The physiological regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis involves three main organs, the gut, the kidney, and the skeleton. The fluxes of Ca2+ and phosphate through these organs contribute to the integration of Ca2+ metabolism throughout growth and adult life.
The hormonal control of Ca2+ metabolism can be attributed mainly to the effects of systemic hormones, especially the Ca2+-regulating hormones, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1a,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (calcitriol) and calcitonin (CT). For example, the setting of plasma Ca2+ concentrations is determined mainly by the renal tubular reabsorption of Ca2+ and the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on this process. (Fig. 1).
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