Improving Your Sex Life

Revive Her Drive

Be ready to go through a complete transformation in the way that you think and feel about having sex with your wife or girlfriend! Revive Her Drive is like a Cheat Sheet to woo your woman the way she secretly wants you to, and simply cant express. The solution is based on female-friendly, easy-to-learn strategies that she will love! How nice will that moment be when shes lying in your arms, happy and spent, and she actually Thanks You for helping her to rediscover her sensual self? Shell be grateful that you, Her Man, now that you have the vision and skill to guide her into new, electrifying experiences even if she fights you or resists you now. Women Are sensual creatures. We women want pleasure, intimacy, connection, sensation as much as you do! Ill prove this to you. Once you know how to captivate her, you can turn her into a pleasure-seeking device within 24 hours. Getting that kind of responsiveness is the feedback you need to feel confident this program is working. Discover how Robert rekindled his relationship with Lauren using the tools within Revive Her Drive by watching this short presentation that lays out the whole strategy youll use to transform your intimate life into one of passion, surrender and fantasies-come-true. Read more...

Revive Her Drive Summary


4.8 stars out of 56 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Tim and Susan Bratton
Official Website:
Price: $197.00

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My Revive Her Drive Review

Highly Recommended

The author has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

This ebook does what it says, and you can read all the claims at his official website. I highly recommend getting this book.

Safe Sex Tips For Sperm

If it pays a parasite to go for broke when a rival appears, then it pays a host to prevent cross-infection with two strains of parasite. And nowhere is the risk of cross-infection greater than during sex. A sperm fusing with an egg risks bringing its cargo of bacteria and viruses as well their arrival would awaken the egg s own parasites and cause a battle for possession that would leave the egg sick or dead To avoid this, therefore, the sperm tries to avoid bringing into the egg material that might harbor bacteria or viruses. It passes just the nucleus into the egg Safe sex indeed

The Clitoris and the Orgasm

The human clitoris shows no apparent signs of having evolved directly through male mate choice. It is not especially large, brightly colored, specially shaped, or selectively displayed during courtship. By contrast, in spider monkeys the clitoris is almost as large as the penis, protruding nearly an inch. In hyenas, the female clitoris is larger than the male penis, and seems to play a role in female competition. The human clitoris could easily have evolved to be much more conspicuous if males had preferred sexual partners with larger, brighter clitorises. Its inconspicuous design combined with its exquisite sensitivity suggests that the clitoris is important not as an object of male mate choice, but as a mechanism of female choice. It helps to select for males who provide pleasurable foreplay, copulation, and orgasms, and such discriminative power is just what we should expect from an organ of female choice. Yet this has led to all sorts of confusion among evolutionists. Some male...

Love Sex and Self Actualization

Because self-actualizers are capable of a deeper level of love, Maslow (1970) believed that sex between two B-lovers often becomes a kind of mystical experience. Although they are lusty people, fully enjoying sex, food and other sensuous pleasures, self-actualizers are not dominated by sex. They can more easily tolerate the absence of sex (as well as other basic needs), because they have no deficiency need for it. Sexual activity between B-lovers is not always a heightened emotional experience sometimes it is taken quite lightly in the spirit of playfulness and humor. But this approach is to be expected because playfulness and humor are B-values, and like the other B-values, they are an important part of a self-actualizer's life.

Safe sex and good sex See bad sex

Safer sex A term sometimes preferred to safe sex, because it does not imply that sexual contact can be made 100 percent safe. The term recognizes the likelihood of human error, the inexactness of human knowledge, and the fact that people will engage in activities that may not be 100 percent safe. Latex, polyurethane, or other plastic barriers for oral and anal-oral sex between lesbians and gay men are often recommended by safer sex educators. These educators note that lesbians are definitely at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases because exchange of bodily fluids and possibly blood is often involved in lesbian sex. Viruses such as herpes simplex and human papillomavirus (which causes genital warts) can be transmitted by oral-genital contact, which is considered a medium to low risk on the spectrum of HIV transmission. Several different products can be used by lesbians as barriers for oral sex. Unlubricated latex condoms can be cut into flat barriers by cutting off the...

Safe sex and bad sex

If neither partner has clinical or laboratory evidence of HIV, each may safely engage in intimate sexual activities with the other, without using condoms, provided that neither has outside sexual partners or other risk factors for HIV. If both or one of the partners has evidence of infection with HIV, effective birth control measures should be employed. Any heterosexual person having casual sexual contacts should always use condoms during vaginal or anal sex. Homosexual men engaging in casual sexual activity should also use condoms for all sexual activities in which ejaculation might lead to semen's contacting the skin or mucosa of the partner. It is also important to realize that a single negative laboratory test result for HIV may provide a false sense of security and that the time required for HIV to progress to possible opportunistic infections may be years.

What Makes Sexual Selection So Special

In this book I shall use the terms natural selection and sexual selection as Darwin did natural selection arising through competition for survival, and sexual selection arising through competition for reproduction. I am perfectly aware that this is not the way professional biologists currently use these terms. But I think it is more important, especially for non-biologist readers, to appreciate that selection for survival and selection for attracting sexual partners are distinct processes that tend to produce quite different kinds of biological traits. Terms Sexual selection is quite different, because animals often have very strong interests in acting as efficient agents of sexual selection. The genetic quality of an animal's sexual partner determines, on average, half the genetic quality of their offspring. (Most animals inherit half their genes from mother and half from father.) As we shall see, one of the main reasons why mate choice evolves is to help animals choose sexual...

Aerosol pentamidine See pentamidine

Cultural norms in Africa have made it difficult to openly discuss the problem. Sex is generally not discussed openly in Africa, and leaders are afraid to talk about the issue. Early on in the epidemic, some leaders denied that AIDS existed in their country. In Malawi, where 850,000 people are infected with HIV, it was illegal to publicly discuss AIDS until 1994. In Kenya, a former president said it is improper to discuss usage of condoms, and he asked all Kenyans to stop having sex for two years to stem the tide of the disease. In Swaziland, where 33 percent of the adult population is infected, King Mswati III has ordered young women to abstain from sex until at least 19 years of age and not to wear trousers so they do not encourage attention from young men. They are to wear a don't touch tassle that alerts boys to their vow of chastity. The king has also imposed on young women a five-year ban from having sex. However, the king violated his own order, choosing a 17-year-old high

American Society for Stereotactic and Functional

The attacks, which usually strike healthy, middle-aged patients, may be set off by many things, including sudden temperature changes, stress, overeating, or sexual intercourse. While several toxic substances have been associated with transient global amnesia, it is believed that the attacks are usually caused by a transient cerebral ischemia to regions of the brain involved in memory.

The Grand Gateway of

Darwin didn't know about genes or DNA. But he understood that in a sexually reproducing species, the only way to pass a trait from one generation to the next was, by definition, through sexual reproduction. If an animal doesn't have sex, its heritable traits will die with it, and it will leave no hereditary trace in the next generation. As far as evolution is concerned, the animal may as well have died in infancy. Survival without reproduction means evolutionary oblivion. On the other hand, reproduction followed by death can still translate into evolutionary success. Sexual inheritance puts sexual reproduction at the heart of evolution. The concept of sexual selection is simply a way of describing how differences in reproductive success lead to evolutionary change.

The foundations of dutybased thinking

Besides, there is in men a certain natural solicitude to know their offspring. This is necessary for this reason the child requires the father's direction for a long time. So, whenever there are obstacles to the ascertaining of offspring they are opposed to the natural instinct of the human species. But, if a husband could put away his wife, or a wife her husband, and have sexual relations with another person, certitude as to offspring would be precluded, for the wife would be united first with one man and later with another. So, it is contrary to the natural instinct of the human species for a wife to be separated from her husband. And thus, the union of male and female in the human species must be not only lasting, but also unbroken. (Aquinas, c. 1264 p. 147) On this basis, we should be able to derive moral laws from observable facts of nature. We would need to find laws which are as unquestionable as the law of gravity, and then draw up rules which are the equivalent of telling...

Child Welfare League of America CWLA A

The rate of reported cases of chlamydia more than doubled. sexually active teens have high rates of chlamydia infections. A person becomes infected during sexual intercourse with a partner infected with C. trachomatis. A baby can contract the disease from an infected mother during birth the disease can be transmitted as the baby passes through the infected birth canal, not during the previous nine months of the pregnancy.

The Art Of Being Slightly Different

Williams was especially intrigued by creatures such as aphids and monogonont rotifers, which have sex only once every few generations. Aphids multiply during the summer on a rosebush, and monogonont rotifers multiply in a street puddle. But when the summer comes to an end, the last generation of aphids or of monogonont rotifers is entirely sexual It produces males and females that seek each other out, mate, and produce tough little young that spend the winter or the drought as hardened cysts awaiting the return of better conditions. To Williams this looked like the operation of his lottery. While conditions were favorable and predictable, it paid to reproduce as fast as possible asexually. When the little world came to an end and the next generation of aphid or rotifer faced the uncertainty of finding a new home or waited for the old one to reappear, then it paid to produce a variety of different young in the hope that one would prove ideal.

The Similarity Between Sex And Vaccination

At this point the alert know-it-alls among you will be seething with impatience at my neglect of the immune system. The normal way to fight a disease, you may point out, is not to have sex but to produce antibodies, by vaccination or whatever. The immune system is a fairly recent invention in geological terms. It started in the reptiles perhaps 300 million years ago. Frogs, fish, insects, lobsters, snails, and water fleas do not have immune systems. Even so, there is now an ingenious theory that marries the immune system with sex in an overarching Red Queen hypothesis. Hans Bremermann of the University of California at Berkeley is its author, and he makes a fascinating case for the interdependence of the two The immune system, he points out, would not work without sex.

Mutations Fitness and Sexual Attractiveness

Now, if the goal of sexual reproduction is to keep at least some of your offspring safe from your harmful mutations, it would be foolish to pick your sexual partners at random. Any sex partner will carry his or her own load of mutations. You should pick the partner with the lowest number of harmful mutations that will give your offspring the highest expected fitness, which means the best chance of surviving and reproducing. If your choice of sexual partner is very good indeed, your genes may hitch a ride to evolutionary stardom on the genetic quality of your mate. Many biologists are coming to the view that mate choice is a strategy for getting the best genes you can for your offspring.

Psychosocial And Sexual Aspects

Similarly, the relationship between intercourse and vulvodynia is complex. Dyspareunia is one of the most common manifestations of pain, and nearly 75 of affected women experience painful intercourse (2,39). It has been demonstrated that women with vulvodynia are more likely to have had intercourse for the first time at age 18 or younger, to have had only one sexual partner, and to have a history of sexual problems (40). Women with vulvodynia are also more likely to have lost interest in sexual activity (40) and to rate intercourse as less important in their lives (41). To date, no relationship has been found between sexual victimization and vulvodynia (30,38,42).

Conditional eligibility

Condoms seldom break when used correctly, but pulling out before ejaculating will add further protection. (Condoms can fail no condom or contraceptive works 100 percent of the time. The only absolutely sure way to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases is not to have sex.) polyurethane condoms have a slightly higher breakage rate than latex condoms but have proved more comfortable in consumer testing. They are both equally effective at preventing STDs when used properly. Condoms should be used for vaginal, anal, or oral sex, and a new condom should be used for each sex act. Both men and women should learn how to use a condom properly. All Here are the basic instructions for using a condom open the package carefully so that the condom is not torn or a hole made with a fingernail. Testing the elasticity will only weaken it. Do not unroll the rubber until putting it on. A drop of water-based lubricant inside the tip of the rubber makes the penis feel better during sex. The...

Conflict of interest 119

Avoid further sexual contact with your partner until both of you wash your sex organs and any other areas that have contact with body fluids. If a condom is sticky or brittle or looks damaged, do not use it. Store condoms in a cool, dry place. Do not keep condoms in a wallet, pock-etbook, or glove compartment of a car for a long time. Keep condoms out of direct sunlight heat can make them weak. Condom packages have a date on the outside, the inner wrapping, or the condom itself. This is the date of manufacture, not an expiration date. If condoms are kept in a cool, dry place, they will last about four years, but unless you know exactly how and where a condom has been stored, do not use it more than two years after the date stamped on it.

The Riddle Of The Rotifer

Having explained why sex exists, I must now return to the case of the bdelloid rotifers, the tiny freshwater creatures that never have sex at all a fact that John Maynard Smith called a scandal. For the Red Queen theory to be right, the bdelloids must in some manner be immune from disease they must have an alternative antiparasite mechanism to sex That way they could be exceptions that prove the rule rather than embarrass it The first is Matthew Meselson s He thinks that genetic insertions jumping genes that insert copies of themselves into parts of the genome where they do not belong are for some reason not a problem for rotifers. They do not need sex to purge them from their genes. It s a Kondrashov-like explanation, though with a touch of Hamilton (Meselson calls insertions a form of venereal genetic infection ) 68 The second is a more conventional Hamilton-ian idea Richard Ladle of Oxford University noticed that there are groups of animals capable of drying out altogether without...

An Infinite Variety of Waste

As with Veblen's conspicuous consumption principle, the form of the cost does not matter much. What matters is the prodigious waste. The waste is what keeps the fitness indicators honest. The wastefulness of courtship is what makes it romantic. The wasteful dancing, the wasteful gift-giving, the wasteful conversation, the wasteful laughter, the wasteful foreplay, the wasteful adventures. From the viewpoint of survival of the fittest, the waste looks mad and pointless and maladaptive. Human courtship even looks wasteful from the viewpoint of sexual selection for non-genetic benefits, because, as we shall see, the acts of love considered most romantic are often those that cost the giver the most, but that bring the smallest material benefits to the receiver. However, from the viewpoint of fitness indicator theory, this waste is the most efficient and reliable way to discover someone's fitness. Where you see conspicuous waste in nature, sexual choice has often been at work.

Diaminodiphenylsulfone See dapsone

Diaphragm A contraceptive device in the form of a round or dome-shaped latex object resembling a cap or a cup, which is inserted in the vagina to cover the cervix. It is most effective when used with spermicide. It can also be used as part of an STD risk-reduction strategy. For example, safer sex guidelines for HIV-positive women who have sex with men often suggest that if a man won't use condoms that a diaphragm or other barrier method be used, with spermicidal creams or foams, to prevent pregnancy and to help decrease the risk of infection.

Disease progression 147

Stories appeared in Science and the New York Times indicating that phrases such as men having sex with men, commercial sex workers, prostitutes, transgender, and needle exchange were being looked for in e-mails and reports to the CDC and NIH. Staff and program workers report having been warned of using such sensitive language by superiors. It is evidence of discrimination that employees are being told to disguise their reports and work to avoid falling under a congressional review. Staff from congressional offices have stopped by some researchers' offices looking to find proof of federal dollars being spent on what the investigators termed inappropriate, unfavorable, and unsafe lifestyles with tax dollars. Future research may reflect the clampdown on such studies if current social policies are encouraged or not objected to by other congressional staff or the public.

Doseresponse relationship

Down low (dl) Slang term used to refer to a man who is engaged in MSM relationships in a clandestine or quiet way. used particularly in urban communities to refer to men who are married, are also having sex with other men, but do not acknowledge the activity or its potential consequences, to family and friends.

Supportive and Multimodal Approaches

The comprehensive treatment of VVS should include some form of supportive therapy. VVS disrupts intimate relationships and causes great distress. Because of the intimate nature of their pain, many women delay seeking treatment those who do are often frustrated and demoralized after appointments with multiple clinicians or after trying numerous interventions without success (15). Because of the significant impact of VVS on intimate relationships and psychological well-being, optimal treatment must address both the psychosexual and physical aspects of the disease. Clinicians must be willing to probe emotional and sexual concerns with sensitivity and be able to make referrals to mental health professionals if necessary (46,49). Supportive psychosocial approaches (such as cognitive-behavioral sex therapy) can serve as primary or adjunctive therapy. Some clinicians advocate integrated treatment programs consisting of physical therapy (including biofeedback), pain management, and...

Durable power of attorney See power of

Duty to warn Within the context of AIDS, there exists both the patient's duty to warn and the practitioner's duty to warn. The standard says that it is the responsibility of a person who is HIV positive or has AIDS to notify one's sexual partner, or partners, that she is infected with a sexually transmitted disease this notification must occur before engaging in activities by which a disease might be transmitted. Similarly, this standard requires warnings prior to sharing needles. Some argue that this duty is increased if a pregnancy could result from the unprotected sexual encounter because of the risk of transmission of HIV to the fetus. An individual's duty to warn is probably paramount to the therapist's duty to protect, except in those cases where

The Space of All Possible Stimulation

Imagine a species that stumbles into an evolutionary utopia in which sexual selection is no longer driven by male competition for dominance and display but by mutual choice for mutual pleasure. The males who deliver the greatest rapture to females are sexually favored, passing on the pleasure-giving abilities to both sons and daughters. Equally, those females who deliver the greatest bliss and contentment to males are favored, passing on their pleasure-giving abilities to their offspring. Each generation provides more pleasure than the last, and receives more. The species spirals upward into rapture, leaving behind all the genes for unpleasantness, unkind-ness, inattentiveness, and poor foreplay. If only. The trouble with mutual choice for mutual pleasure is that all the genes for unpleasantness come aboard as stowaways. Mutual choice implies that individuals sort themselves out in a mating market. As a thought experiment, imagine for the moment that mating is perfectly monogamous....

Clinical Features Of

In about one-quarter to one-third of patients, TGA appears to be triggered by precipitating events. Most frequent are physical exertion, sexual intercourse, sudden exposure to cold or heat (particularly immersion in cold water), somewhat less frequent are long drives in a motor vehicle and emotional stress associated with quarrel (Caplan, 1990 Miller et al., 1987 Hodges & Warlow, 1990b Inzitari et al., 1997). The frequency of TGA elicited by sexual intercourse may be higher than indicated by the patients' and their relatives' reports as extraconjugal sex seems to carry a higher risk than conjugal intercourse (Inzitari et al., 1997) possibly due to higher physical effort. TGA can also be triggered by vertebral angiography (Woolfenden et al., 1998) and by painful medical procedures like gastroscopy or dentistry (Inzitari et al., 1997 Tanabe et al. 1999). TGA following head trauma will be considered in the next section.

Madeleine Smith 18381912

Madeleine Smith was the 19-year-old daughter of a wealthy Glasgow architect. She had fallen head over heels in love with 26-year-old Emile L'Angelier, a shipping clerk from Jersey, whom she had met by chance one day while out walking. Although they had had a torrid sexual relationship she knew he was totally unacceptable as a husband, and a new man had come

Were Fathers Important

Interviews with contemporary hunter-gatherer women by anthropologists such as Marjorie Shostak reveal that these women view many men as more trouble than they're worth. If the men are hanging around, they usually eat more food than they provide, and demand more care than they give one's children. If they have very high fitness, then their good genes, good sex, and good conversation might compensate for their messiness and lethargy. But if they are only average, their potential for sexual jealousy and violent irritability may render them a net cost rather than a benefit.

Highrisk behavior 221

High risk In the context of AIDS, a term applied to patterns of behavior that place individuals at risk of contracting the HIV virus any behavior that puts the bloodstream in contact with any of the bodily fluids of another person that can transmit the AIDS virus. High-risk behavior includes sharing needles when injecting intravenous drugs and having unprotected vaginal, anal, or oral sex or sex with an iv drug user. The mode of transmission may influence the likelihood that an exposed individual will become infected. There appears to be a continuum of risk for HIV AIDS. The risk of HIV infection has been categorized as no risk, low risk, medium risk, and high risk.

Combining Courtship and Parenting

Before contraception, our female ancestors would have produced their first child by around age 20, within a few years of reaching sexual maturity. (Female puberty probably happened several years later in prehistory than it does now, because the modern fat-rich diet artificially hastens puberty and increases teenage fertility.) Before legally imposed monogamous marriage, individuals probably passed through several sexual relationships during their reproductive years. These two patterns imply that most courtship during most of human evolution occurred between adults who already had children by previous relationships. Without nannies, nurseries, or schools, those children would have been hanging around their mothers almost all the time. (In the wild, no primate female ever grants parental custody Moreover, mothers probably cared about the views of their children in choosing new sexual partners, so female choice must have intertwined with children's choice. Kids who hated their mother's...

Highrisk grouppopulation

Over the first decade of AIDS in the industrial world, it was believed that the virus moved across groups, gaining access to new groups where they overlap. HIV first appeared in the developed world in the male homosexual population and at one point was thought to be a disease exclusively of homosexuals. Bisexual men and male homosexual drug users, who could be categorized in more than one group, formed a ready bridge from this affected group to others. Female partners of bisexual men were exposed to HIV through these sexual relationships. Because of the common practice among intravenous drug users of sharing needles and syringes, infected homosexual users passed HIV on to nonhomosexual men and women with whom they shared them. A large portion of female prostitutes also inject drugs they introduced HIV among men who neither injected drugs nor were homosexuals, and through them to their wives and other sex partners. Before 1985 anyone from a group at risk for HIV infection could donate...

Where Sexual Choice Did Its Work

Suppose that sexual choice among our hominid ancestors worked as follows. Male and female hominids both tried to attract the best sexual partner they could. If they liked that partner's company, they hung out a lot together, had a lot of sex, and produced a child. If they still liked each other after the baby arrived, they stayed together and produced another one. If they did not, they separated and looked for the best new partner they could find. Most hominids spent most of their lives in some kind of sexual relationship with somebody Most sexual relationships longer than a few months produced at least one child.

HIV encephalopathy 225

HIV counseling Information provided to an individual before and after HIV testing regarding the implications and impact of testing, HIV infection care, and prevention of HIV transmission. Pretest counseling may include questions and discussion about past sexual activity, drug use, and medical history. Individuals may also be asked if they think their test will be positive or how they will react if their test is positive. This enables counselors to identify people who need additional counseling or

Sexual Selection When Everyone Ends a Partner

After the mated pairs start having sex, babies start arriving. To make this thought experiment challenging, let's look at the situation where sexual selection seems weakest, and assume that every pair has exactly the same number of babies, say four babies per pair. During most of human evolution, probably only 50 percent of infants survived to sexual maturity, so two babies surviving out of four for every two parents will keep the population size stable. The question is, which mated pairs will

HIV Network for Prevention Trials HIVNET

It was simply a matter of time, once the virus began spreading, before it reached the attention of the medical field in some form of epidemic. in 1978 reports began to trickle in from large American cities and Tanzania and uganda in East Africa of people with immune deficiencies. initially in the united States, people of Haitian descent were thought to be susceptible. This has proved incorrect over time. The Haitians who immigrated to the United States or to Central Africa for political reasons in the 1960s had no sign of HIV in blood samples taken at those times. However, many Haitians did work in and around popular gay resorts that were created in Haiti in the 1970s. The people in Haiti who first became ill with HIV were found to have engaged in sex with American gay tourists.

In Search of a Few Good Hominids

Much more likely, individuals would encounter a slow trickle of new sexual possibilities, one at a time. The search for a good sexual partner was sequential and opportunistic. Success would depend on one's ability to manipulate which band one joins, and who joins one's band. (A band is the small group of individuals with whom a hominid would forage and spend most nights clans and tribes are larger sets.) New individuals mightjoin an existing band. The band may encounter other bands at water sources. Individuals might leave their band, looking for new groups that offer more sexual opportunities. Contact between bands may have been tense and brief, with the threat of violent confrontation balanced against the possible benefits of trade, gossip, and the exchange of sexual partners. Selection would have favored a capacity for very fast decisions about which individuals were attractive enough to pursue. These snap judgments could have been based on information like physical appearance,...

Fitness Indicators for People Other than Mates

Sexual selection was not the only kind of social selection during human evolution. For humans, as for most primates, all kinds of social relationships affect survival and reproduction. In forming and maintaining many of these relationships there are good reasons to advertise one's fitness, just as one does to potential sexual partners. Friends of higher fitness may survive longer, offer more competencies, and give better advice. Allies of higher fitness may help one to win fights and wars. Trading partners of higher fitness may live longer, travel longer distances to acquire more valuable commodities, and have the social intelligence to keep their promises. None of these social relationships entails any merging of genes, so they are not subject to positive-feedback processes as powerful as runaway sexual selection. But they still offer plenty of scope for all kinds of socially selected indicators to evolve. We can often use the same fitness indicators in non-sexual relationships as we...

Beyond the removal of sex effects related to brain size

Of main sex effects through FBV does not necessarily rule out the possibility that complex interactive effects of sex with other factors still contribute to a substantial portion of the remaining 70 of variation in CC size that is unrelated to FBV. Some of my own work has shown that subregions of the CC are particularly sensitive to sex differences but that the nature of these differences is largely a function of age (Cowell et al., 1992). We found that in men the anterior CC widths increased with age up to the third decade of life, after which the width of anterior CC declined. In contrast, the same anterior CC regions in women continued to increase in width through the fifth decade of life and declined with advancing age thereafter. Hence, the anterior CC widths appear slightly larger in men in the third decade of life but larger in women by the fifth decade of life. Only the anteriormost and posteriormost CC regions showed significant interactive effects of sex and age, a finding...

Epilepsy and the Family A New Guide

Summary Epilepsy and the Family A New Guide is an update of a classic handbook for people with seizure disorders and their families. The author wrote this book to educate people with epilepsy, but he cautions the reader not to use this as a substitute for medical advice. Using references to actual cases, the author provides coping strategies for the practical and emotional challenges that epilepsy brings to the family. The author devotes chapters to special issues, such as (1) marital problems, (2) sexual activity, (3) childbearing and inheritance, (4) personality changes and violence, (5) treatment options, and (6) what to do when a seizure occurs. This new guide (1) addresses questions that adults with epilepsy may not ask their physicians (2) provides chapters tailored to the special needs of spouses, parents, children, and siblings of people with epilepsy and (3) discusses some medical conditions that can cause seizure disorders in children and adults, while addressing the issue...

The Next NCC Frontier Neuronal Interiors and the Cytoskeleton

To gauge how single neuron functions may exceed simple input-output activities, consider the single-cell organism paramecium. Such cells swim about gracefully, avoid obstacles and predators, find food and engage in sex with partner paramecia. They may also learn if placed in capillary tubes they escape, and in subsequent attempts escape more quickly. As single cells with no synaptic connections, how do they do it Pondering the seemingly intelligent

Mate Choice and Courtship as Social Events

Sexual choice and courtship in human evolution was not just a matter of boy meets girl. We have seen that our ancestors were highly social primates living in groups with children, relatives, and friends. Sexual relationships began and ended within family and tribal contexts. Mate choice that takes into account the qualities of a potential mate's relatives would have favored hominids who spread their courtship effort out across their lifetimes. In childhood and old age their courtship would be vicarious, carried out on behalf of their relatives. In the prime of life it would be mostly for themselves, but also for their sexually active relatives. We should not expect to see fitness indicators used exclusively after puberty and before menopause, only that they are then directed at different targets. So much for collective courtship. As for collective sexual choice, each individual's mate choice decisions probably took into account the views of their parents, siblings, offspring, and...

Human immunodeficiency virus HIV

Teens In adolescents HIV is most commonly spread by sexual contact with an infected partner. The virus enters the body through the lining of the vagina, vulva, penis, rectum, or mouth through sexual activity. Teens between the ages of 13 and 19 represent one of the fastest growing HIV-positive groups. HIV is also spread by sharing needles, syringes, or drug use equipment with someone who is infected with the virus.

Lowgrade squamous intraepithelial lesion LSIL

Low-risk group individual A group or individual whose behavior does not put them at risk for exposure to the virus that causes AIDS. AIDS research to date indicates that low-risk groups include those who have not used intravenous drugs, those who have not been sexual partners of IV drug users or individuals who had or later developed AIDS, those with only one sex partner, and those who have not received blood transfusions. low-risk sex Low-risk practices with some risk of HIV transmission include anal or vaginal sex with proper use of an intact condom wet kissing and fellatio interruptus (contact with male genitals without ejaculation).

Overseas Training

The foot got a lot better for some weeks. However, about 3 months ago the same thing happened suddenly to your left knee - intense pain and swelling, though no skin colour change this time. The pain subsided again with the help of INDOCID after a couple of weeks however, it has remained slightly swollen and a bit stiff since. The foot has also started playing up as well, though is not swollen like it was before. The stiffness in the two joints appears to be worse first thing in the morning, but eases off by the time you get to work. Over this six month period you've been well in yourself and have not suffered any infections. You are married with 2 young children. You have had no extra-marital sexual intercourse. You work erratic hours, often night shifts and socialise heavily with your colleagues. On an average night you might drink 3-4 pints or a couple of 'shorts'.

Transient Global Amnesia TGA

TGA typically occurs in people ages fifty and older. Although migraine, temporal lobe seizures, and transient ischemic attacks have been cited as possible causes, compelling evidence is lacking. Certain medicines have also been implicated, including sleeping medications and sedative hypnotics. One provocative causal hypothesis concerns transient reduction of blood flow to the medial temporal lobes or thalamus, structures critical for memory function. This type of reduced perfusion can occur with physical and emotional stress, when normal blood flow is partially diverted to other areas of the body. Reported trigger events include pain, physical exertion, cold water exposure, severe emotional stress, and sexual intercourse.

Great Artists of the Pleistocene

If art evolved through sexual choice, better artists must have attracted more sexual partners, or higher-fitness partners. How could that have happened To appreciate the Pleistocene artist's reproductive advantages, we should not necessarily think of Modigliani's cocaine-fueled quest to have sex with every one of the hundreds of models he painted, or Gauguin's apparent drive to infect every girl in Polynesia with his syphilis. Perhaps it is better to remember how Picasso fathered one child by his first wife Olga Koklova, another by his mistress Marie-Th r se Walter, and two more by his mistress Fran oise Gilot. Picasso is not a bad example of the idea that artistic production serves as a fitness indicator. Before dying at age 91 and leaving an estate of 1 billion in 1973, he had produced 14,000 paintings, 34,000 book illustrations, and 100,000 prints and engravings. His tireless energy, prodigious output, and sexual appetite seem to have been

Clinical studies of human Xlinked genes and infertility

Few studies have examined mutations in X-linked genes in male infertility patients (Table 10.4). In a study of 56 infertile men with low or no sperm counts, Raverot et al. observed mutations in the SOX3 gene (sex-determining region Y box 3) (Raverot et al., 2004). The mouse homolog of this gene is found in the developing gonad and brain and, when disrupted, causes hypogonadism with loss of germ cells. Mutations in the human fetal and adult testis-expressed (FATE) gene (Xp28) have also been studied in infertile men (Olesen et al., 2003). This gene encodes a polypeptide of 21kDa that is not related to any known proteins. The FATE message is testis specific in fetal life soon after sex-determination and is co-expressed with SRY in the 7-week-old testis. Among 144 random chosen infertile men and 100 proven fertile men, a study of the FATE gene revealed 6 nucleotide substitutions, 4 of which were not amino acid altering, and 2 mutations. Each mutation was found only once in the...

Notifiable disease 343

Since 2000 the United States has seen a rise in the number of new cases after a drop in this total for several years. This increase has been attributed to an increase in sexual activity of young people who are unfamiliar with the terrible scenes of the disease in the 1980s or to an increase of unsafe sexual activity among gay men. It has been suggested that both groups may believe that the

The Romantic Relationship Scale

The following statements concern opinions and feelings that you may hold toward another person. With respect to the member of the opposite sex with whom you are most involved at the present time (designated as X), indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each statement by writing in the number that best expresses your opinion or feeling according to the key below

Mating Well by Doing Good

Immoral acts are mainly those we would be embarrassed by if our boyfriend or girlfriend found out about them. Why Because they would then hold our character in lower esteem. The esteem of sexual partners sounds like a rather trivial basis for human morality. However, those who have been divorced for their moral failings may take a more respectful attitude towards mate choice as a shaper of moral instincts. As we have seen, David Buss's findings indicate that kindness is the most desired trait in a sexual partner around the world. Other research on human mate choice consistently confirms the attractiveness of kindness, generosity, sympathy, and tenderness. Aristophanes' play Lysistrata of 411 B.C. illustrated the moral power of female sexual choice. Lysistrata convinced the other women of Athens to stop having sex with their men until the men stopped waging the Peloponnesian war. The women barricaded themselves in the Acropolis, while (in the original staging of the play) the...

Papanicolaou Pap smear 363

Risa Denenberg, a family nurse practitioner in the AIDS Clinic at New York's Bronx Lebanon Hospital cautions that the accuracy of Pap smears can vary greatly from one clinical setting to another. She advises that patients and clinicians remember the following The best smears are obtained mid-cycle smears taken during a period or when bleeding for any other reason are unacceptable patients should not douche, use tampons, or have sexual intercourse for 48 hours before a Pap smear Pap smears require two tissue samples lubricants interfere with obtaining proper tissue samples as a preservative measure, it is necessary to apply fixative within ten seconds after spreading samples on microscope slides proper labeling of slides is the clinician's responsibility and patients and clinicians should only accept Pap smear results from a lab that uses the standardized Bethesda system to report results.

Partial parenteral nutrition See parenteral

Partner negotiation Negotiation of the terms of a sexual encounter the primary strategy for living by safe-sex guidelines. The first step is becoming clear in one's own mind about what one is and is not willing to do, would like to do, or might be talked into doing. The second step is negotiating an agreement about it with one's partner. Negotiation involves finding out about the partner's background and other sexual relationships, past and present. It involves finding out whether he or she is easy to talk to, comfortable discussing sexual details, flexible in his or her sexual habits, caring, imaginative, and creative.

Freud And Incest Taboos

Very few men have sex with their sisters. Caligula and Cesare Borgia were notorious because they were (rumored to be) such exceptions. Even fewer men have sex with their mothers, in spite of what Freud tells us is an intense longing to do so. Sexual abuse by fathers of daughters is far more common. But it is still rare.

The Invention of Childhood Sexuality

The idea of childhood sexuality did not exist before 1700. Neither priest nor physician paid any attention to the sexual behaviors of children. In the beginning of the 18th century, both the moralist and the medic began to censure childhood sexual activity as both sinful and or pathological. By the 19th century, masturbation among children was considered a social evil and a threat to the polity as a whole it became the first building block in the invention of childhood sexuality (37-39). Just as sexuality in general was considered a problem to be managed, childhood sexuality in particular would give rise to the concerted and institutionalized effort to control children. For example, whether through schools, churches, or new forms of parental supervision, the child was thought of as a distinct social entity in need of specialized attention (40). This belief gave rise to the vast industry of child-rearing techniques premised on regulating childhood sexual behavior and instilling...

Higher Mental Processes

Behavior that has aversive consequences has a tendency to be ignored or not thought about. A child repeatedly and severely punished for sexual play may both suppress the sexual behavior and repress any thoughts or memories of such activity. Eventually, the child may deny that the sexual activity took place. Such denial avoids the aversive aspects connected with thoughts of punishment and is thus a negative reinforcer. In other words, the child is rewarded for not thinking about certain sexual behaviors.

Million Words of Courtship

Conception of a baby is the evolutionarily relevant threshold for success in courtship. Without contraception, it takes an average couple about three months of regular sex before a pregnancy occurs. If we assume two hours of talk per day in the early stages of sexual relationship, and three words spoken per second (an average rate), each member of a couple would have uttered about a million words before they conceived any offspring. Each would have talked enough to fill six This courtship theory has been mocked as the chat-up theory of language evolution. It is all too easy to describe in salacious terms. One could write about nimble tongues playing across strong columns of warm air, the syncopated breath of lovers tickling those most sensitive surfaces of the human body the eardrums and conversation as minds dancing together in a tango of frenzied cognitive foreplay. But there is no reason to make sexual selection sound so lubricious. Human verbal...

Victorian Ideals and Religious Fervor

Another current feeding the Victorian ideal of the passionless woman was the rise of the Evangelical movement in the United States between 1790s and 1900s. Within this movement, rooted in Protestantism, there was no distinction between mortal and venial sins. Accordingly, all sexual acts were sins per se, unless for the purpose of procreation. Promoting of Christian values and virtues contributed to the transformation of women from sexual to moral beings responsible for the upbringing of future generations (51). In this role, churchmen such as Rev. John Todd (1800-1873) used their pulpits to bully women into exercising sexual restraint as proof of their moral and noble character. Pulpits no less than manuals, pamphlets, and exhortations were used to spread the masturbation phobia throughout the 19th century (36,58).

Types Of Female Genital Alterations

The application of surgical procedures to the genitalia of men, women, and children is a predominantly 19th century phenomenon in the West. Male circumcision has an ancient and largely religiously inspired history (60,63). However, genital surgeries on females and children are almost exclusively a product of the 19th century. Moreover, the use of instruments and devices to restrain sexual activity in the general population (as opposed to monks) gains much in inventiveness and intensity of pain during this period. While the above-mentioned factors contributed to the acceptance of genital surgeries and related devices, three rationales were given during the 19th century for their specific use (64-69).

So Why Cant My Boyfriend Communicate

For every word written in scientific journals about the evolution of our astonishing language ability, at least a hundred words have been written in women's magazines about men's apparent inability to articulate even the simplest thought or feeling. Women commonly complain that their sexual partners do not talk enough to them. If language evolved through sexual selection, and if sexual selection operates more powerfully on males than on females, you may legitimately wonder why your boyfriend or husband cannot share his feelings with you. Is it possible that, his early courtship efforts having brought success, he no longer feels driven to be as verbally energetic, interesting, and self-disclosing as he was before The man who used to talk like Cyrano now talks like a cave-man. Once he was a poet, now he is prosaic. His verbal courtship effort has decreased. I have already argued that effective verbal courtship is a reliable fitness indicator precisely because it is costly and difficult....

Sexual assault See rape

Sexual behavior Sexual activities, ranging from touching, caressing, and looking to teasing, kissing, massaging, licking, sucking, and penetrating. What an individual does during sex, what an individual feels about her or his sexuality, how s he wants to explore it, who s he is with, how much love and understanding s he feels, how comfortable all parties involved are with their bodies, how each party feels that day are matters of personal preference and ingenuity. Sexual behavior is also a reflection of sexual drives and satisfactions, both of which generally evolve throughout an individual's lifetime. sexual dysfunction Any condition that prevents normal sexual functioning, up to and including sexual intercourse. Dysfunction may be temporary or persistent it may have physiological or psychological origins. The use of some prescription drugs may cause sexual dysfunction in some people (in some cases, similar drugs without this side effect may be substituted). To some extent, sexual...

To What Are You Committed

It is admirable that the Oath offered topical examples of the application of its principles. These must have illustrated particularly vexing issues for the physicians or society of that time. By offering examples and by holding itself up to the judgment of history, the Oath suggests that the fear that an example might be of topical or temporary concern should not confine medical ethics. I agree. Medical ethics is inherently topical. Topical ethics work, like that of Rheinhold Neibuhr, can instruct a culture even though it quickly passes into history. Physician homicide was an issue in ancient Greece. Physician-assisted euthanasia or executions are important issues today. The modern concern may be addressed without pretending that the Oath's disavowal of deadly drugs spoke of them. Furthermore, the Oath does not suggest that deadly drugs, abortive pessaries, sex with patients, and indiscreet speech delimit some conceptual corral of all the topics of medical ethics. Given the freedom to...

Strategic Randomness in Biology

In 1930, Sir Ronald Fisher showed that animals play a game similar to Matching Pennies. They must evolve a strategy to determine whether to produce male or female offspring. If an animal could predict which sex will be in higher demand in the next generation, it could gain an advantage by producing the rarer, more sought-after sex. In an all-female population, a single male could do very well, spreading his genes through the entire gene pool in one generation. Likewise for a female in an all-male population. So, should animals try to out-predict their evolutionary opponents Fisher said no. As in Matching Pennies, the best they can do is to randomize, by producing half males and half females. The sex ratio is balanced strategically, not because there is some biological law that says it has to be a 50 50 split. (As W. D. Hamilton showed, in some parasites with unusual mating systems, the optimal strategy is some other ratio, such as 3 males to 11 females, and such species duly evolve...

Shaken baby syndrome 451

All STDs occur in people younger than age 25. The incidence of STDs is rising in part because in the last few decades, young people have become sexually active younger but are marrying later. As a result, sexually active teenagers today are more likely to have multiple sex partners.

Developmental Gender Issues

The experience of adolescence is often one of turmoil and transition. The values of one's family of origin are often called into question and identity is in flux as an adolescent struggles with a myriad of developmental tasks, such as sexual identity and desire, role demands in the family, and peer pressures to conform. Young people in the United States, regardless of cultural background, are more likely to have much unsupervised time and to be coping with a peer culture that is in opposition to the values of their culture of origin. This may cause a difficult situation for Latina adolescents as they cope with pressures to enter into early sexual relationships and simultaneously lose the protection of the traditional family structure that keeps young women well chaperoned. A conflict exists between the traditional values of the cult of virginity and men as seducers and the permissive values of contemporary American sexual mores. This increases the likelihood that young women will...

Subacute encephalitis See hiv encephalopathy

Subepidemic A secondary or subordinate epidemic within the context of HIV, a secondary epidemic existing at the same time as HIV. For example, while HIV is the most serious danger facing gay men who have unprotected sex, it is far from being the only one. prevention experts warn that those who slip from safe sex standards run the risk of starting or spreading a subepidemic of other sexually transmitted diseases such as hepatitis A, HEPATITIS B, HEPATITIS C, CHLAMYDIA, GONORRHEA, herpes, and SYPHILIS.

Synthetic CD4 See CD4 synthetic

Syphilis is usually transmitted through sexual contact (both heterosexual and homosexual) but may be acquired in utero or by direct contact with infected tissue or blood. Diagnosis usually is based on a serologic test, run along with a confirmatory test. Treatment failures do occur and may be more common in HIV illness. Penicillin is the preferred drug for treatment. It is the only therapy that has been widely used for patients with neurosyphilis, congenital syphilis, and syphilis during pregnancy. All sexually active patients with syphilis and their partners should be tested for HIV. Neurosyphilis

Transactivator TAT3 gene See tat gene

Transgender people are represented in all demographic groups, Euro-American, Latino a, African American, and all ages. A large percentage of transgendered people are involved in sex work, because of discrimination faced in other employment areas. Links between sex work as a career choice and drug and alcohol use are well established. Both drug and alcohol use and sex work can lead to impaired choices in using safe sex to Transmission Through Sexual Activity to the capacity of the virus to be passed or spread from one individual to another bidirectionally between men and women, women and men, men and men, and women and women. HIV AIDS is a disease that does not have sexual preferences. This is evident in the course of the disease in Africa, where the rate of the infection is equal for the two sexes. It is also evident in the course of the disease in the United States, where the profile of the disease has changed dramatically since the first decade of the epidemic. Additionally, it is...

Man with Fever and Acute Polyarthritis

The patient gave a history of occasional sore throats that were rarely treated with antibiotics and a history of intermittent knee pain for several years. He complained of dysuria of one-week duration. He had no regular sexual partner and reported a new sexual contact one month previously. Social history revealed a seventh-grade education and employment as a parking lot attendant. His father died of cirrhosis and his mother, of suicide. He did not smoke but drank approximately 10 beers per week.

Amyl nitrite inhalant See isobutyl nitrite

Anal intercourse Sexual intercourse involving the insertion of one partner's penis into the other's anus. The person who inserts his penis into the anus of his partner is performing insertive, or active, anal intercourse. The partner is experiencing passive anal intercourse. Anal intercourse without a condom with an infected partner carries a high risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) because it often causes small tears in the rectal tissue and other internal injuries, through which infected semen can enter the bloodstream. Generally speaking, a condom does not offer quite the

About the Revised Mosher Guilt Inventory

Nothing can interfere with our ability to experience pleasure in our sexual relationships more than guilt and anxiety. Mosher's test measuring guilt about sex is similar to one that I developed with my graduate student Kevin O'Grady to measure anxiety about sex. While guilt and anxiety may seem similar, they are theoretically different, and they have different effects on sexual behavior. By definition, guilty people worry about breaking their own moral rules they feel bad if they engage in some sexual behavior that they do not believe to be proper. Anxious people, on the other hand, are concerned about what others might think of them should they behave in a sexual manner. Kevin and I learned that they tend to go together a number of people feel both guilty and anxious about their sexuality. But we also found that a number of people had high levels of guilt about sex but little anxiety, while others felt anxious but not guilty. Stephanie, for instance, believed that it was appropriate...

Other Genital Hygiene Practices

In some parts of the developing world, practices are adapted to the lack of running water. In rural China, for example, mothers teach their daughters to cleanse the genitalia using water from a basin. This is done everyday from an early age, in the evening before going to bed, or before sexual intercourse (122). Washing from a basin, sponge baths, and bathing in rivers and streams are practiced in other regions of the world lacking running water. The importance of feminine cleanliness is paramount among women who douche. It is a principal motivating factor among African Americans who favor this practice (148,150). This may be related to traditional belief systems, which maintain that cleanliness contributes to health and that the body should be kept clean inside and out (111). Women also douche to avoid odor and to be clean after menstruation and sexual activity hence in both Europe and North America, early onset of douching is more prevalent among those who initiate sexual activity...

Indicators for Qualities Other than Fitness

When trying to attract a sexual partner, heritable fitness is not the only thing worth advertising. When males and females cooperate to rear offspring, they should care about more than each other's good genes. They should seek mates in good health because they are more likely to survive as partners and parents. They should seek mates capable of efficient cooperation and coordination, so they make an effective team. Since health and future cooperation cannot be assessed directly, they must be estimated using indicators such as energy level and kindness. Those indicators can evolve according to the same principles as fitness indicators.

The Recovered Memory Controversy

One controversial technique that was used by a small minority of therapists has now been discredited recovered memory therapy. The idea behind this therapy, consistent with psychoanalytic ideas, was that traumatic sexual experiences in childhood had led patients to develop a variety of symptoms (depression, promiscuity, eating disorders, and others) and also to repress the memory of the abuse. If memory for the traumatic event could be restored, it was thought, a therapeutic benefit would be obtained aim (Blume, 1995 Freyd, 1994, 1996 Whitfield, 1995). Unfortunately, belief in this model was so zealous among a few therapists that they jumped to a conclusion of sexual abuse with minimal evidence, even over the objections of patients (who were thought to be actively repressing the memory), and through suggestion, therapists gradually convinced many patients of their traumatic past. Sometimes these inferences are true. Sometimes they are false. Occasional reports are so bizarre,...

HIV wasting syndrome See wasting syndrome

Being HIV-positive means that at some point exposure to the virus and infection with HIV have occurred. It does not mean that an individual now has AIDS or will definitely develop AIDS in the future. Being HIV-positive does not mean that an individual is immune to the virus. Being HIVpositive does not mean that an individual can no longer have sex. It does mean, however, a major change in the way an individual lives his or her life. See HIV-NEGATIVE.

The Masturbation Scare

Hare (1962) documents the debilitating effects ascribed by Boerhaave in his Institutes of Medicine (1701) the semen discharged too lavishly occasions a weariness, weakness, indisposition of motion, convulsions, leanness, dryness, heats and pains in the membranes of the brain, with a dullness of the senses, more especially of the sight, a tabes dorsalis, foolishness and disorder of the kinds. However, we can see no specific mention of masturbation per se (although it was included under sexual activity) until the beginning of the 18th century, and no belief that it was specifically harmful. Masturbation was always a subject of discussion in religious circles the church had condemned it as a minor variant of illicit sexual activities that were explicitly outside the realm of procreation and, therefore, were against nature (11,14,15). The church doctrine on masturbation was unequivocal any kind of masturbation was forbidden and the physician who recommended it for health was no...

Ye poysoning of Sir Thomas Overbury

King James I on 21 April 1613, despite being an intimate friend of Robert Carr who was the King's 'favourite'. All three men are believed to have had homosexual inclinations and there may well have been sexual relations between the King and Carr, and Carr and Overbury. However, both the King and Carr were capable of normal sexual relations, and both of them fathered children, although there is no evidence that Overbury ever had sex with a woman. Essex finally despaired of ever having sex with his wife and in the summer of 1612 he departed to his country estate, leaving Frances in London. With her husband out of the way, the secret love affair between Frances and Carr became intense and continued until December 1612, when Essex returned determined to have a final try at consummating his marriage. That Christmas the couple again shared the same bed, but again nothing happened, and for Frances it was crucial that it didn't because she knew that the following month, January 1613, it would...

Sexual Selection in Primates

Given multi-male, multi-female primate groups, how does mate choice work Female primates can exercise choice by joining groups that contain favored males, initiating sex with them during estrus, supporting them during conflicts, and developing long-term social relationships with them. Females can reject unfavored males by refusing to cooperate during copulation attempts, driving males away from the group, or leaving the group. But female mate choice criteria remain obscure for most primate species. In contrast to modern humans, female primates rarely favor males who can provide resources or paternal care of offspring. The sporadic male care that is observed, such as watching, carrying, and protecting infants, is better described as courtship effort than as paternal care. The male is unlikely to be the infant's father, but is simply trying to mate with the infant's mother by doing her a favor. Most primates follow the general animal pattern of male sexual competition and female...

Universal precautions In 1985 the centers for

Unprotected sex Sexual intercourse without the use of a condom or other prophylactic or contraceptive device. While the concept of safe sex has been around since the early 1980s and the basic priorities of prevention have changed little since then, there is currently disagreement about how safe and unsafe should be defined. The biggest arguments involve oral sex, the condom-every-time message, and the pros and cons of negotiation between partners. Ultimately the arguments are over a question on which no one is an expert how much risk is acceptable For years the major prevention organizations and government agencies said none. By most accounts, a significant number of men, both gay and straight, have simply ignored the advice or have set a goal of safer rather than absolutely safe sex. It is difficult to draw conclusions, however, since for many reasons government agencies remain reluctant to fund research into infection trends, risk, and prevention, so most information remains...

Diseases That Cause Vulvar Pain Vulvar Vestibulitis

Vulvar Vestibule Healthy

Women with VVS experience substantial pain with tampon insertion, insertion of a speculum, or with sexual activity. When the insertional pain is associated with sexual activity, women usually experience relationship difficulties with their partners. When this occurs, lowered self-esteem is common and some women can experience substantial depression (1,24,25). In the more severe cases, women can experience pain and burning on a day-to-day basis when walking, sitting, wearing clothing that comes in contact with the vulva, after exercise, and wiping after urination. If the inflammatory process includes the periurethral ducts of the vestibule, women may complain of urgency and frequency in the absence of a urinary tract infection. Symptoms can also be totally unpredictable and unprovoked.

Epidemiology And Prognosis Of

In search for the aetiology of TGA several studies have investigated the prevalence of risk factors for atherosclerosis. In different samples of TGA patients the frequency of arterial hypertension varies widely. It was reported to be only 13 (Hinge et al., 1986), 25-35 (Mumenthaler & Treig, 1984 Matias-Guiu et al., 1986 Miller et al., 1987 Frederiks, 1990 Hodges & Warlow, 1990a), and about 50 (Crowell et al., 1984 Kushner & Hauser, 1985 Colombo & Scarpa, 1988 Guidotti et al., 1989 Zorzon et al., 1995). A history of coronary heart disease was found with frequencies between some 5 (Mumenthaler & Treig, 1984 Hinge et al., 1986 Hodges & Warlow, 1990a) and some 25 (Hinge et al., 1986 Miller et al., 1987 Guidotti et al., 1989 Frederiks, 1990). The frequency of previous cerebrovascular events was reported to be as high as 67 in one study (Kushner & Hauser, 1985), but only 10 or lower in the remainder (Matias-Guiu et al., 1986 Miller et al., 1987 Colombo & Scarpa, 1988 Frederiks, 1990 Hodges...

Biofilms in medical systems

Urinary tract infections are most commonly caused by E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus, and Streptococcus spp., found in the gastrointestinal tract, and by pathogens directly transmitted through sexual activity. These infections include acute and chronic cystitis, struvite urolithiasis, chronic prostatitis, and catheter-associated infections. Once the microorganisms are established, they adopt the biofilm mode of growth. The bladder resists infection by the periodic passing of urine, which washes out unattached pathogens, and by sloughing of colonized uroepithelial cells on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) mucous layer. The GAG layer is a very thin cover on the cell epithelium of the bladder that physically shields the bladder from surface pathogens. Catheter-associated infections increase by approximately 10 each day the catheter is in place. The organisms initially colonize the external surfaces, form a biofilm, and ascend into the bladder where the biofilm can act as a source of...

Differential Diagnosis

Microscopic findings help to exclude infectious vulvitis. Patch testing with standard allergens is not recommended unless allergic contact dermatitis (delayed contact hypersensitivity) is suspected in the differential diagnosis no relevant reactions either to standard allergens or to a series pertinent to perianal or vulvar disorders were found in VVS patients (18). However, a subset of women with VVS exhibited immediate-type (or Type I) hypersensitivity to seminal fluid, as assessed by their plasma antibody titers to pooled semen samples. A majority of these patients reported that their symptoms began with an episode of sexual intercourse and that they experienced symptoms only during and after intercourse. Hence, allergy to a component of seminal fluid may be an unrecognized contributing or exacerbating factor in some cases of VVS.

Woman with Abdominal Pain and Thrombocytopenia

How Hyaluronic Acid Works

A 42-year-old African-American woman developed dull crampy abdominal pain without accompanying nausea, fever, or diarrhea. Pain persisted over the next 4 days, and she noticed blurred vision and two bruises on her legs, although she did not recall ever falling or bumping into anything. When her symptoms did not improve, her sister brought her to the hospital. The patient worked as a nurse's aide, took no prescribed or over-the-counter medications, and did not acknowledge consumption of alcohol or illicit drugs. She was not sexually active.

Sexual Fidelity and Romantic Love

Sleep around with too many people, and your lover will probably leave you. Sexual choice is not just the power to initiate relationships, but the power to end them. Our capacity for sexual fidelity, imperfect though it may be, is a result of our ancestors favoring the faithful by breaking up with the unfaithful. As David Buss has emphasized, humans have evolved specialized emotions for detecting and punishing infidelity in sexual relationships, distinct from our instincts for detecting cheats in reciprocity relationships. Fidelity could be viewed as an example of reciprocity, insofar as cheating by one individual tends to provoke punishment by the other. However, the punishment is usually implemented by sexual choice. The punisher ends the relationship, denies further sexual access, or chooses to have sex with someone else. It may not matter whether we view this as sexual choice in the service of reciprocity, or reciprocity in the service of sexual choice. In either case, sexual...

The Scheherazade Strategy

The female incentives for sustained verbal courtship are illustrated by the classic Arabian folk tale of a thousand and one nights. The story goes like this. Shahriyar was a powerful Sassanid king who discovered his wife having sex with a slave. Mad with rage, he killed them both. To avoid further problems of female infidelity, he swore to sleep with a new virgin every night and to kill her in the morning. That way, no other man would have slept with her before him, and no other man could sleep with her after him. He did this for three years, until few young women were left in the city, except for the Grand Vizier's two daughters, Scheherazade and Dunyazad. Evolution has extended human verbal display from the early stages of courtship through the entirety of sexual relationships. Talking keeps relationships interesting. Women use the Scheherazade strategy, but so do men. Long after partners grow overfamiliar with each other's bodies, the Scheherazade strategy trying to keep...

Pleistocene Flirting Versus Modern Dating

Now consider what happens in modern courtship. We take our dates to restaurants where we pay professional chefs to cook them great food, or to dance clubs where professional musicians excite their auditory systems, or to films where professional actors entertain them with vicarious adventures. The chefs, musicians, and actors do not actually get to have sex with our dates. They just get paid. We get the sex if the date goes well. Of course, we still have to talk in modern courtship, and we still have to look reasonably good. But the market economy shifts much of the courtship effort from us to professionals. To pay the professionals, we have to make money, which means getting a job. The better our education, the better our job, the more money we can make, and the better the vicarious courtship we can afford. Consumerism turns the tables on ancestral patterns of human courtship. It makes courtship a commodity that can be bought and sold. living did not automatically mean that one could...

Baseline CD4 count

Well to drugs could have the virus change to a drug-resistant one introduced by a sexual partner. AIDS educators fear that unsafe behavior may have an effect on HIV-negative men as well, by eroding their negative views about being HIVpositive. For men who prefer to return to condom-less intimacy, this trend only accentuates that attitude. Some argue, however, that some unsafe sex has been occurring all along and that the availability of protease inhibitors and combination therapies may simply be focusing attention on it. Although barrier-free sex may be occurring more often these days, participants must be educated to recognize the inherent dangers of these activities. barrier See contraceptive safe sex.

Male Oedipal Development

As the boy matures, however, he develops oral-sadistic impulses toward his father and wants to bite off his penis and to murder him. These feelings arouse castration anxiety and the fear that his father will retaliate against him by biting off his penis. This fear convinces the little boy that sexual intercourse with his mother would be extremely dangerous to him. For both girls and boys, a healthy resolution of the Oedipus complex depends on their ability to allow their mother and father to come together and to have sexual intercourse with each other. No remnant of rivahy remains. Children's positive feelings toward both parents later serve to enhance then adult sexual relations.

Procedures Of The 19th And 20th Centuries

Methods to control female sexuality included relatively pain-free interventions such as hydrotherapy, dietary prescriptions, and educational exhortations. However, the use of inventive restraints of various kinds flourished during this period as a preferred method of controlling women's bodies (48). For instance, the Moody Girdle of Chastity of the mid-19th century is exemplary. It consisted of a cushion made out of rubber or some other soft material and suitably covered with silk, linen, or soft leather. This cushion or pad formed the base into which was fixed a kind of grating and this part of the apparatus rested upon the vulva, the pad being large enough to press upon the mons veneris (43).

Constructive Alternativism

In other words, people always have alternative ways of looking at things. Kelly (1963) assumed that all of our present interpretations of the universe are subject to revision or replacement (p. 15). He referred to this assumption as constructive al-ternativism and summed up the notion with these words The events we face today are subject to as great a variety of constructions as our wits will enable us to contrive (Kelly, 1970, p. 1). The philosophy of constructive alternativism assumes that the piece-by-piece accumulation of facts does not add up to truth rather, it assumes that facts can be looked at from different perspectives. Kelly agreed with Adler (see Chapter 3) that a person's interpretation of events is more important than the events themselves. In contrast to Adler, however, Kelly stressed the notion that interpretations have meaning in the dimension of thne, and what is valid at one thne becomes false when construed differently at a later time. For example, when Freud (see...

Nonsyncytiuminducing NSI virus

The epidemic began to appear in homosexual men and quickly spread to the IDU population and people who used blood products, before rates of new infections began to level off in the mid-1990s. The people who had been exposed by blood products were first brought under viral control, when the CDC required screening of blood and blood products in the mid-1980s. Very few cases due to blood products or transplantation have been reported since this step occurred. The virus was also seen early among people of Haitian descent, but this incidence was later linked to the phenomenon that these people were working in the United States away from family. Usually in such cases an increase in both sexual activity and drug use

Middle East and North Africa 315

The mode of transmission of microsporidiosis is unknown, although many patients with it have a history of extensive foreign travel or residence. other suspected forms of transmission include unprotected sexual activity and eating food contaminated with microsporidia. Symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and weight loss do not always occur immediately after exposure. Middle East and North Africa There are 500,000 people in this region living with HIV. Nearly one-fifth of that number have tested positive in 2001 according to UNAIDS. Sexual activities appear to be the main route of transmission, though increases in the number of members of the IDU population who test positive have been recorded since 1999. Two exceptions to this are Yemen and the Sudan, where IDUs have always been the main

The Alphabetical Battle Of The Lemmings

Not all animals have sex chromosomes Indeed, it is hard to see why so many do. They make gender a pure lottery, governed by an arbitrary convention with the sole advantage of (usually) keeping the sex ratio at fifty-fifty If the first sperm to reach your mother 's egg carried a Y chromosome, you are a male if it carried an X chromosome, you are a female. There are at least three different and better ways to determine your gender.

The Revised Mosher Guilt Inventory

This inventory consists of 50 items arranged in pairs of responses written by college students in response to sentence completion stems such as When I have sexual dreams . . . You are to respond to each item as honestly as you can by rating your response on a 7-point scale from 0, which means not at all true of (for) me, to 6, which means extremely true of (for) me. The items are arranged in pairs of two to permit you to compare the intensity of a trueness for you. This limited comparison is often useful, since people frequently agree with only one item in a pair. In some instances, it may be the case that both items or neither item is true for you, but you will usually be able to distinguish between items in a pair by using different ratings from the 7-point range for each item. When I have sexual dreams . . . When I have sexual desires . . . When I have sexual desires . . . If I had sex relations, I would feel . . .

Virtues of Good Breeding

Murder, unkindness, rape, rudeness, failure to help the injured, fraud, racism, war crimes, driving on the wrong side of the road, failing to leave a tip in a restaurant, and cheating at sports. What do they have in common A moral philosopher might say that they are all examples of immoral behavior. But they are also things we would not normally brag about on a first date, and things we would not wish an established sexual partner to find out that we had done. The philosopher's answer sounds serious and mine sounds flippant. But the philosopher's answer does not identify any selection pressure that could explain the evolution of human morality Mine does sexual choice. Most evolutionary psychologists have viewed human morality as a question of altruism, and have tried to explain altruism as a side-effect of instincts for nepotism (kindness to blood relatives) or reciprocity (kindness to those who may reciprocate). I think human morality is much more likely to be a direct result of...

Health Scares And Moral Panics

The Aids panic that took off in the late 1980s and surged through the 1990s was the greatest health-related scare of our time. It had a profound effect on society and accelerated changes in the relationships between the state and the individual, and between doctor and patient, that had been proceeding more gradually over the previous decade. A phenomenon of much wider significance than the novel viral infection on which it was based, the panic was both a product of the peculiar insecurities of the historical moment in which it emerged and a force which intensified them. While the panic provoked private fears of a deadly disease, it also fostered new institutions embodying new forms of solidarity and promoted, in the form of the safe sex code, a new moral framework. It encouraged an already growing preoccupation with health or, to be more precise, with disease. The contemporary obsession with illness and death, with morbidity and mortality, so powerfully reinforced by the Aids crisis,...

Postexposure prophylaxis registry

Even as debates continue about how best to assess the appropriateness of pEp treatment, concerns have been raised that the availability of pEp may increase so-called high-risk behavior if pEp is perceived as a morning-after pill that prevents infection, individuals may believe it is no longer necessary to practice safe sex or use clean needles. proponents argue that pEp is not a replacement strategy for avoiding HIV exposure nor is it intended to replace adopting and maintaining behavior that guards against exposure to HIV. However, they continue, a person with a recent exposure has already failed primary prevention. In addition, many persons diligently practice safe sex but are accidentally exposed to HIV when a con dom breaks or slips off or is not used inadvertently under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Proponents of pEp caution that even if pEp prevents some HIV transmission, a modest increase in the number of unprotected sexual acts could actually lead to an increase in HIV...


Abstinence Going without or refraining voluntarily, particularly from indulgence in food, alcoholic beverages, or sexual activity (some people include masturbation in this definition, others do not). Sexual abstinence is an option people have exercised for a variety of reasons ranging from moral or religious conviction to fear of pregnancy or disease. Some people, including some religious orders, practice celibacy, or permanent abstinence from all sexual activity (historically, the term celibacy has also been used to mean simply the state of being unmarried). Some couples practice abstinence as a means of contraception In natural family planning, periodic abstinence is practiced during the fertile period of the woman's menstrual cycle. Sexual abstinence is one means of avoiding aids and other sexually transmitted diseases. Some people opt never to have sex with anyone before or outside of permanent, exclusive sexual relationships, rather than renounce sex entirely but for society...

Mind for Courtship

This book proposes that our minds evolved not just as survival machines, but as courtship machines. Every one of our ancestors managed not just to live for a while, but to convince at least one sexual partner to have enough sex to produce offspring. Those proto-humans that did not attract sexual interest did not become our ancestors, no matter how good they were at surviving. Darwin realized this, and argued that evolution is driven not just by natural selection for survival, but by an equally important process that he called sexual selection through mate choice. Following his insight, I shall argue that the most distinctive aspects of our minds evolved largely through the sexual choices our ancestors made. The human mind's most impressive abilities are like the peacock's tail they are courtship tools, evolved to attract and entertain sexual partners. By shifting our attention from a survival-centered view of evolution to a courtship-centered view, I shall try to show how, for the...


In China particularly the spread of HIV is believed to be increasing. The country has been very hesitant to acknowledge AIDS at all. Stories in the world media indicate that very few Chinese know what AIDS is or how it is spread. Interviews with sex workers in China indicate that men pay more for sex without condoms so the workers feel they must perform without them. When one doctor in Henan province, where a large number of the donation-derived AIDS cases exist, offered free AIDS test kits to the local clinic, the government refused to allow them to be used. The doctor went back anyway with some tests, according to a report, and found that 80 of 140 people he tested had positive test results. Officially HIV rates in China jumped 67 percent in the first six months of 2001. Prevalence among IDUs in some areas of China is known to exceed 70 percent. Populations of sex workers have tested positive at rates as high as 11 percent. For these reasons, experts expect HIV rates in China to...

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