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Attract Hotter Women

Attracts Hotter Women is a product which has been in the market for a period with the main target being to help men attracts hotter women in their circle. Some people think you can attract hotter women through money, status or good looks, but according to Brent, these are not determining fact. To him, one needs to have an excellent social introduction, good vibes, give a gift, and have a fantastic conversation with the lady. This product has been used by many people and has been proved to be the best when it comes to attracting hotter women in your life. The vibe is what determines whether one would attract hotter women. Good vibes need one to be himself when it comes and has good energy when it comes to approaching hotter women. The product requires no technical skills or intermediate level when using this product. In addition to that, the product is available in memberships and e-book where one gets some bonuses after purchase. Read more...

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Administrative law judge

Adolescence The period in which full sexual development occurs, between the onset of puberty and sexual maturity. It is characterized by physical growth, the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics, intense and wildly changeable emotions, and strong sexual urges (sometimes known as raging hormones ).

The Sexes Share Genes

There are three factors that could have kept male human minds similar to female human minds despite strong sexual selection. The first factor is called genetic correlation between the sexes. Males and females in every species share almost the same genes. There is a very high genetic correlation between the sexes. In humans for example, 22 pairs of our chromosomes are shared by both sexes, while only one pair, the X and Y sex chromosomes, are

Mutations Fitness and Sexual Attractiveness

Now, if the goal of sexual reproduction is to keep at least some of your offspring safe from your harmful mutations, it would be foolish to pick your sexual partners at random. Any sex partner will carry his or her own load of mutations. You should pick the partner with the lowest number of harmful mutations that will give your offspring the highest expected fitness, which means the best chance of surviving and reproducing. If your choice of sexual partner is very good indeed, your genes may hitch a ride to evolutionary stardom on the genetic quality of your mate. Many biologists are coming to the view that mate choice is a strategy for getting the best genes you can for your offspring.

Psychosexual Dysfunction

Multiple studies have examined the potential etiologic role of psychosexual factors (45-51). Women with VVS experience greater psychological distress and sexual dissatisfaction than healthy controls (46). Although some investigators propose that the syndrome has a purely psychogenic origin (52), others dispute this, pointing to evidence of pain relief by surgical excision of affected portions of the vestibule (53). Studies of the prevalence of psychological distress fail to distinguish whether such impairment is predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, or simply the result of having an unmitigated pain syndrome. Qualitative research, which examines patients' commentary as an adjunct to standardized psychological profiling, suggests that sexual dysfunction and psychological distress are the consequences of, rather than the cause of, VVS. For example, when asked about the impact of the disease, VVS sufferers reported dramatic negative effects on sexuality, intimate relationships, and...

The Senses as Gatekeepers

Dawkins and Krebs realized that courtship is especially complicated because it is sometimes exploitative and sometimes cooperative. Typically, males of most species like sex regardless of their fitness and attractiveness to the females, so they tend to treat female senses as security systems to be cracked. This is why male pigeons strut for hours in front of female pigeon eyes, and why male humans buy fake pheromones and booklets on how to seduce women from the ads of certain magazines. On the other hand, females typically want sex only with very attractive, very fit males, so tend to evolve senses that respond only to signals of high attractiveness and high fitness. When a truly fit male courts a fertile female, they have a shared interest in successful mating. They both benefit. He produces more offspring, and she produces the best offspring she could. But there can also be conflicts of interest. When an unattractive, unfit male courts a female, he would gain a net benefit from...

Courtship in the Pleistocene

Most media portrayals of prehistory follow one of three strategies eliminate sexual content entirely, 'show cave-women falling for adventure heroes who rescue them from peril, or offer a narcissistic sexual fantasy in which only the protagonist (usually male) exercises sexual choice. There seems to be no market for portrayals of our early ancestors exerting mutual choice. If we are to see all the genuine tensions and difficulties between the sexes, media producers assume we must be rewarded with a proper costume drama set in- Imperial Rome or Regency England. After all, could Alan Rickman and Sigourney Weaver keep a straight face playing an intense romantic psychodrama set in Pleistocene Zaire, while wearing mangy furs, with ochre-smeared hair, and covered in ticks

Purpose The Basic Strength of the Play

The conflict of initiative versus guilt produces the basic strength of purpose. Children now play with a purpose, competing at games in order to win or to be on top. Their genital interests have a direction, with mother or father being the object of their sexual desires. They set goals and pursue them with purpose. Play age is also the stage in which children are developing a conscience and beginning to attach labels such as right and wrong to then behavior. This youthful conscience becomes the cornerstone of morality (Erikson, 1968, p. 119).

Feminism And Phalaropes

In humans, the asymmetry is clear enough nine months of pregnancy set against five minutes of fun (I exaggerate ) If the balance of such investment determines sex roles in seduction, then it comes as no surprise that men seduce women rather than vice versa. This fact suggests that a highly polygamous human society represents a victory for men, whereas a monogamous one suggests a victory for women. But this is misleading. A polygamous society primarily represents a victory for one or a few men over all other men. Most men in highly polygamous societies are condemned to celibacy.

The Meaning Of Homosexual Promiscuity

Most prostitutes are female for the simple reason that the demand for female prostitutes is greater than for male ones If the existence of female prostitutes reveals the male sexual appetite in its nakedness, then so, too, does the phenomenon of male homosexuality. Before the advent of AIDS, practicing male homosexuals were far more promiscuous than heterosexual men Many gay bars were, and are, recognized places for picking up partners for one-night stands. The bathhouses of San Francisco catered to orgies and feats of repeated sex, assisted by stimulants, that boggled the mind when publicly discussed during the early years of the AIDS epidemic A That is not to say that homosexuals do not long for stable intimacy or even that many are morally repelled by anonymous sex. But Symons s point is that the desire for monogamous intimacy with a life companion and the desire for casual sex with strangers are not mutually incompatible instincts Indeed, they are characteristic of heterosexual...

Good Condition as the Evolutionary Norm

Were we to be transported back 100,000 years in a time machine, we should not expect ancient humans of the opposite sex to fall on their knees and worship our god-like forms. If they were living in a reasonably food-rich habitat, they would probably have been as tall and healthy as us, and in considerably better shape. A week of living in the bush would have obliterated our initial cleanness and reduced our fine clothes to tatters. Any initial sexual interest we provoked would probably evaporate entirely after our total incompetence at hunting and gathering was revealed, and our cowardice in the face of wild baboons, leopards, snakes, elephants, and lions became the subject of jokes. Our bodies would, however, have provoked greater respect in any of the more recent pre-modern agricultural civilizations, in which nutrient-poor diets and communicable disease shrank average human stature by a foot and shortened human lifespans by decades.

Lowgrade squamous intraepithelial lesion LSIL

Low-risk group individual A group or individual whose behavior does not put them at risk for exposure to the virus that causes AIDS. AIDS research to date indicates that low-risk groups include those who have not used intravenous drugs, those who have not been sexual partners of IV drug users or individuals who had or later developed AIDS, those with only one sex partner, and those who have not received blood transfusions.

Case For Improving The Health And Wellbeing Of Communities

The reasons and incentives for companies to enhance their cooperation with the community described in this section have also been summarized by Helperin (2000). The author notes that the public perception that your company is a good corporate citizen isn't just for nice guys anymore it's for everyone. The involvement of corporations in aligning or branding themselves with a social cause (i.e., a strategic, stakeholder-based approach to integrating social issues into business strategy, brand equity, and an organization's identity) affects employee recruitment and retention, employee morale, community and supplier relationships, public affairs, and the company's overall operating philosophy. A recent example of corpo-

Sexual Selection for Sympathy

Did not consign male psychopaths to reproductive oblivion. On the contrary, male psychopaths tend to seduce women, get them pregnant, and abandon them. Women prefer to avoid this, so psychopaths know they must feign agreeableness during courtship. Very few psychopaths flaunt their lack of sympathy like Hannibal Lecter, because very few of them are glamorous, urbane geniuses. Mostly, they are just ordinary creeps who beat their girlfriends, stab guys in bars for no reason, get caught, and then apply for parole four times as often as non-psychopaths because they don't think they've done anything wrong.

Beauty As A Universal

Botticelli's Venus is beautiful Michelangelo s David is handsome. But were they always thus Would a Neolithic hunter-gatherer have agreed Do Japanese or Eskimo people agree Will our great-grandchildren agree Is sexual attraction fashionable and evanescent or permanent and inflexible innate drives What is flexible and what endures I will argue in this chapter that only by understanding how sexual attraction evolved is it possible to make sense of the mixture of culture and instinct, and understand why some features flow with the fashion while others resist. The first clue comes from the study of incest

Freud And Incest Taboos

Compare two explanations of these facts. First, that people secretly desire incest but are able to overcome these desires with the help of social taboos and rules second, that people do not find their very close relatives sexually arousing, that the taboo is in the mind. The first explanation is Sigmund Freud s. He argued that our first and most intense sexual attraction is toward our opposite-sex parent. That is why, he went on to say, all human societies impose on their subjects strict and specific taboos against incest Since the taboo is not to be found in the psychology of the individual, there is a necessity for stern prohibitions. Without those taboos, he implied, we would all be dreadfully inbred and suffer from genetic abnormalities ' Freud made three unjustified assumptions. First, he equated attraction with sexual attraction. A two-year-old girl may love her father, but that does not mean she lusts after him. Second, he assumed without proof that people have incestuous...

Forget Chomsky and Kanzi

The other 20th-century controversy about language concerned its innateness. The language theorist Noam Chomsky and other language nativists fought hard against the social science dogma that all human mental abilities are products of learning. It was a heroic fight, but for our purposes all we need to know is that the nativists won. Steven Tinker's excellent book The Language Instinct reviewed why they won. Pinker listed the features of language that mark it as a proper biological adaptation Language is a complex, specialized skill, which develops in the child spontaneously, without conscious effort or formal instruction, is deployed without awareness of its underlying logic, is qualitatively the same in every individual, and is distinct from more general abilities to process information or behave intelligently. These features show that language really is a human instinct, a mental adaptation. But they are common to all of our mental adaptations. Our capacities for language, depth...

Biography of Carl Rogers

Rogers was born in Oak Park, Illinois (near Chicago), on January 8, 1902. He was the fourth of six children. His father was part-owner of a successful contracting and civil engineering business and a cold disciplinarian (Cohen, 1997). The family atmosphere valued hard work and fundamentalist Christianity, adhering to strict rules of behavior. We did not dance, play cards, attend movies, smoke, drink, or show any sexual interest (Rogers, 1967, p. 344). The family moved to a farm so that the children would not encounter the temptations of close contact with others in the city or suburbs. This gently suppressive family atmosphere (p. 352), however, took its toll. Rogers and two siblings developed ulcers.

The Folly Of Sexual Perfectionism

Whatever determines sexual attraction, the Red Queen is at work If for most of human history beautiful women and dominant men had more children than their rivals which they surely did because the dominant men chose beautiful wives, and together they lived off the toil of their rivals then in each generation women became that little bit more beautiful and men that little bit more dominant But their rivals did, too, being descendants of the same successful couples. So standards rose, too A beautiful woman needed to shine still more brightly to stand out in the new firmament And a dominant man needed to bully or scheme still more mercilessly to get his way. Our senses are easily dulled by the commonplace, however exceptional it may seem elsewhere or at other times As Charles Darwin put it, If all our women were to become as beautiful as the Venus de Medici, we should for a time be charmed but we should soon wish for variety and as soon as we had obtained variety, we should wish to see...

Shaken baby syndrome 451

All STDs occur in people younger than age 25. The incidence of STDs is rising in part because in the last few decades, young people have become sexually active younger but are marrying later. As a result, sexually active teenagers today are more likely to have multiple sex partners. Most of the time STDs cause no symptoms, especially in women. If symptoms do develop, they may be confused with other diseases that are not transmitted sexually. Even if an sTD does not cause symptoms, however, a teenager who is infected may be able to pass the disease on to a sex partner. This is why many doctors recommend periodic testing or screening for teens who have more than one sex partner.

Creative Ideologies Versus Reliable Knowledge

Which ideology do you suppose would prove more sexually attractive Will Carl's truth-seeking genes which may discover some rather ugly truths out-compete Candide's wonderful-story genes The evidence of human history suggests that our ancestors were more like Candide than Carl. Most modern humans are naturally Candides. It usually takes years of watching BBC or PBS science documentaries to become as objective as Carl.

Freuds Later Therapeutic Technique

The transference situation is vital to psychoanalysis. Transference refers to the strong sexual or aggressive feelings, positive or negative, that patients develop toward their analyst during the course of treatment. Transference feelings are unearned by the therapist and are merely transferred to her or him from patients' earlier experiences, usually with their parents. In other words, patients feel toward the analyst the same way they previously felt toward one or both parents. As long as these feelings manifest themselves as interest or love, transference does not interfere with the process of treatment but is a powerful ally to the therapeutic progress. Positive transference permits patients to more or less relive childhood experiences within the nontlireatening climate of the analytic treatment. However, negative transference in the form of hostility must be recognized by the therapist and explained to patients so that they can overcome any resistance to treatment (Freud, 1905...

Examples of Evolved Psychological Mechanisms

Sexual attraction based on physical appearance Sexual attraction based on male's ability to provide resources Sexual attraction based on youth Consider sexual attraction. The gene race is won by those who mate with fertile partners. Both sexes prefer physically attractive partners, whose good looks are signals of health. Men prefer youthful females, who have more reproductive years ahead. Many studies of attraction in a variety of societies, both in laboratory environments and by analyzing such real-world evidence as advertisements for dating introductions, confirm these predictions (Buss, 1989 Campos, Otta, & Siqueira, 2002). Details of physical attractiveness have been investigated. Bodies and faces that are more symmetrical on the left and right sides are found more attractive (by both men and women) symmetiy, because of biological mechanisms, is produced by good genetic quality (Fink & Penton-Voak, 2002 Hume & Montgomerie, 2001). Attractive features also serve as hormone markers,...

Sexual Selection in Primates

When food comes in patches large enough for several females to share, they tend to band together in small groups to find the food, and to protect each other against predators, unwanted males, and competing female groups. As long as the female band is not too large, a single male can exclude other males from sexual access to the band, which thus becomes his. This harem system of single-male polygyny is fairly common in primates, being found in hamadryas baboons, colobus monkeys, some langurs, and gorillas. The competition between males to guard the female groups creates very strong sexual selection pressures for male size, strength, aggressiveness, and large canine teeth.

Identity Versus Identity Confusion

Although identity confusion is a necessary part of our search for identity, too much confusion can lead to pathological adjustment hi the form of regression to earlier stages of development. We may postpone the responsibilities of adulthood and drift aimlessly from one job to another, from one sex partner to another, or from one ideology to another. Conversely, if we develop the proper ratio of identity to identity confusion, we will have (1) faith in some sort of ideological principle, (2) the ability to freely decide how we should behave, (3) trust in our peers and adults who give us advice regarding goals and aspirations, and (4) confidence hi our choice of an eventual occupation.

Sexual Fidelity and Romantic Love

However, passionate sexual love, being in love, rarely lasts more than a couple of years. That is not nearly long enough to keep a couple together to raise a toddler, which they may have a shared interest in doing. Much more important over the long term is the feeling of friendly, mutually respectful sexual commitment. This does not work by shutting off all sexual attraction to others, but by managing that attraction through flirtation and sexual fantasy. The human capacity for flirtation (sexually inhibited pseudo-courtship) is one of the modern world's most underrated virtues, the principal spice of adult social life throughout history Equally important is sexual fantasy the spice of adult mental life. It permits sexual infidelity in the virtual reality of the imagination, without offending one's real sexual partner as much as a real affair would. Our sexual fidelity evolved as a compromise between two selection pressures. On the one hand there was sexual selection favoring high...

Preview Overview of Freuds Theory

Psychiatric symptoms are explained in psychodynamic terms, instead of in biological terms. Biological drives, in particular sexual motivation, provide the basis of personality. Hereditary differences may influence level of sexual drive (libido) and phenomena such as homosexuality. Experience in the first five years is critical for personality formation. The oral, anal, and phallic (Oedipal) psychosexual conflicts are central. Adult personality changes very little.

Which Body Traits Evolved as Sexual Ornaments

Many of our body traits such as penises, breasts, buttocks, beards, head hair, and full lips show the hallmarks of sexual selection through mate choice. They are uniquely amplified in our species. Many of them show large sex differences. Mostly, they appear or enlarge only after puberty, and become more engorged with blood during sexual arousal. All around the world they are clearly valued as sexual signals, and are made more conspicuous through embellishment and make-up. They probably evolved partly as fitness indicators and partly as ornaments through runaway or sensory preferences. A body trait does not have to fulfill all of these criteria to qualify as a sexually selected ornament or indicator, but the more the better. Many of these criteria work for mental traits as well as body traits, so we'll be using them often throughout the rest of this book. sexual choice mechanisms remain similar. If a bodily trait is considered sexually attractive across a wide range of cultures and...

Processes That Are Not Functionally Autonomous

Functional autonomy is not an explanation for all human motivation. Allport (1961) listed eight processes that are not functionally autonomous (1) biological drives, such as eating, breathing, and sleeping (2) motives directly linked to the reduction of basic drives (3 ) reflex actions such as an eye blink (4) constitutional equipment, namely physique, intelligence, and temperament (5) habits hi the process of behig formed (6) patterns of behavior that require primary reinforcement (7) sublimations that can be tied to childhood sexual desires and (8) some neurotic or pathological symptoms.

Competence The Basic Strength of the School

Erikson (1982) saw adolescence as a period of social latency, just as he saw school age as a time of sexual latency. Although adolescents are developing sexually and cognitively, hi most Western societies they are allowed to postpone lasting com-mitment to an occupation, a sex partner, or an adaptive philosophy of life. They are permitted to experiment in a variety of ways and to try out new roles and beliefs while seeking to establish a sense of ego identity. Adolescence, then, is an adaptive phase of personality development, a period of trial and error.

The Rise and Fall of Sexual

In reading some of these century-old works, it is impressive how sophisticated and earnest their use of sexual selection theory was and how favorably they compare to some current theories of art's evolution. Nevertheless, they repeat Freud's cardinal error, as Clay does here, of confusing sexual functions with sexual motivations. Art does not have to be about sex to serve the purposes of attracting a mate it can be about anything at all, or about nothing, as in the geometric art of Islam, or Donald Judd's stainless-steel minimalist sculpture. As we saw with the bower-birds, a sexually selected instinct for making ornamentation need not have any motivational or emotional connection with a sexually selected desire to copulate. The displayer does not need to keep track of the fact that beautiful displays often lead to successful reproduction. Evolution keeps track for us.

Mind for Courtship

This book proposes that our minds evolved not just as survival machines, but as courtship machines. Every one of our ancestors managed not just to live for a while, but to convince at least one sexual partner to have enough sex to produce offspring. Those proto-humans that did not attract sexual interest did not become our ancestors, no matter how good they were at surviving. Darwin realized this, and argued that evolution is driven not just by natural selection for survival, but by an equally important process that he called sexual selection through mate choice. Following his insight, I shall argue that the most distinctive aspects of our minds evolved largely through the sexual choices our ancestors made. only by becoming more of a sexual revolution by giving more credit to sexual choice as a driving force in the mind's evolution. Evolutionary psychology must become less Puritan and more Dionysian. Where others thought about the survival problems our ancestors faced during the day,...

Onality Dynamics

You may ask, Why is that person running What is the motivation Theorists discuss many motives. Some theorists assume that the fundamental motivations or goals of all people are similar. Sigmund Freud suggested that sexual motivation underlies personality Carl Rogers proposed a tendency to move toward higher levels of development. Other theorists suggest that motives or goals vaiy from one person to another. For example, Hemy Murray (1938) listed dozens of motives that are of vaiying importance to different people, including achievement motivation, power motivation, nurturance, and so on.


Sublimation is the most desirable and healthy way of dealing with unacceptable impulses. It occurs when the individual finds a socially acceptable aim and object for the expression of an unacceptable impulse. This allows indirect discharge of the impulse, so that its pressure is reduced. Sublimation occurs when artists transform primitive urges into works of art. Aggressive impulses may be sublimated into athletic competitiveness. A Freudian would even interpret Mother Teresa's acts of love, bathing and feeding the poorest of the poor (Gonzalez-Balado & Playfoot, 1985), as sublimation of sexual motivation. Within Freudian theory, this is the most laudatory interpretation that can be made about anyone.

Second Chance

An increased acceptance of the role of female choice may have also been due to social trends. The sexual revolution of the 1960s and the rise of feminism led to more women studying and contributing to biology, and to a new appreciation of female choice in human social, sexual, and political life. Married male biologists could no longer take for granted the obedient support of their wives. They faced a new world in which women made choices more consciously and took more control of their lives. Although evolutionary theory was still extremely male-dominated, individual males were feeling more pressure from female choice. Female biologists doing field-work also drew more attention to female choice among the animals they studied. This was especially important in primatology, as women such as Jane Goodall, Dian Fossey, Sarah Hrdy, Jeanne Altmann, Alison Jolly, and Barbara Smuts explored female social and sexual strategies. Dismissing the idea that female choice could influence the...

Dream Analysis

Scious and that their latent meaning is expressed in symbolic form. However, he objected to Freud's notion that nearly all dreams are wish fulfillments and that most dream symbols represent sexual urges. Jung (1964) believed that people used symbols to represent a variety of concepts not merely sexual ones to try to comprehend the innumerable things beyond the range of human understanding (p. 21). Dreams are our unconscious and spontaneous attempt to know the unknowable, to comprehend a reality that can only be expressed symbolically.


Gay A term denoting sexual attraction to people of the same sex. As a noun, a woman or man who is sexually attracted to others of the same sex and defines herself or himself, or is defined by others, in terms of sexual orientation. Generally refers to male homosexuals, but may also include homosexual women. See lesbian.


For Allport, traits are highly individualized, or unique. He explicitly disagreed with theorists who asserted that one or a few motives, or instincts, are determinative for all people (as, for example, Freud attributed personality to sexual motivation). Rather, people are motivated by diverse traits reflecting the differences in their learning.

Sexual Orientation

Women, estimates range from 1 to 5 , are attracted exclusively to members of their own sex. 1 This statement raises some fascinating questions. First, just how is sexual attraction or orientation determined Is it biological Are there genes that direct males to be attracted to females and vice versa Second, if sexual orientation is biologically programmed, how are we to understand the etiology of cases in which men choose men as lovers or women choose women Could such people reflect genetic variation in genes for sexual orientation If such genes and such variation do exist, what are those genes and what do they do These questions will be our focus for the remainder of this chapter.

Parental Behavior

Competition among males for reproductive opportunities makes social dominance a male issue and leads to much higher rates of aggression among males than among females, particularly among young men who are at an age when competition with other males serves the evolutionary purpose of selecting the fittest and enforcing upon women their exclusive sexual access to them (D. Jones, 1999 Mesquida & Wiener, 1996). In some studies, testosterone levels are higher, on average, in boys and men who are more aggressive (Chance, Brown, Dabbs, & Casey, 2000) and who are diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder and alcoholism (Stalenheim, Eriksson, von Knorring, & Wide, 1998). The evolutionary selection for aggression in males does not mean, however, that male aggression today is necessarily tied to competition over females. A review suggests that, more often, men are concerned with status and respect from other men (Fischer & Mosquera, 2001). Whether this means that the theorized sexual...

Form and Content

Nevertheless, there are some hints of sexual ornamentation in the human voice's pitch and timbre, the size of our vocabularies, the complexity of our grammar, and the narrative conventions of storytelling. For example, adult human males have deeper voices than children or women, which may reflect female choice favoring a low-pitched voice as an indicator of large male body size. (A deep voice does not have to correlate perfectly with large body size in order to work as an indicator.) Female frogs prefer lower-pitched male frog calls, and women generally find the deep, resonant voice of Isaac Hayes more sexually attractive than those of the Vienna Boys' Choir. Even in the television show South Park, the sexual charisma of Hayes's voice shows through in his school chef character, who, despite his low job status, credibly says lines indicative of sexual desirability, like Damn, woman, I just gave you sweet lovin' five minutes ago On the other hand, low pitch could also have evolved...

Poetic Handicaps

Sexual interest in someone who is not already interested, courtship displays that make explicit reference to sex may be particularly unappealing.) Because humans are fascinated by many things, courtship displays can successfully appeal to human interests by talking about almost anything under the sun. This Darwinian account of poetry does not drain poetry of its meaning on the contrary, it shows why its meaning is free to range over the entirety of human experience.

The Wit To

These scientific traditions are ingenious ways of harnessing human courtship effort to produce cumulative progress towards world-models that are abstract, communicable, and true. It is surprising that science works so well, given the absence of referential content in the sexual signals of all other species, and our Scheherazade-style genius for fictional entertainment. Science is not asexual or passionless. But neither is it a result of some crudely sublimated sex drive. Rather, it is one of our most sophisticated arenas for human courtship, which is the most complex and conscious form of mating that has ever evolved on our planet.


Anxiety signals that the ego may fail in its task of adapting to reality and maintaining an integrated personality. Neurotic anxiety signals that id impulses may break through (overcome repression) and be expressed. A person who does not accept sexual desires would be expected to suffer from neurotic anxiety. Moral anxiety indicates fear that one's own superego will respond with guilt. A person who rationally believes it is acceptable to take the afternoon off, putting off work until the next day, may nonetheless suffer from moral anxiety if the superego demands more work. Reality anxiety indicates that the external world threatens real danger. Knowing that automobile accidents are more likely when the driver is tired may produce reality anxiety when someone drives too many hours.

Orgia OKeeffe

The major psychoanalytic concept for understanding artists is the concept of sublimation. Sublimation occurs when libidinal drives are transformed into socially desirable outlets, including painting. In art, unfulfilled sexual motivation may be expressed symbolically. To many observers, O'Keeffe's paintings of flowers, with their emphasis on concave spaces and openings, look like female genitals, and the hills of her New Mexico landscapes also resemble the female body. One flower painting was similar enough to human anatomy that a father used it to illustrate a sex education lesson for his young daughter. O'Keeffe's paintings of jack-in-the-pulpit flowers show exaggerated phalliclike jacks. In addition, her first individual show contained a single sculpture, an object much resembling a phallus. Her flower paintings were immense by comparison with the size of actual flowers, in order to make the viewer really notice flowers that would otherwise be passed by, she said, but could this be...

Tual Behavior

Freud described libido as driving sexual behavior, but where does this libido come from, and why (other than childhood experience) is it focused more on some objects than others Evolutionary theory asserts that the goal is to pass on one's genes, thus sexual attraction that can culminate in reproduction would have a natural advantage. Yet it is not the mind's knowledge, but evolved psychological mechanisms, that operate unconsciously, that nature uses for this purpose.

Incestuous Symbiosis

Incestuous symbiosis originates in infancy as a natural attachment to the mothering one. The attachment is more crucial and fundamental than any sexual interest that may develop dining the Oedipal period. Fromm agreed more with Harry Stack Sullivan (see Chapter 8) than with Freud hi suggesting that attachment to the mother rests on the need for security and not for sex. Sexual strivings are not the cause of the fixation to mother, but the result (Fromm, 1964, p. 99).


Unconscious processes often enter into consciousness but only after being disguised or distorted enough to elude censorship. Freud (1917 1963) used the analogy of a guardian or censor blocking the passage between the unconscious and preconscious and preventing undesirable anxiety-producing memories from entering awareness. To enter the conscious level of the mind, these unconscious images first must be sufficiently disguised to slip past the primary censor, and then they must elude a final censor that watches the passageway between the preconscious and the conscious. By the time these memories enter our conscious mind, we no longer recognize them for what they are instead, we see them as relatively pleasant, non-threatening experiences. In most cases, these images have strong sexual or aggressive motifs, because childhood sexual and aggressive behaviors are frequently punished or suppressed. Punishment and suppression often create feelings of anxiety, and the anxiety in turn...


The aim of the sexual drive is pleasure, but this pleasure is not limited to genital satisfaction. Freud believed that the entire body is invested with libido. Besides the genitals, the mouth and anus are especially capable of producing sexual pleasure and are called erogenous zones. The ultimate aim of the sexual drive (reduction of sexual tension) cannot be changed, but the path by which the aim is reached can be varied. It can take either an active or a passive form, or it can be temporarily or permanently inhibited (Freud, 1915 1957a). Because the path is flexible and because sexual pleasure stems from organs other than the genitals, much behavior originally motivated by Eros is difficult to recognize as sexual behavior. To Freud, however, all pleasurable activity is traceable to the sexual drive. A second manifestation of Eros is love, which develops when people invest their libido on an object or person other than themselves. Children's first sexual interest is the person who...


When an internal impulse provokes too much anxiety, the ego may reduce that anxiety by attributing the unwanted impulse to an external object, usually another person. This is the defense mechanism of projection, which can be defined as seeing in others unacceptable feelings or tendencies that actually reside in ones own unconscious (Freud, 1915 1957b). For example, a man may consistently interpret the actions of older women as attempted seductions. Consciously, the thought of sexual intercourse with older women may be intensely repugnant to him, but buried in his unconscious is a strong erotic attraction to these women. In this example, the young man deludes himself into believing that he has no sexual feelings for older women. Although this projection erases most of his anxiety and guilt, it permits him to maintain a sexual interest in women who remind him of his mother.

Herpes genital 253

Herpes simplex virus type II causes 85 percent of genital herpes cases. Type I, which causes most herpes infections above the waist, is responsible for the other 15 percent. The infection is spread by contact with the genital secretions of a person with an active lesion. It is possible, however, for a person with no active lesion to shed virus and infect a sex partner.

Herpes Gestationis

Herpes gestationis (HG) is a rare pruriginous, blister-forming disorder that occurs, in most cases, in the second or third trimester of pregnancy (37). It can also occur in association with a cystic mole or a chorionic carcinoma (37). Both in pregnancy and in the presence of trophoblastic tumors, the immune system is confronted with foreign antigens of the sex partner, which may potentially play an important role in the pathogenesis of HG. In addition to a certain constellation of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) antigens in the mother and father, hormonal effects also have an important pathogenetic influence. For example, administering oral contraceptives with a high estrogen level to treat trophoblastic tumors cam exacerbate HG. Furthermore, the ovulation phase of the cycle may cause an exacerbation of HG, possibly because of estrogen's immunostimulating effects at certain concentrations (37). In most patients, however, an exacerbation of HG occurs more frequently in the premenstrual...

Pleistocene Mating

If we could look at the Earth through an extremely powerful telescope a million light-years away, we could see how our ancestors actually formed sexual relationships a million years ago. Until NASA approves that mission, we have to combine evidence from several less direct sources the sexual behavior of other primates, the sexual behavior of modern humans who live as hunter-gatherers, the evidence for sexual selection in the human body and human behavior, and psychological findings on sexual behavior, sexual attraction, sexual jealousy, and sexual conflict. A number of good evolutionary psychology books already review this evidence, including David Buss's The Evolution of Desire. A consensus is emerging about the key aspects of ancestral life, though there is still vigorous debate about many details.

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