ability to consider independent perspectives in social situations enables a more sophisticated array of interactive skills in both competitive and cooperative contexts (Astington, 2003). Perhaps the most studied context is deception. Deception can occur in varying levels of complexity, and if we include all manifestations it is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the natural world (Mitchell & Thompson, 1986), with instances appearing in plants as well animals ranging from insects to mammals. However, most forms of deception among animals do not require any commonsense psychology. For example, a bird may be deterred by the eye spots on a butterfly's wings without the butterfly having to understand anything about the bird responding as if those spots were eyes....
'matrix of social relations' (Moore 1994 31) within which they were previously located. As we shall see, patients were often subj ected to social isolation - imposed and or self-imposed - not only because of the loss of mobility stemming from their physical deterioration, but also as a result of the stigmatising effects of their illness. In addition, a number of patients suffered from what Jackie, on another occasion, intuitively termed 'a sense of isolation with their disease'. Patients became increasingly estranged from their networks of interpersonal ties because their temporal frameworks, their 'future that cannot be mapped out', ceased to synchronise with those of family and friends. Consequently, many patients found themselves in a state of being with which other people were unable to identify. The isolation, disengagement and physical dependency that patients experienced led to a debasement and erosion of their personhood to a loss of self, which the 'alternative reality'...
Abraham Harold (Abe) Maslow had perhaps, the most lonely and miserable childhood of any person discussed in this book. Bom in Manhattan, New York, on April 1, 1908, Maslow spent his unhappy childhood hi Brooklyn. Maslow was the oldest of seven children bom to Samuel Maslow and Rose Schilosky Maslow. As a child Maslow's life was filled with intense feelings of shyness, hiferiority, and depression.
Personality is subject to biological as well as psychological influences. Mind and body are inextricably united. Temperament refers to biologically based differences in personality, often evidenced as emotional reactivity to new or potentially frightening stimuli. It is the basis, for example, of one person's shyness and another's bold adventurousness. Allport accepted the empirical research available in his day indicating that temperament constitutes an inherited biological foundation for personality. Since that time, additional evidence further supports the importance of biologically based temperament, already observable in infancy (e.g., Kagan, 1989 Kagan & Snidman, 1991a, 1991b). Allport (1937b) listed inherited physique and intelligence, together with temperament, as the three principal raw materials of personality (p. 107).
Perhaps the most interesting finding of Reisman's research was that people who received low scores on his test reported having just as many friends as those who received high scores, but they were less satisfied with their friendships. And despite their having friends, they described themselves as shy and tense in social situations, and often lonely. In an attempt to understand what distinguishes friendly from unfriendly people, Reisman asked both high and low scorers to respond to a variety of social situations. These people were asked, for example, what they would say if a friend came to them and said, I feel like running away. What do you think I should do When the contents of the responses were evaluated for their appropriateness, the advice given by people who scored low on the test was judged to be as good as the advice given by high scorers. Thus, it is not the case that unfriendly people do not know what to say when interacting with others. They are as competent in this...
Speech muscles to produce voice or recognizable speech sounds. These children's psychosocial development is also at risk because of limitations imposed by the speech disorder on social interactions, which in turn may limit their academic progress because of fewer opportunities to gain experience using language (Hodge and Wellman, 1999).
Three realities are central to the development of effective population-based prevention strategies. First, disease risk is currently conceived of as a continuum rather than a dichotomy. There is no clear division between risk for disease and no risk for disease with regard to levels of blood pressure, cholesterol, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumption, physical activity, diet and weight, lead exposure, and other risk factors. In fact, recommended cutoff points for management or treatment of many of these risk factors have changed dramatically and in a downward direction over time (e.g., guidelines for control of hypertension and cholesterol), in acknowledgment of the increased risk associated with common moderately elevated levels of a given risk factor. This continuum of risk is also apparent for many social and environmental conditions as well (e.g., socioeconomic status, social isolation, work stress, and environmental exposures). Any population model of prevention should be...
By approximately 2 months of age the kinds of social acts reviewed in chapter 4 have become well enough established that infants can participate in social interactions. In early development, social interactions may be defined as sequences of social acts performed by the infant and an interactive partner that are contingently structured. As such they involve the two participants acting socially in response to the social acts of the other. The sequences need not be very long or very smooth initially. The critical feature is that each participant responds to the acts of the other by producing acts that themselves tend to elicit further social acts. Because the mother is the most common participant with whom the infant interacts, I typically refer to the mother as the other participant. It should be understood, however, that early interactions can occur with any other person who is willing to engage the infant appropriately. In this chapter we will review what is now known about the...
The capacity to trust is crucial to our survival in human society. Without trust, we would not be willing to participate in even mundane interactions such as buying food at the grocery store, forming a car pool with neighbors, or visiting a physician. We have to believe that the food we buy at the store is safe, that our neighbors will pick us up on their day to drive, and that our physician will treat us in a way that will improve our health, not harm it. In even the most basic of social interactions, we are exposing our vulnerabilities, and without a willingness to trust those we interact with, we would all be living in solitary log cabins and growing our own food. Our existence would be both spartan and harsh, and our time on this earth would be much shorter than we can expect under our present way of life.
Of course, it is possible to fit almost any human social behavior into the Procrustean bed of reciprocity, because many social interactions are repeated and many violations of social convention are frowned upon. But this does not mean that people are always giving benefits today in order to receive benefits tomorrow. Broadening evolutionary psychology's attention to aspects of morality other than kinship and reciprocity may lead to new research insights. It may also prove more appealing to those who believe that there is more to human virtue than nepotism and economic prudence.
Certain personality characteristics seem to be associated with bulimia, including a fear of losing control, inflexible thinking, perfectionism, dissatisfaction with body shape, and an overwhelming desire to be thin. Bulimia has also been linked to mood disturbances such as depression or social anxiety.
Children with autistic disorder demonstrate little interest in friends or social interactions, often failing to develop verbal and nonverbal communication skills. Typically, these children function at a low intellectual level most experience mild to severe mental retardation. About half of people with autism score below 50 on IQ tests, 20 percent score between 50 and 70, and 30 percent score higher than 70. However, estimating IQ in young children with autism is often difficult because problems with language and behavior can interfere with testing. Children and adults with autism typically have problems in verbal and nonverbal communication, social interactions, and leisure or play activities.
Fruiting-body formation in myxobacteria is only one example of bacterial social behavior. The entire life cycle of myxobacteria is pervaded by social behavior. Myxobacterial cells move together and feed cooperatively to maximize the efficiency of extracellular degradation. The enclosure of myxospores in the fruiting body allows then to be dispersed together and ensures that a sufficiently large population of cells will be present after germination to facilitate social interactions. The best-studied example of fruit
Think of sex determination as a response to the environment, but it is one of the clearest examples of the interchangeability of physiological and genetic control. In many organisms, fish and reptiles included, the ratio of males to females may deviate far from unity depending on environmental conditions such as temperature or social interactions. Summarizing the knowledge in 1900, E. B. Wilson (later, ironically, one of the discoverers of sex chromosomes) wrote Sex as such is not inherited. What is inherited is the capacity to develop into either male or female, the actual result being determined by the combined effect of conditions external to the primordial germ-cell. The discovery in 1905 of the genetic basis of sex is considered one of the great triumphs of early-twentieth-century biology. Nettie Stevens of Bryn Mawr College provided convincing evidence for the control of sex by the balance of X and Y chromosomes, based on her studies in over 50 species of beetles. She found that...
Pathways related to health behaviors, health care, access to material resources such as jobs, and direct physiological responses leading to disease development and prognosis. For instance, evidence suggests that, in general, social network size or connectedness is inversely related to risk-related behaviors. People who are socially isolated are more likely to engage in such behaviors as tobacco and alcohol consumption, to be physically inactive, and to be overweight (Berkman and Glass, 2000). Behavioral pathways such as these do not appear to account for a large part of the association between social isolation and poor health, but they are important to consider. It is important to note that networks themselves have generally been shown to exert powerful influences on the behavior of both adolescents and adults, so that networks can either promote health or increase risk depending on the norms of the networks themselves. Experimental work with animals and humans indicates that social...
The course of untreated social phobia is chronic, with an average duration of 20 years. Only 25 percent of patients spontaneously recover from the condition. When treated with either medications or cognitive-behavioral therapy, the response rate for uncomplicated social phobias is about 50 percent. If medications are stopped within three months, two-thirds of successfully treated patients relapse. Treatment for 6-12 months may decrease this relapse rate.
The dog is an inquisitive and highly social animal. The overriding principle is therefore the need to encourage and motivate social housing while providing a complex physical and social environment within the available space. The need for social housing is supported by the association of long-term single housing and social isolation with a range of behavioral disturbances (Hetts and others 1992). The benefits of enriching the environment both social and physical have been reported by Hubrecht (1993, 1995) and DeLuca and Kranda (1992). Social interactions are particularly important in dogs from 4 to 20 weeks of age, when social behavior is developing (Scott and Fuller 1965 Scott and others 1974 Wright 1983). Separate areas should be provided within pens for different activities (e.g., by the use of raised platforms and pen divisions), should allow for some privacy, and should enable the dogs to exercise some control over their social interactions.
Participants found the following to be important when considering structures within the enclosure privacy (may be more important for cats) some control over social interactions separate areas for different activities raised platforms and subdivisions to allow visual stimulation. Other physical enrichment might include items to allow chewing behavior in dogs items to be used in social interactions with cagemates items for play (pseudo-predatory behavior) in cats and utilization of vertical space (the opportunity to climb for cats).
Groups were directed to pay special attention to enrichment of the environment, particularly in relation to social interactions, activity-related use of the space, and provision of appropriate stimuli and materials. Proposals were to be based on science-based information when it was available, and otherwise on practical experience and good or best practice. Where appropriate, Expert Groups were given the task of identifying areas in which additional research would be desirable.
Social interactions within the troop are based in part on dominance, wherein some animals have priority of access to incentives. Two features of the dominance hierarchy are redirection of aggression and recruitment of agonistic aid. Threats and aggression can cascade down the hierarchy, with low-ranking animals receiving more bystander aggression than higher-ranking animals. Animals threatened or attacked by others frequently attempt to recruit others to their defense by screaming at the attacker or by rapidly alternating their gaze between friends and foe (Gouzoules and others 1998).
Neurofibromatosis can be stressful for many affected children, who may experience social isolation and loneliness or worry about possible future complications. Anxiety about the need for medical treatments, a sense of losing control, and the feeling of being different from others are often experienced.
Our further experiments and theoretical considerations address the issues of how social interactions might induce the repertoire changes we documented in our comparisons of young and old birds, and how the repertoire is used in ongoing agonistic interactions. We used several experimental approaches to these questions.
The Los Angeles area was the only site for the ECA study where significant numbers of Hispanics were interviewed and assessed, and most of these Hispanics were Mexican American. The results showed that the prevalence of major depression was similar in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites (Burnam et al. 1987). The ECA data also showed a higher lifetime prevalence for DSM-III dysthymia, panic disorder, and phobia among Mexican American women older than 40 years compared with both non-Hispanic white women older than 40 and Mexican American women younger than 40 years (Karno et al. 1987). This higher vulnerability of Mexican American women older than 40 years to phobias and depressive disorders may be related to numerous psychosocial stressors, which include low educational levels, high unemployment rates, social isolation, financial and domestic strain, stresses of immigration, acculturation issues, and low socioeconomic status. The ECA data also reported that Mexican Americans...
Sedation, weight gain, poor school performance, social anxiety, and unusual body movements, including tardive dyskinesia, a potentially irreversible drug-caused movement disorder that may be difficult to distinguish from tics. When pimozide is used, baseline and follow-up electrocardiograms are recommended.
Other things being equal, a good theory is characterized by comprehensiveness. That is, it explains a broad range of behavior. Most traditional personality theories are broad, comprehensive theories dealing with many phenomena developmental processes in childhood, adaptation or mental health, self-image, social interactions with other people, biological influences, and so forth. All else being equal, theories that explain a wider range of phenomena are better theories. In practice, however, if a theory attempts to explain too much, its concepts tend to become fuzzy and ill defined so that the theory cannot be tested adequately. While comprehensiveness is a desirable characteristic in a theory, it is less important than empirical verifiability.
Individuals with Asperger's syndrome may have problems with social situations and in developing peer relationships. They may have noticeable difficulty with nonverbal communication, impaired use of social gestures, facial expressions, and eye contact. There may be certain repetitive behaviors
Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric illnesses in both the general population and the general medical setting. The lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders has been estimated at 25 percent, and up to a third of patients in primary care meet screening criteria for such conditions. The usual onset of anxiety disorders is in early adulthood, and they occur more often in women than in men. Table 3.1 summarizes the distinguishing features of four common anxiety disorders generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and social phobia.*
Extraverted feeling people use objective data to make evaluations. They are not guided so much by then subjective opinion, but by external values and widely accepted standards of judgment. They are likely to be at ease in social situations, knowing on the spur of the moment what to say and how to say it. They are usually well liked because of their sociability, but in then quest to conform to social standards, they may appear artificial, shallow, and unreliable. Their value judgments will have an easily detectable false ring. Extraverted feeling people often become businesspeople or politicians because these professions demand and reward the making of value judgments based on objective information (Jung, 1921 1971).
In addition to its role in cultural learning, commonsense psychology has been cast as the material out of which social plans are wrought. Commonsense psychology allows us to negotiate our social interactions over time as we consider in advance the most prudent courses of action. Without it, social behavior would tend to be shortsighted, directed more at serving the actor's own current interests and achieving immediate goals. Devoid of commonsense psychology, we would be less able to consider the interests of others and would be less able to subjugate our own immediate desires to superior future benefits. We would be selfish, here-and-now-oriented beings.
Erikson agreed with Freud that school age is a period of psychosexual latency. Sexual latency is important because it allows children to divert their energies to learning the technology of their culture and the strategies of then social interactions. As children work and play to acquhe these essentials, they begin to form a picture of themselves as competent or incompetent. These self images are the origin of ego identity that feeling of I or me-ness that evolves more fully during adolescence.
The social cognitive theory of Albert Bandura continues to produce more research than any other personality theory, with the concept of self-efficacy alone generating several hundred studies a year. Self-efficacy has been applied to a wide variety of performance domains for example, health-related behaviors, academic performance, work production, avoidhig depression, escaping homelessness, and dozens of other topics. We have selected only two areas of research on self-efficacy shyness and academic achievement.
That are perceived Tooby and Cosmides argue that higher mental mechanisms are the same. There are specialized mechanisms in the mind that are designed by evolution to recognize faces, read emotions, be generous to one 's children, fear snakes, be attracted, to certain members of the opposite sex, infer mood, infer semantic meaning, acquire grammar, interpret social situations, perceive a suitable design of tool for a certain job, calculate social obligations, and so on Each of these modules is equipped with some knowledge of the world necessary for doing such tasks, just as the human kidney is designed to filter the blood.
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness in which people may have difficulty recognizing reality, thinking logically, and behaving normally in social situations. Some people with schizophrenia sleep very little when they enter an acute phase of their illness. Their sleep patterns are likely to improve between episodes. Even so, many schizophrenics rarely obtain a normal amount of deep sleep. Schizophrenia is usually treated with antipsychotic medication, and antianxiety drugs and antidepressants may be used as well. A treatment's effect on sleep varies widely by patient.
There are three main groups of phobias, which include specific (simple) phobias, which are the most common and focus on specific objects social phobia, which is an extreme anxiety in social or public situations and agoraphobia, the fear of being alone in public places from which there is no easy escape.
Differs from other more traditional programs, which focus on teaching social skills. In studies at the university of Bern, researchers emphasize thinking abilities by having patients sort cards containing geometric shapes, colors, and days of the week. Training then advances to word problems and interpreting the meaning of social interactions and other complete social skills. As many as 18 months after the program, participants showed substantial improvement on tests measuring attention and overall mental condition. However, these patients are still not capable of complex thought and social interaction.
The phrase 'mad as a hatter' is in common English usage but its origin is not so well known. It is derived from the workers who used mercury in the preparation of felt for hats. Beaver and rabbit fur, which were used to make the felt hats, were treated with mercuric nitrate, a mercury salt, in order to matt the fur together, a process called carroting. After this process, the fur would be heated and the workers inevitably became exposed to mercury vapour. The symptoms developed by the workers became well characterized from observations of groups of workers in the industry. These consisted of tremors ('hatter's shakes'), mental disturbances ('mercury madness'), a jerky walk, stammering speech, and apparent pathological shyness.
The third contribution I shall briefly describe from classical ethology is a systematic comparison of the behavior of wild and captive savannah baboons performed by Thelma Rowell (1967). After intensive observations of wild baboons in Africa, she examined the behavior of a troop of conspecific baboons maintained in captivity. Although her captive troop was housed in a large seminatural enclosure, and although the inventory of behaviors emitted by Rowell's baboons was the same in captivity and the wild, the rates at which certain behaviors occurred differed dramatically. Specifically, she found that rates of all social interactions were four times higher in captivity than in the wild, and that rates of aggression were eight times higher in captivity. These escalated rates of behavior presumably occurred because the captive animals had fewer opportunities to resolve their conflicts by moving away from each other. It is highly useful for us to understand conditions of life in nature for...
The Five Factor theory suggests fewer, broader factors, corresponding roughly to Cattell's proposed second order factors. One of these is Extroversion a low score on this factor (introversion) describes Einstein. Extroverts thrive in social interactions, but Einstein was quite the opposite. His career required him to attend academic dinners, but he reported that On occasions like this I retire to the back of my mind and there I am happy (Clark, 1971 1984, p. 388). According to Einstein's son, his father was withdrawn from the world even as a boy a pupil for whom teachers held out only poor prospects (Clark, l 971 l 984, p. 27). His life suggests that he was not anxious with people so much as he was preoccupied with other things that were more important to him. He did not care for fame or praise
Sportsmanship is not a matter of being altruistic, but of ritualizing one's intense sexual and social competitiveness in a particular, restrained manner. We are not normally playing against our kin, so kin selection cannot explain the restraint. Reciprocity looks relevant, but only in the sense that it always looks relevant to any social interactions that continue over time, include costs and benefits, and offer the possibility of cheating.
Prolonged exposure to selenium, as occurred in some industries, led to anaemia, loss of weight, dermatitis - and social isolation. Selenium was treated as a pariah element, to be avoided if possible. And then in 1975 it was shown to be something we cannot avoid, it was proved to be an essential element for humans. Yogesh Awasthi, based at Galveston in Texas, found that it was part of the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, which eliminates peroxides before they can form dangerous free radicals. Selenium was there to protect the body. In 1991, Professor Dietrich Behne at the Hahn-Meitner Institute in Berlin found selenium in another enzyme, deiodinase, which promotes hormone production in the thyroid gland. Every one of our trillions of living cells contains more than a million atoms of this element, and we have about 14 mg of selenium in our body. The recommended maximum daily intake is 450 g above this we risk selenium poisoning, the most obvious symptoms of which are...
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Confidence and Social Supremacy
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