Soap Making Techniques

Handcrafter's Companion Guide

The handcrafter's companion is a program designed to help everyone regardless of whether they have ever tried the making soap on their own and failed or whether they are newbies. This program uses step by step guide which contains information easy to read, understand and successfully apply to make your home-made soaps and spa treatments. All the techniques applied in this program have undergone through testing and results have proven that they work efficiently to guarantee you 100% positive results. When you enroll in this program, you will not strain in wondering where you will get the raw materials, how to package your product or where to supply the products as all these are already in place. This program has many benefits attached to it some of them being to ensure that your skin glows naturally and you save on the cost you could have otherwise spent on spa treatments. Continue reading...

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Cleanliness And Odorcontrol Products Soaps Body Washes and Bubble Bath

Yeast Soap Note

Soaps are water-soluble sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids, produced by saponification or basic hydrolysis of a fat or oil with a strong alkali (Fig. 1A) (1). Evidence exists that several ancient civilizations knew of soap making and Soap making remained largely a household chore until the mid-19th century. At about this time, high-yield methods were developed for making soda ash or sodium carbonate out of common table salt, thereby improving the quality and yield of soap products, lowering the cost, and facilitating a move toward the commercial manufacturing of soap. These discoveries, along with the development of power to operate factories, made soapmaking one of America's fastest-growing industries by 1850 and changed soap from a luxury item to an everyday necessity. Investigation into the use of synthetic detergents began in the early 1900s and, with the end of World War II, synthetics starting replacing soaps for some cleaning chores, such as laundry and household cleaning...

Sixth disease See roseola

Skin, care of Skin must be cleansed daily to remove the dirt and grease, bacteria, and odor. soaps are the products used for these purposes. There are differences in the types of soaps that may be used on the skin, and they differ in outward appearance, fragrance, cost, and composition. For example, superfatted soaps contain excess fatty material and leave an oil residue on the skin, which is designed to improve mildness. Transparent soaps contain glycerin and varied amounts of vegetable fats. other soaps may be produced for specific purposes, such as oatmeal soap for skin that tends to break out. The choice of a proper soap demands on the child's age, skin texture, skin problems, and personal needs. All soaps are good at cleansing, but because of age, heredity, climate, and skin texture, there are many different methods of proper skin cleansing.

Contact Dermatitis of the Vulva

Healing Vaginal Contact Dermatitis

Contact dermatitis of the vulva is an inflammatory condition that can occur at any time during a woman's life in response to primary exposure to an irritant or from an allergic response to an irritant. Contact dermatitis also can occur secondary to another condition, such as a vaginal yeast infection or urinary and or fecal incontinence. Common causes of irritative contact dermatitis of the vulva include laundry detergent, fabric softeners, body soaps, perfumes, hygienic wipes, and douches. In addition, many over-the-counter topical treatments as well as medications that have alcohol in the base, such as creams, can be chemical irritants. Typically, a patient describes vulvar vaginal burning that is at its lowest intensity upon awakening in the morning but increases as the day goes on. Symptoms can be aggravated during and after urination and by touching or wiping the area. There may be an associated discharge, which is from weeping of the vulvar tissue rather than discharge from the...

Diagnostic investigations

Raynauds Ulcers

Among the first and most effective measures to be taken are skin care as dryness of the skin should be reduced by avoiding detergent soaps and by application of bath oils. Fingertip ulcerations may heal faster with the use of hydrocolloid membranes. They should be kept clean, which may require intermittent debridement.

Other Genital Hygiene Practices

Ethnic differences in genital hygiene may be related to cultural beliefs. For example, studies in the United Kingdom found that immigrants of the Afro-Caribbean descent were more likely than the Caucasian women to wash the vulva with bubble bath or antiseptic (134). This appears consistent with the traditional belief system that rigorous bodily cleanliness is essential to health and well-being (111). However, cleansing with harsh soaps, chemicals, and antiseptics may cause vulvar contact dermatitis (135,136). For example, such practices were reported by 68 of patients with persistent vulvar symptoms (137).

Vulvar Dermatitis Irritant Contact Dermatitis

A survey of German family physicians, gynecologists, and dermatologists in 1998 revealed that 24 to 38 of patients with noninfectious genital complaints had a diagnosis of vulvar dermatitis, while the incidence was 20 to 30 in Oxford, U.K., in 2000 (2,18). There are three prototypic clinical responses to irritants acute irritant dermatitis, chronic (cumulative) irritant dermatitis, and sensory irritation. The acute type develops as a result of exposure to a potent irritant and is equivalent to a chemical burn. The cumulative, chronic type results from repeated exposures to weak irritants and can be confused with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Sensory irritation is characterized by stinging and burning caused by chemical exposure with no detectable skin changes. All three types can affect the vulva, and some chemicals, such as propylene glycol, can cause irritation as well as sensitization (18,19). The antiviral medication acyclovir, imiquimod, and podophyllotoxin can cause acute...

Cornucopia of GM Products

Genetic strains of cotton have been engineered for better fiber performance. Rapeseed plants have been genetically altered to provide improved raw materials for soaps and detergents. Flowering mustard plants are under investigation that produce cellulase, an enzymatic protein used in the production of alcohol. Interestingly, the enzyme remains inactive in the living plant (and thus is unlikely to harm it), but activates when artificially exposed to high temperatures after the plant is harvested. Tobacco plants have been engineered for lowered nitrosamine and nicotine content, the goal being to manufacture cigarettes that are less harmful and less addictive.

Carbohydrate Fatty Acid Polyesters

A solvent-free, two-stage synthesis of sucrose fatty acid polyesters avoiding the use of toxic solvents is reported by Rizzi and Taylor (1976 and 1978). In the first stage, a 3 1 mole ratio of fatty acid methyl ester and sucrose is reacted in the presence of potassium soaps forming a homogeneous melt containing predominantly the smaller fatty acid methyl esters of sucrose. In the second stage, additional fatty acid methyl esters are attached to produce saturated sucrose fatty acid polyesters in yields up to 90 based on sucrose at temperatures of 130 to 150 C. In both stages, the sucrate ion generated with alkali metal hydrides or Na-K alloys catalyze sucrose ester synthesis. Modifications of the solvent-free two-stage synthesis by Hamm (1984) include adding methyl oleate at the beginning of the reaction, and adding sucrose and sodium hydrides in increments during the synthesis reaction. As reaction temperatures and times increase, the color of the reaction mixtures becomes darker and...


Disinfection The act of freeing of pathogenic organisms, or rendering such organisms inactive, by physical or chemical means. The term is generally applied to inanimate objects. Methods of disinfection include moist heat, radiation, filtration, physical cleaning, and application of chemical substances, including quarternary ammonia compounds (both tincture and aqueous), mercurials, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, germicidal soaps, and formaldehyde gas. Three levels of disinfection are covered in the Centers for Disease Control's Guidelines for Prevention of Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) to Health-Care and Public Safety Workers (http mmwr preview mmwrhtml 00001450.htm). High-level disinfection destroys all forms of microbial life except high numbers of bacterial spores intermediate-level disinfection kills Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) vegetative bacteria, most viruses, and most fungi, but not bacterial spores...

Carboxylic Acids

Carboxylic acids are the oxidation products of aldehydes and are often synthesized by that route. Some of the higher carboxylic acids are constituents of oil, fat, and wax esters, from which they are prepared by hydrolysis. Carboxylic acids have many applications. Formic acid is used as a relatively inexpensive acid to neutralize base, in the treatment of textiles, and as a reducing agent. Acetic and propionic acids are added to foods for flavor and as preservatives. Among numerous other applications, these acids are also used to make cellulose plastics. Stearic acid acts as a dispersive agent and accelerator activator in rubber manufacture. Sodium stearate is a major ingredient of most soaps. Many preservative and antiseptic formulations contain benzoic acid. Large quantities of phthalic acid are used to make phthalate ester plasticizers (see Section 14.10). Acrylic acid and methacrylic acid (acrylic acid in which the alpha-hydrogen has been replaced with a -CH3 group see Figure...


Vulvar hygiene practices also can contribute to symptoms. Thus, clinicians must identify any chemical, mechanical, and moisture irritant(s) to which the vulva is exposed. Chemical irritant exposures include laundry detergents, fabric softeners, body soaps and washes, perfumes, depilatory creams, various hygiene wipes and douches, lubricants spermicides with sexual activity, topical prescription and nonprescription medications, and activities such as swimming in a chlorinated pool or using a hot tub. Mechanical exposures include tight-fitting clothing, such as exercise clothing, swim suits, and thong-type undergarments. Also, daily sanitary pad wear can cause mechanical irritation. The clinician should assess other forms of mechanical irritation, which include scrubbing the vulva with a wash cloth, shaving to remove pubic hair, piercing the labia or the clitoris, exercises such as bicycling, and sexual practices including the use of vibrators.

Medicinal mercury

Although the sale of over-the-counter mercury medicines was ended by law in the UK in 1955, those affected by their use before this time continued to present themselves for treatment for the following 40 years, and at one London hospital more than 120 such patients were seen in the years 19751993. In other countries mercury products took longer to disappear from commercial use. In 1981 in Argentina more than 1500 infants had to be treated for mercury poisoning, the cause being a mercury-based disinfectant that was used in the laundering of nappies (diapers). And as late as the 1990s, mercury iodide (1-2 ) was added to soap as a disinfectant, and Africans who used it found their skin turning a shade lighter. Such soaps were being widely sold in countries like Nigeria, mainly for their cosmetic effects.

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