Improving Self Esteem

Strong and Confident Warrior

Strong and Confident Warrior

Surefire Ways To Master Your Self Confidence  Efforts. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Getting Serious Results In Your Life.

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Quantum Confidence

Quantum Confidence System is the new program designed by Song Chengxiang, who promises to teach people how to be more confident quickly and effectively. The new program is suitable for those who wish to get rid of all problems in their life such as anxiety, boring, stress, missing and more. In other words, this helpful guide will help users believe in themselves. This recording has been designed to help you actually think better and in a more healthful manner, more positively in fact so as to help you to manifest a new view of the world, a positive view that will lead you to joy and abundance. How we look at things and interpret their meaning can be everything and amazing changes can occur when we change how we look at life. This system must be considered much in the same way, it is important once you get to the point where you want to be that you keep up a maintenance routine, a routine designed to maintain your results, without it you definitely run the risk of returning to the state that you were in previous to your use of the Quantum Confidence system.

Quantum Confidence System Summary


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Positive Regard Self Esteem and Romantic Relationships

One of Rogers's key theoretical assumptions was that self-esteem depends on knowledge that one is genuinely understood and unconditionally accepted and loved by an important person hi one's life. Additionally, those relationships that facilitate such high self-esteem should be more enjoyable than those relationships that do not provide such benefits. In order to test these predictions, Duncan Cramer (2003a) conducted a study with mostly female university students currently in a romantic relationship that had averaged a little less than 2 years. Four self-report measures were administered to each participant relationship satisfaction (Relationship Assessment Scale Hen-drick, 1988), self-esteem (Self-Esteem Scale Rosenberg, 1965), acceptance by partner (modified Level of Regard Scale, Barrett-Lennard, 1964), and need for approval (Demand for Approval Scale Jones, 1969). Results provided some modified support for the predication that need for approval would moderate the relationship...

Social Reintegration and Self Esteem

Self-esteem and self-worth are complex constructs, tied to social activity, that workers suggest should be central to psychosocial rehabilitation. The importance of self has been examined by Brumfitt (1993) using personal construct techniques. Facilitating participation in the community entails passing responsibility to the individual gradually so that the individual can develop autonomy, develop greater self-esteem, and take greater ownership of the issues that they face. The importance of involving the aphasic individual fully has been addressed by Parr et al. (1997). Work and other purposeful activity is an important value dimension central in the development and maintenance of self-worth and autonomy. Returning to work remains a constant concern of many aphasic people. Ramsing, Blomstrand, and Sullivan (1991) explored prognostic factors for return to work, but there has been little follow-up to this research. Parr et al. (1997) report that only one person in their study who was...

About the Self Esteem Rating Scale

Over the past decade or so, there has been an interesting turnabout regarding how people view self-esteem. Twenty years ago, the evidence seemed clear that high self-esteem was crucial if people were to have happy, productive lives. Nowhere was this belief more influential than in the school system. Research conducted in the 1960s appeared to prove that school achievement was influenced more by children's self-esteem than by their intellectual ability. These studies inspired educators to do everything they could to help children feel better about themselves in the belief that this would help them become better students. As everyone knows, these programs have become the target of numerous vitriolic critics. Research in psychology is always difficult. A typical study may focus on a handful of variables while, because of practical limitations, it ignores countless other variables that are potentially important. This means that virtually any research study is open to alternative...

Comparing People or Studying Individuals Nomothetic and Idiographic Approaches

Personality traits and types allow us to compare one person with another the nomothetic approach. Groups of individuals are studied, often by comparing their trait or factor scores on personality tests and relating these scores to different behaviors or background experiences. For example, we can give several hundred people a test to measure their self-confidence and then study the correlation of this trait with one or more other variables (such as sex, how they were disciplined in childhood, score on an extraversi n test, or other variables). Most personality research is nomothetic.

The foundations of dutybased thinking

A man reduced to despair by a series of misfortunes feels wearied of life, but is still so far in possession of his reason that he can ask himself whether it would not be contrary to his duty to himself to take his own life. Now he inquires whether the maxim of his action could become a universal law of nature. His maxim is From self-love I adopt it as a principle to shorten my life when its longer duration is likely to bring more evil than satisfaction. It is asked then simply whether this principle founded on self-love can become a universal law of nature. Now we see at once that a system of nature of which it should be a law to destroy life by means of the very feeling whose special nature it is to impel to the improvement of life would contradict itself, and therefore could not exist as a system of nature hence that maxim cannot possibly exist as a universal law of nature, and consequently would be wholly inconsistent with the supreme principle of duty. (Kant, 1785, p. 50)

Psychological Factors in the Development of Scientific Interest

Self-perceived ability is indeed crucial to the development of interest in and motivation in a given career. If one cannot imagine oneself in a career, then there is little chance one will attempt to pursue that career. Occupational interest research has demonstrated that congruency between talent, performance, self-perception, and drive is the best predictor of career interest. The principles of cognitive consistency, self-efficacy, and stereotype threat can fruitfully be applied to models that explain interest and attrition in science. Can one easily envision and imagine oneself as a scientist For some the label fits well with their projected self-image and for others it does not. Moreover, especially in the field of science and math, gender would appear to moderate the relation between self-image and scientist, given the historical association between gender and science. Similarly, math skills have been seen as part of the male domain, and if one is female, there is...

Increased Focus on Health Care Ethics

In part because of the questions involved in new medical technology, there is perhaps more focus on nursing ethics than ever before. The American Nurses Association (2001) code of ethics provides a guide to ethical practice for nurses. The very first provision of this code calls for nurses to practice with compassion and respect for the inherent dignity, worth, and uniqueness of every individual. Health, safety, and rights of the patient must be paramount (provision 3), but the nurse is also said to owe the same duties to self as to others, maintaining self-respect, wholeness of character, and integrity. In the medical field, these must be weighed against the boom in privacy and cost issues as well as potentials in new fields such as physical enhancement, cloning, genomics, and germ line therapy to ultimately eliminate bad genes (Flower, 2000).

The Survey Of Personal Beliefs

My self-worth is not higher because of my successes in school or on the job. Even when I make serious or costly mistakes, or hurt others, my self-worth does not change. 25. The approval or disapproval of my friends or family does not affect my self-worth. sense of self-worth.

Diet Enriched With Omega3 Fatty Acids Alleviates Convulsion Symptoms in Epilepsy Patients

Summary Researchers investigated the effects of epilepsy on psychological adjustment, coping behavior, and transition to adulthood among 36 people age 16 to 21 years with epilepsy and a control group of 31 of their peers. Participants were recruited from neurologists' offices. Each participant received a mailed questionnaire that measured psychological adjustment (self-efficacy, negative and positive affect, use of coping style, self-esteem, and strategy related to transition to adulthood) and adolescent coping. Participants with epilepsy also provided information on acceptance of illness, seizure severity, use of coping style, perception of control over seizures, and strategy related to epilepsy. Data analysis indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the groups on measures of self-esteem, affect, and self-efficacy. Members of the group with epilepsy had significantly more non-productive coping than members of the control group. The control group had...

Outside Family Sphere Relational

In extract 11, the respondent is describing feelings of 'hanging in there' and the stress this caused. This indicates that she is trying desperately to be part of the conversation but is not quite able to understand the full conversation. By 'hanging on' she has a desire to be involved but still has not been able to develop a satisfactory coping mechanism that allows her to join in group conversations. She wants to be conversing normally and not have this obstacle in her way. Normality is the key to all coping mechanisms used by this group. Perhaps loss of face and self-esteem is at risk if she asks for repetition or clarity of the conversation. Perhaps she does not want to be a hindrance in the social group, and they are intimidating.

Eidetic Personifications

Not all interpersonal relations are with real people some are eidetic personifications that is, unrealistic traits or imaginary friends that many children invent hi order to protect then self-esteem. Sullivan (1964) believed that these imaginary friends may be as significant to a child's development as real playmates.

Questions to Measure Three Attachment Styles

Think of himself or herself as worthwhile Does he or she expect others to be supportive Ideally, the answer to both questions is yes, giving a positive-self positive-others view and resulting in a secure attachment style. Unfortunately, either the self or the others, or both, may also be viewed negatively, leading to impaired attachment. A person may have a positive view of self and a negative view of others, leading to a dismissing or counterdependent attachment style these people have problems in relationships because they lack warmth. Or a person may think positively of others while negatively of the self, becoming preoccupied with relationships. These people value relationships but have problems in relationships by depending too much on others for their self-esteem, trying too hard to be noticed and involved with others. Perhaps surprisingly, these preoccupied individuals describe conflict in personal relationships less negatively than other types the conflict, even though...

They Communicate the Ideal to Others

In the retail environment, this respect for others might be known as good customer service or just common decency, but it is one element of establishing support for a vision that cannot be taken for granted. It means that we do not reward certain behaviors by displaying different levels of respect. Meting out respect based on someone's actions or attitudes may have implications for an associate's discipline and self-confidence, but it is an ineffective way to establish one's credibility as a leader. In the meantime, speak as you would be spoken to. Act as though others want to hear what you have to say. Accept opposition with resolve. Cling to principles despite opposition. Offer several chances to buy into the vision. Treat constituents as though they will.

Aphasia Treatment Psychosocial Issues

Whereas intervention during the acute stages of aphasia is largely based on the medical model, adjustment to aphasia is set more broadly within a social approach. Several broad psychosocial and quality-of-life areas have been incorporated into rehabilitation dealing with depression and other emotions, social reintegration, and the development of autonomy and self-worth. Autonomy involves cooperating with others to achieve ends, whereas independence implies acting alone and may not be an achievable goal. These areas provide a basis for developing broad-ranging programs.

Directional Influence Between Personality And Scientific Behavior

In sum, cognitive traits (conscientiousness and openness), social traits (confidence, arrogance, independence, and introversion), and motivational traits (achievement and drive) lower the threshold for scientific interest. Having such a cluster does not make scientific interest inevitable, only more likely. Interest in the physical sciences, more specifically, is probably influenced by the thing-orientation, whereas interest in the social sciences is influenced more by a people-orientation. The main traits that lower the threshold for creative achievement in science appear to be openness, flexibility, drive, ambition, introversion, arrogance, self-confidence, and hostility. Too little systematic longitudinal research has examined the question concerning whether personality is more the cause or the effect of scientific interest and talent to warrant any firm conclusions at this time.

Factors Contributing to Consistency in Personality

There are increasing levels of depression and anxiety in recent decades, along with increases in self-esteem (based on self-reports), extraversi n, and (among women) as-sertiveness. Cultural pressures toward individualism, along with declines in social support and changes in gender roles, may account for these changes. While such studies don't address the question of consistency of an individual's personality, they do point out that individuals develop their personality in a social context, which personality theories have generally neglected, focusing instead on causes in the family and (more recently) in biology.

Mas lows View of Motivation

Second, motivation is usually complex, meaning that a person's behavior may spring from several separate motives. For example, the desire for sexual union may be motivated not only by a genital need but also by needs for dominance, companionship, love, and self-esteem. Moreover, the motivation for a behavior may be unconscious or unknown to the person. For example, the motivation for a college student to make a high grade may mask the need for dominance or power. Maslow's acceptance of the importance of unconscious motivation represents one important way hi which he differed from Gordon Allport (Chapter 13). Whereas Allport might say that a person plays golf just for the fun of it, Maslow would look beneath the surface for underlying and often complex reasons for playing golf. then replaced by another need. For example, as long as people s hunger needs are frustrated, they will strive for food but when they do have enough to eat, they move on to other needs such as safety, friendship,...

Self Actualization Needs

When lower level needs are satisfied people proceed more or less automatically to the next level. However, once esteem needs are met, they do not always move to the level of self-actualization. Originally, Maslow (1950) assumed that self-actualization needs become potent whenever esteem needs have been met. However, during the 1960s, he realized that many of the young students at Brandeis and other campuses around the country had all then lower needs gratified including reputation and self-esteem, and yet they did not become self-actualizing (Frick, 1982 Hoffman, 1988 Maslow, 1971). Why some people step over the threshold from esteem to self- Self-actualizing people maintain then feelings of self-esteem even when scorned rejected and dismissed by other people. In other words, self-actualizers are not dependent on the satisfaction of either love or esteem needs they become independent from the lower level needs that gave them birth. (We present a more complete sketch of...

What If The Result Means Something Else

If Hamer is wrong, does that mean there was something wrong with his study or that he has produced what we would call a statistical artifact Is there some way his study could be right and yet not mean what he think it means Consider this they mapped something to Xq28 that is held in common between the brothers in the study. They were selected because they had their sexual orientation in common. What else might they have in common It is interesting to note that another similar study conducted in Toronto, in a different gay population, did not find the same thing. One thing that comes to mind is that gay brothers who are very out about their orientation, who are very public and outspoken about their status, might not only share their sexual orientation but perhaps also other personality characteristics, such as assertiveness or self-confidence or rebelliousness. Recruitment among a group of gay men who are circumspect about their status, maintain a low profile, or even hide their status...

Downloadable Competency 4 Managing Emotions Through Negotiation

Smith, Tutor, and Phillips (2001) further explain that our methods of communication affect the way we negotiate conflict as well. Passive avoidance behavior often results from low self-esteem, while responding passively involves going along with what others decide to avoid making a choice of one's own. Aggressive reactive behavior may leave others feeling attacked when their ideas are shot down. Assertive proactive communication is the type that is truly focused on resolving issues (Covey, 1990). Note how emotions play a part in the various methods of communication and how they may affect the leader's or the team's ability to negotiate conflict. When the leader recognizes one of the maladaptive behaviors, he should work with the team member to overcome it and become more assertive and proactive in his approach to conflict.

Lifestyle Considerations And Practice Options

A medical student who had completed his required clerkship in obstetrics and gynecology commented that the attending physicians seem like very energetic and outgoing people. Self-confidence and a strong personality are necessary to deal with the stressful events and tense situations you face daily. There is little room for indecisiveness, meekness, or timidity within this specialty. Because gynecologic surgeries start quite early in the morning and deliveries or ruptured ec-topic pregnancies can occur during the middle of the night, you must be able to function at all times of day or night. Even when tired or agitated, OB GYN physicians have to be sensitive to the emotional and psychosocial needs of their patients. Your common sense and experience are calming and reassuring for an expectant mother about to deliver her first child, a preoperative gynecologic patient, and a woman struggling with the loss of a pregnancy.

Theoretical Explanation for Therapeutic Change

What theoretical formulation can explain the dynamics of therapeutic change Rogers's (1980) explanation follows this line of reasoning. When persons come to experience themselves as prized and unconditionally accepted they realize, perhaps for the first thne, that they are lovable. The example of the therapist enables them to prize and accept themselves, to have unconditional positive self-regard. As clients perceive that they are emphatically understood they are freed to listen to themselves more accurately, to have empathy for then own feelings. As a consequence, when these persons come to prize themselves and to accurately understand themselves, then perceived self becomes more congruent with then organismic experiences. They now possess the same three therapeutic characteristics as any effective helper, and in effect, they become their own therapist.

Learning Disabilities Association

Children with learning disabilities who have not been diagnosed or properly treated experience serious, lifelong negative consequences, including low self-esteem, delinquency, and illiteracy. Thirty-five percent of students identified with learning disabilities drop out of high school (this does not include students who drop out without being identified as having learning disabilities.) Fifty percent of young criminal offenders tested were found to have previously undetected learning disabilities when offered educational services that addressed their learning disability, the recidivism rates of these young offenders dropped to below 2 percent.

Seizure Disorders and the School I Elementary

Summary Seizure Disorders and the School I (Elementary) describes the types of seizures and what to do when a seizure takes place, and discusses the role of the teacher who has a child with epilepsy in the classroom. Teachers can (1) recognize seizures when they occur, especially those with subtle symptoms (2) perform appropriate first aid for seizures (3) help the child achieve his or her full academic potential and (4) promote the child's self-esteem. The seizure types most commonly seen in school are absence, which the teacher may be the first to notice simple or complex partial and generalized tonic-clonic. Absence seizures are brief and frequent, and may be mistaken for daydreaming. Teachers encountering this type of seizure in the classroom should report their observations to the child's parents if the symptoms are seen for the first time. First aid is not generally required for absence seizures, but the teacher may need to repeat information the student has missed. During...

Brief History of Nurse Training Coaching and Mentoring

Traditionally, mentoring relationships in nursing have taken place at the master's level or above (Owens and Patton, 2003), but mentoring and coaching principles can and should be applied at all levels of nursing. Conditions essential for mentoring in nursing differ little from those in other professions (Byrne and Keefe, 2002). A North Carolina hospital instituted a formal mentorship program, and within one year, turnover rates among nurses dropped from 34 percent to 8 percent. Many nurses attributed this to the increased self-confidence, support, and skills provided by the mentoring relationship (Verdejo, 2002, p. 16). The focus on mentoring in nursing continues to grow and change (Byrne and Keefe, 2002). Today, emotional mentoring should be an expected element of formal mentorship programs and preceptor-preceptee relationships.

Seizure Disorders and the School II Secondary

Summary Seizure Disorders and the School II (Secondary) is a 14-minute videotape that aims to educate secondary school teachers about epilepsy. Epilepsy appears in many different forms, and most teachers will have a student with a seizure disorder in class at some point in their teaching career. It is important that teachers be able to recognize seizures, provide first aid to students having seizures, and promote the education and self-esteem of students who experience seizures. Seizures are a disruption of neuronal discharges in the brain and they come in many different forms. The most common types of seizures in schools include absence seizures, complex partial seizures, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The videotape explains what each of these seizures is and discusses how to recognize them in students. The most important things for a teacher to do when a student is having a seizure include (1) remaining calm, (2) keeping the student safe, (3) reassuring the student, and (4)...

Understanding Complex Partial Seizures

Summary Understanding Complex Partial Seizures is a 14-minute videotape about the nature of complex partial epileptic seizures. Complex partial seizures are often different from the typical tonic-clonic generalized seizures that people often associate with epilepsy. Because of this, they may be difficult to recognize or diagnose as seizures. Complex partial seizures are caused by brief electrical disturbances in the brain and are characterized by a loss of awareness, sometimes accompanied by specific or repeated motor activities or verbal activity. Studies of individuals with complex partial seizures have led to an increased awareness and understanding of the condition, but complex partial seizures are so varied they can be misdiagnosed. Each individual tends to have his or her own characteristic pattern of activity during seizures. Sometimes this is easily recognized as a seizure, but often it is not. Complex partial seizures are sometimes misinterpreted as behavior problems or...

Products For Incontinence Control

Typically, urinary incontinence does not cause major health problems but it can be embarrassing and can affect a woman's self-esteem and confidence. There are a range of products available to control incontinence, including adjustable briefs (a diaper-style garment), pull-up briefs or undergarments, and pads held in place with belts or adhesive strips. These products have benefited greatly from the development of super absorbent materials such as the types used in menstrual pads and baby diapers. Irritation and rashes are important potential health effects that can occur with extended use of these products, especially in individuals who are bedridden. However, advances in materials and technology have reduced the likelihood of these effects.

Criterion for Functional Autonomy

For example, a child first learning to walk is motivated by some maturational drive, but later he may walk to increase mobility or to build self-confidence. Similarly, a scientist initially dedicated to finding answers to difficult problems may eventually gain more satisfaction from the search than from the solution. At that point, her motivation becomes functionally independent from her original motive of finding answers. She may then look for another area of inquiry even though the new field is somewhat different from the previous one. New problems may lead her to seek new goals and to set higher levels of aspiration.

Issues of Clinical Relevance

The following case example illustrates low self-esteem in a woman who experienced previous abuse and a loss of professional status after immigrating to the United States and who had to become the head of the household. Ms. H, a divorced woman in her 40s, sought psychiatric treatment because she was experiencing poor sleep, anxiety, weight loss, and tearfulness. She was the sole supporter of her two children but was employed in a low-paying position, even though she had had a professional career in Nicaragua. This greatly affected her self-esteem, and she was distressed that she could not do better. Her alcoholic ex-husband had verbally and physically abused her. Treatment was started with an antidepressant, and weekly supportive therapy was successfully provided. The issues of low self-esteem in a woman who had come from a society of intricate machismo (the ideal of the strong, powerful, active man) and who had been abused were addressed in brief, focused psychotherapy. Eventually,...

Physiological Correlates of Efficacy

When a person has low self-efficacy, the body, as well as the mind, responds. The autonomic nervous system is aroused (Bandura, Reese, & Adams, 1982). In one study, women phobically afraid of spiders confronted spiders in the laboratory. Sometimes the task was one that the subjects felt they had high efficacy to accomplish (e.g., seeing a spider at a distance) other tasks were more difficult. The women's level of efficacy predicted changes in plasma catecholamine secretion (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopac). When therapy increased their efficacy expectations, the physiological indicators also changed (Bandura, Taylor, Williams, Mefford, & Barchas, 1985). Stressors can enhance or suppress immune system functioning. When subjects in a laboratory had low self-efficacy about performing the tasks they were given, their endogenous opioid systems were activated (Bandura, Cioffi, Taylor, & Brouillard, 1988 Bandura, O'Leary, Taylor, Gauthier, & Gossard, 1987), which can interfere with...

Scientific Behaviorism

Although Skinner believed that internal states are outside the domain of science, he did not deny their existence. Such conditions as hunger, emotions, values, self-confidence, aggressive needs, religious beliefs, and spitefuhiess exist but they are not explanations for behavior. To use them as explanations not only is fruitless but also limits the advancement of scientific behaviorism. Other sciences have made greater advances because they have long since abandoned the practice of attributing motives, needs, or willpower to the motion (behavior) of living organisms and inanimate objects. Skinner's scientific behaviorism follows their lead (Skinner, 1945).

Psychological factors 405

Due to the terminal prognosis associated with AIDS, diagnosis can be catastrophic to the individual, who might face catastrophic changes not only in their personal and job relationships, but in their physical bodies and in their self-images and self-esteem as well. Initially, daily routine may be interrupted income may be disrupted or diminished. Diagnosis could lead to feeling the sense of loss of control of one's life.

Risk and risk management

We live in an age of fear not real fear of death and starvation, penury and war but a corrosive anxiety that in any situation the worst will happen, that nothing is safe and no one and no thing or principle is to be trusted.19 The environment that this insecurity spawns generates numberless attempts to regulate and check what has happened or what might happen and convoluted attempts to minimise any risk that an individual or organisation might fall prey to. The United States spends about 200 billion a year towards regulating health and safety and environmental risk. You could say this habit is simply wise caution or you could see it as a loss of trust and self confidence. Whatever your interpretation, it is for now a fact of life that one must manage risk actively and centrally. Between 1967 and 1972, risk was cited 1300 times in medical journals between 1987 and 1992 risk was cited 110 000 times between 1997 and 2002 this had jumped to a whopping 245 227 citations on PubMed. There...

Restless Legs Syndrome

Be on the lookout for depression, one sign of which is staying in bed or sleeping more than usual. Other signs include feeling persistently sad, anxious, or hopeless for several weeks or months losing interest in formerly enjoyable activities experiencing a lack of energy, weight changes, and appetite disturbances exhibiting moodiness, irritability, and restlessness feeling guilty, helpless, or worthless having difficulty concentrating, remembering things, and making decisions withdrawing from friends or family losing self-confidence and self-esteem doing poorly in school and thinking about death and suicide.

Public Speech as Covert Courtship

Verbal courtship in the broader sense explains why we compete to say interesting, relevant things in groups. Sexual choice permeates human social life, because anything that raises social status tends to improve mating prospects. If a man gains a reputation as an incisive thinker who consistently clarifies group decision-making and mediates social conflicts, his social status and sexual attractiveness increase. If a woman gains a reputation as a great wit and an inventive storyteller, her status and attractiveness increase as well. Public speaking and debate allow individuals to advertise their knowledge, clear thinking, social tact, good judgment, wit, experience, morality, imagination, and self-confidence. Under Pleistocene conditions, the sexual incentives for advertising such qualities would have persisted throughout adult life, in almost every social situation. Language puts minds on public display, where sexual choice could see them clearly for the first time in evolutionary...

Contemporary Female Genital Alterations In North America

Even though the scare died down after the Kinsey Report of 1948, which normalized masturbation and even considered it a healthy release or an expression of self-love, genital surgeries for medical reasons did not end completely (15). Female circumcision was continued to be encouraged in the postwar years for cleanliness, hygiene (18), frigidity, cancer, urinary tract infections, prevention of sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS and HIV (35), and genital anomalies. One gauge of the latter is that approximately 2 or approximately 80,000 live births in the United States annually are subjected to modifications of genitalia to define the sexuality (7,86,87). These operations (sex reassignment surgeries) are performed on infants whom the medical literature calls intersex children (88,89). In general, these rationales for female genital surgeries are less prominent than those of the preceding century.

Summary And Clinical Implications

The second issue concerns day-to-day therapeutic management of mood disorders. The pattern of memory problems, e.g. in depression, suggests that work on timetabling and diary management would not only be pragmatically helpful but would also mitigate against further damage to self-esteem arising from the forgetting of important information. Similarly, cognitive therapy with mood-disordered individuals revolves around working with autobiographical material and using it to challenge core beliefs and assumptions about the self. If mnemonic access to this material is slanted in a negative direction in mood-disordered individuals, then extra therapeutic work is indicated to generate positive memories for use in the cognitive therapy process.

Abused Women and the Health Care System

The battered woman's syndrome is a commonly used term for the psychological sequelae of repeated abuse and violence (Walker 1979). This concept incorporates ideas about learned helplessness and characterizes victims as passive, hopeless, and developing low self-esteem as a result of the abuse. Another way of understanding the psychological responses of victims is through the diagnostic construct of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Browne 1993). It is argued that repeated violence and abuse may result in typical symptoms of PTSD, including fear, flashbacks, denial, avoidance, loss of memory, anxiety, and hypervigilance. Ultimately, these constructs may provide only limited guidance given the diversity of experiences and psychological adaptations of abuse survivors.

Where Do We Go From Here

One of the best predictors of their progress, while their IQ is not. But, even in the most effective interventions, there is a proportion of children who resist treatment (Torgesen et al., 1999). Much more needs to be known about why this is so. Generally, it is the children with the most severe phonological deficits. Do these children have co-occurring speech-language difficulties Or ADHD Perhaps some suffer from some kind of psychological problem, such as low self-esteem, or are they subject to social and family adversity We simply don't have the answers at the present time. A related issue is what accounts for the maintenance of treatment gains when specialist teaching stops. A critical factor seems to be levels of print exposure but how do you encourage a dyslexic who dislikes reading to read Such questions turn on the talent of teachers who can assess the needs of their dyslexic students with a high degree of precision.

Marriage and Relationships

Among dating couples, being loved and supported helps partners to grow toward self-actualization, becoming closer to their ideals (Ruvolo & Brennan, 1997). In several studies, Duncan Cramer (1985, 1986, 1990a, 1990b) has examined both romantic relationships and friendship. These studies support the growth-producing qualities of relationships identified by Rogers. Cramer (1990a) reported that high school and college students had higher self-esteem if their romantic partners possessed the characteristics that Rogers identified as facilitating growth (unconditional acceptance, empathy, and congruence). Growth-facilitating qualities of friends were also associated with higher self-esteem, but not so strongly as those of romantic partners. Unconditional acceptance seems to be a particularly important quality (Cramer, 1990b). Friends appear able to be relatively directive that is, giving advice while still having growth-facilitating qualities, in contrast to the nondirective mode advocated...

The Basis For A Transcultural Law In The Field Of Human Genetics And Biotechnology3

Although the list would be never ending, I am going to limit myself to mention those that I consider essential for the scope of a transculturally based globalization. Therefore, I will dispense with the reference to certain civil and political rights, including some social rights, recognized by Universal Declarations or Treaties. I will also dispense with those which more specifically constitute the core of rights related to human genetics, as are the human genome as being the heritage of humanity,5 the right to self integrity, the right to ones genetic identity, all as a characteristic of the specie, as well as the right to the protection of personal genetic data, the right not to be discriminated on grounds of the genetic characteristics (UNESCO, Declaration, 2003, art. 11).

Sensory integration dysfunction 447

Pencil, playing with toys, or taking care of personal tasks, such as getting dressed. Some children with this problem are so afraid of movement that ordinary swings, slides, or jungle gyms trigger fear and insecurity. On the other hand, some children whose problems lie at the opposite extreme are uninhibited and overly active, often falling and running headlong into dangerous situations. In each of these cases, a sensory integrative problem may be an underlying factor. Its far-reaching effects can interfere with academic learning, social skills, even self-esteem.

Mental Illness and Substance Abuse

Clinical evidence suggests that women with mental illness or substance abuse are more likely to be abandoned by their partners than are men with similar problems (Beckman and Amaro 1986 Lex 1991). In Latino families, the stigma of mental illness and substance abuse is often increased for women because of their inability to meet expectations such as primary caregiving of children and nurturing the rest of the family. Latinas are therefore at risk for losing an important source of support, as well as an important source of self-esteem in fulfilling expected roles in the family. Latina patterns of alcohol use have been studied in Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans. The trends described in the 1984 Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) data indicated that Latina women drink less than men do and that traditional sanctions against women drinking appear to exist (Aguirre-Molina and Caetano 1994). However, according to more recent studies, acculturation and education...

Sicklecell disease 455

In a few families, the conflict between siblings is so severe that the help of a mental health professional may be required. Signs that a family may need outside help in solving the problem include conflict that is causing marital problems, creates a real danger of physical harm, or that is hurting a child's self-esteem or psychological well-being.

Not Being Easily Understood By People With Normal Hearing

It is necessary to develop considerable self-confidence and a thick skin.This takes time and requires sympathetic friends, family and work colleagues who can boost confidence when the opportunity arises and can also pick up the pieces and lead the way to the pub, when difficulties occur. Most young people have a rapid turnover of friends and associates. When I became deafened many of my friends melted away. Some lacked the patience to communicate. With some we no longer had a common interest, e.g. music. Others just moved on. Coupled with a massive loss of self-esteem this reduction in social life and contacts can be very hard to cope with especially if the deafened person does not have a partner.

Transactivator TAT3 gene See tat gene

HIV in the transgender population has not been studied extensively. Some reports indicate that transgendered people have a high risk for contracting HIV. Issues such as identity confusion or conflict, shame and isolation, secrecy, and fear of discovery and rejection all can lead people to make decisions that may not value their own life. In a study conducted in Minneapolis, transgendered people said it was easier to have unsafe sex or share in injection drug use (IDU) than to protect themselves because feelings of shame and confusion lead to low self-esteem.

Individual Differences

How important are differences among people Some theories emphasize the ways in which individuals are unique others focus more on similarities. Trait approaches usually emphasize the identification of differences among people (with the exception of All-port's individual traits, Cattell's P-technique, and a few others). Learning theories traditionally analyze the behavior of individual organisms rather than making comparisons across individuals, but psychological behaviorism describes universal categories of learning that are the basis of personality, and cognitive learning theories compare individuals on such characteristics as self-efficacy and cognitive complexity. In the clinically derived theories of psychoanalysis and its revisions, differences are defined according to coping mechanisms (or diagnostic categories), but these are developed from shared universal conflicts. Many other theories, including the humanistic theories, focus on dynamics common to all people.

Principles of Substance Abuse Treatment

In the later stages of treatment, the therapist was able to help Mr. S challenge some of the distorted cognitions relating to his alcohol abuse, including his grossly exaggerated sense of the number of men who drank alcohol to cope with stress. Mr. S came to realize that several individuals in his neighborhood were experiencing economic hardship but had not resorted to drinking. He was more open to other suggestions for improving his situation, including enrolling in an English as a second language class to increase his English-speaking ability and, thereby, also improve his self-esteem because of a reduced reliance on his children to translate.

Personal Orientation Inventory

The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) (Shostrom, 1964) is a 150-item multiple-choice inventoiy that provides two primary scores derived from Maslow's theory. The Inner Directed Supports scale measures the degree to which the subject provides his or her own support (as opposed to turning to others). The Time Competence scale measures the degree to which the subject lives in the present. In addition, there are sub-scales to measure self-actualizing values, existentiality, feeling reactivity, spontaneity, self-regard, self-acceptance, the nature of people, synergy, acceptance of aggression, and capacity for intimate contact.

Core Features of Human Agency

Finally, people have self-reflectiveness. They are examiners of then own functioning they can think about and evaluate then motivations, values, and the meanings of then life goals, and they can think about the adequacy of their own thinking. They can also evaluate the effect that other people's actions have on them. People's most crucial self-reflective mechanism is self-efficacy that is, then beliefs that they are capable of performing actions that will produce a desired effect.

Self Efficacy and Shyness

Bandura argued that the personality system obtains its coherence and formation by and through interactions with the social world. It is from these social interactions that beliefs and evaluations about the self develop, the most important of which is self-efficacy. What impact do these social cognitive beliefs about the self have on long-term and stable personality development That was the fundamental question that Gian Caprara, Patrizia Steca, Daniel Cervone, and Danielle Artistico (2003) set out to answer. More specifically, they examined the impact that self-efficacy beliefs have on dispositional shyness. Although shyness lias a strong temperamental and biological basis (Kagan, 1994), it also has been shown to be malleable by environmental events and experiences. For instance, consistent with Kagan's view that shyness levels can change, Sclunidt and Fox (2002) reviewed the literature demonstrating that temperamentally shy children who attend day care are less likely to become shy...

Efficacy and Striving toward Goals

Self-efficacy Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 1 91 -21 5. Copyright 1 977 by the American Psycholog ical Association. Reprinted by permission.) Brunstein, Schultheiss, & Grassmann, 1998 Emmons, 1997). Self-efficacy promotes striving toward goals. Students who have higher self-efficacy beliefs are more persistent in their academic work and achieve higher levels of academic performance (Multon, Brown, & Lent, 1991). Occupational choice is influenced by efficacy. In a study of high school equivalency students, those who had a broader generality of self-efficacy considered a wider possible range of occupations they also had a greater range of interests (Bores-Rangel, Church, Szendre, & Reeves, 1990). Athletes who are more confident perform better, and elite coaches use a variety of techniques to build such a sense of efficacy, including enhancing performance through drilling, modeling of confidence, and encouraging...

What Contributes to Self Efficacy

Nationalsozialismus Sport

Personal efficacy is acquired enhanced, or decreased through any one or combination of four sources (1) mastery experiences, (2) social modeling, (3) social persuasion, and (4) physical and emotional states (Bandura, 1997). With each method information about oneself and the environment is cognitively processed and together with recollections of previous experiences, alters perceived self-efficacy. The most influential source of self-efficacy is performance. The most influential source of self-efficacy is performance. Mastery Experiences The most influential sources of self-efficacy are mastery experiences, that is, past performances (Bandura, 1997). In general, successful performance raises efficacy expectancies failure tends to lower them. This general statement has six corollaries. First, successful performance raises self-efficacy in proportion to the difficulty of the task. Highly skilled tennis players gain little self-efficacy by defeating clearly mferior opponents, but they...

The Idealized Self Moving away from the Real Self

A healthy adult who is neglected or rejected can turn to other relationships, confident in his or her own self-worth, but the young child does not have the resources to do so. Consequently, the sense of self, which is just in the process of developing, emerges already wounded. The child develops a low self-esteem. The person may feel like a counterfeit, having lost touch with essential aspects of self, that is, alienated from the true self (Ingram, 2001). Instead, the neurotic turns to an imagined idealized self, which would not be despised. The idealized self varies depending on the interpersonal orientation of the individual. Perhaps if I am veiy, very good and kind, I will be lovable, thinks one child. Or, imagines another, if I impress people with my achievements and power, they will not be able to hurt me, and they may even admire me. Or, muses a third, maybe I don't need people after all I can manage alone. Not all perfectionists are suicidal, of course. Some have high...

Characteristics of patients admitted to day care disintegration and loss of self

As important as these issues are, it was clear that feelings of despondency and low self-esteem were most commonly experienced by patients who found themselves, as a result of the debilitative impact of their illness, physically dependent upon others. Patients who suffered from poor mobility frequently expressed considerable anxiety that they had become a 'burden' to their family and friends - a phenomenon which is examined further in Chapter 3. Patients' feelings of low self-worth also became evident in the suggestion made by some that they had originally agreed to be admitted to day care more for their family's benefit than their own.9 As Helen put it

Self Ideal Congruence and Mental Health

Rogers also proposed that the cornerstone of mental health was the congruency between how we really view ourselves and how we ideally would like to be. If these two self-evaluations are congruent, one is relatively adjusted and healthy. If not, one experiences various forms of mental discomfort, such as anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem.

Fitness as a Defense Against Mortality Awareness

As implied hi the first study, terror management theory actively argues for two distinct categories of defense against death, namely conscious and unconscious. The conscious defenses are also referred to as proximal defenses and take the form of not me, not now and are seen hi active suppression of thoughts of death as well as distancing and denying ones vulnerability. When ones death is unconsciously activated then distal defenses become activated. These involve identifying with and defending cultural beliefs and ideologies and boosting ones self-esteem. With the distinction between proximal and distal defenses as a guide, Jamie Arndt, Jeff Schimel, and Jamie Goldenberg (2003) reasoned that intention to exercise should be an ideal avenue to study the different effects of both kinds of defense. The intention to exercise is obviously a proximal defense in that people are motivated by the desire to be healthy and avoid disease. It is also a distal defense hi that it bolsters self-esteem...

Longitudinal Studies of Attachment

Horney emphasized the cultural determinants of development. Parenting patterns vaiy from society to society even the Oedipus complex is not a universal human experience in her theory. Horney discussed sex roles as developments shaped by particular cultures, which can change if cultures change. Horneyan therapy seeks to uncover unconscious conflicts originating in childhood but emphasizes their implications for present life. The patient's idealized self-image is challenged. Self-analysis can he a useful supplement to psychoanalysis.

Object Relations and Eating Disorders

The experimenters used three measures of object relations (1) interpersonal dependency (2) separation-individuation and (3) a general measure of object relations, which assessed alienation, insecure attachment, egocentricity, and social incompetence. The three measures of eatmg disorder assessed (1) anorexic tendencies, (2) bulimic tendencies, and (3) a persons sense of control and self-efficacy over compulsive eating. Results showed gender differences on one object relations measure (the interpersonal dependency scale). With regard to measures of eatmg disorder, men scored lower than women on all three measures of disordered eatmg. In other words, men have less trouble with binge and compulsive eatmg than women and are less interpersonally dependent than women. Nevertheless, some overlap existed between college males and females, which suggests that gender differences, though usually significant, do not neatly divide men from women on such measures as interpersonal dependency and its...

Biography of Abraham H Maslow

After Maslow graduated from Boys High School, his cousin Will encouraged him to apply to Cornell University, but lacking self-confidence, Maslow selected the less prestigious City College of New York. At about this time, his parents divorced and he and his father became less emotionally distant. Maslow's father had wanted his oldest son to be a lawyer, and while attending City College, Maslow enrolled in law school. However, he walked out of law classes one night, leaving his books behind. Significantly, he felt that law dealt too much with evil people and was not sufficiently concerned with the good. His father, although initially disappointed, eventually accepted Mallow's decision to quit law school (M. H. Hall, 1968).

About the Revised Mosher Guilt Inventory

Stephanie and Paul are typical, and their stories make, I believe, an important point. Both continue to be influenced by their parents' views on sex, but they do not see this as necessarily bad. Stephanie feels pity and some disdain for her friends who have casual sexual experiences. She believes such encounters are bad for her friends' self-esteem as well as dangerous to their health. And Paul would never want to be known as a womanizer. He has noticed that his male friends, who have a knack for finding one-night stands, seem to spend much of their time with their buddies bragging about their exploits rather than spending it with a woman they like. While Paul does have wistful moments when he wonders what it would be like to have sex with lots of different woman, he does strongly prefer his style of one, caring relationship at a time. Both Stephanie and Paul would argue that the remnants of guilt and anxiety that they feel serve to make them better people.

Smoking and Self Concept

Previous research on self-concept and adolescent smoking has tended to find relatively negative self-concepts of smokers compared with nonsmokers. More specifically, smokers have greater disparity between real and ideal self-concepts as well as lower self-esteem (Burton, Sussman, Hansen, Johnson, & Flay, 1989 Webster, Hunter, & Keats, 1994). Because different smokers smoke for different reasons, however, an idiographic approach such as the REP test should be better than the conventional methods at measuring these differences. As predicted, smokers identified more with their descriptions of smoker personalities and vice-versa for nonsmokers. Among the more frequent traits attributed to smokers were laid back, outgoing, lazy, and loud, whereas the more frequent traits for nonsmokers were quiet, studious, friendly, and athletic. Interestingly, however, all participants endorsed and valued nonsmoker traits more highly than smoker traits on all four self-concept measures. That is, both the...

Short History Of The Concept Of Dyslexia

Part of the definition has attracted a lot of criticism. First, IQ is not strongly related to reading. Indeed, many children with low IQ can read perfectly well even though they may encounter reading comprehension difficulties. Second, and perhaps most important, there is suggestive evidence that verbal IQ may decline over time among poor readers. To some extent, this decline might be as a consequence of limited access to knowledge in books. However, there are other reasons too. Difficulties in retrieving verbal information and problems of verbal short-term memory can influence test performance, as can low self-esteem. Whatever the reason, the discrepancy definition of dyslexia may disadvantage those children with the most severe problems whose apparently low verbal IQ may obscure the specificity of the reading problem.

It Was A Pattern He Would Play Out His Entire Life Cobain

Lack of self-esteem results from parental rejection, and Cobain evidenced this by considerable self-criticism in his journals I hate you. I hate them. But I hate myself most of all (Cross, 2001, p. 277). To compensate and make himself lovable, he had a grandiose vision of success, working feverishly toward a career that many would have thought unrealistic. He adopted an achievement-oriented, moving against interpersonal style, in Horney's language, and as such, he was filled with rage. As his success began, he worried about failure, using cynicism as a defense mechanism. He sought to bolster his sense of self-esteem through his concerts, yet he did so by playing the role of a delinquent, smashing guitars on stage and composing and singing lyrics about offensive topics such as abortion and rape. Horney's theory describes achievement as one variation of the moving against people style of living, and the combination of success and blatant destruction in Cobain's career is a dramatic...

Values of Self Actualizers

Value Maslow Theory

Metamotivation is characterized by expressive rather than coping behavior and is associated with the B-values. It differentiates self-actualizing people from those who are not. In other words, metamotivation was Maslow's tentative answer to the problem of why some people have their lower needs satisfied are capable of giving and receivmg love, possess a great amount of confidence and self-esteem, and yet fail to pass over the threshold to self-actualization. The lives of these people are meaningless and lacking in B-values. Only people who live among the B-values are self-actualizing, and they alone are capable of metamotivation.

The Leadership of Sigmund Freud

When a leader creates, he or she must also create the climate for followers to want to participate. It is not sufficient to challenge the status quo or attempt to change it if constituents have no interest. This is perhaps more challenging than going against the norm, because it involves changing the perspective of people other than oneself. Freud believed that his patients expected great things of him, and that belief in him fostered self-confidence and his ability to accomplish his goals. Similarly, Freud sought to engender self-confidence in others by expecting great things of them and giving them the resources to accomplish their goals, even if they did not coincide with his own (Freud, 1914 1972). He desired most of all to be a leader among leaders, not to monopolize power. In this spirit,

The Recovered Memory Controversy

Two points are established beyond controversy Sexual abuse of children occurs all too frequently, and it has long-term negative effects on psychological functioning (Cahill, Llewelyn, & Pearson, 1991). David Finkelhor and his colleagues report a national survey of Americans in which 27 percent of the women and 16 percent of the men reported some type of sexual abuse when they were children. Overall, 13 percent of the women and 9 percent of the men reported a history of actual or attempted intercourse (Finkelhor et al., 1990). Those who have been sexually abused as children are at increased risk for a variety of disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, suicide, borderline personality disorder, multiple personality disorder, dissociation, drug and alcohol abuse, sexual victimization, difficulty in relationships, and poor self-esteem (Alter-Reid et al., 1986 Barnard & Hirsch, 1985 Browne & Finkelhor, 1986 Connors & Morse, 1993 deChesnay, 1985...

About the Personal Behavior Inventory

UCLA psychologist Barry Collins and his colleagues were intrigued by this conceptualization but argued that the internal-external dimension was more complex than Rotter had suggested. Their test, the Personal Behavior Inventory, was developed to explore their ideas further. As you can see from their test and the scoring system, they concluded that there were four dimensions relevant to how we view the world, the first of which they called Other-Direction. People with high scores on this scale feel pressured to conform to the expectations of others. Their low self-esteem causes them to experience anxiety should they think about saying or doing something that might displease those around them. Consequently, they feel rather powerless to control the direction of their lives.

Addressing Some of the Myths about the Doctor Patient Relationship

I asked the students to define the middle. They answered Finding out what it's like for patients, taking time with them, going beyond the technical aspects of their illness. Understanding that an illness may have impact on patients' income, the viability of their career, and on their self-image. Finding out what it's like for families. Recognizing that illness is a family experience. Understanding that an illness may have impact on the dynamics of family life. Asking the appropriate questions to address those issues. They recognized already that developing a sense of the patient's experience through interested inquiry could not only enhance the relationship between the patient, the family, and the physician but also might affect the process of care and even improve the outcome.

Self Efficacy Gender and Academic Achievement

Earlier, we discussed Bandura s four sources of self-efficacy mastery experiences, social modeling, social persuasion, and emotional states. A recent paper by Nan Zhang Hampton and Emanuel Mason (2003) suggests that students with learning disabilities may have lower self-efficacy mainly because they have less access to these four sources of self-efficacy. In this case, for example, repeated failure to master academic experiences leads to low self-efficacy in students with learning disabilities. This, in turn, leads to the vicious cycle of trying less and failing even more. Perceptions become rehiforced by experience. Even social modeling is lowered hi students with learning disabilities because these students do not identify with successful students. Previous research on self-efficacy and learning disabilities has ignored possible mechanisms that might explahi their relationship between these two factors. By including gender and sources of self-efficacy, Hampton and Mason hoped to...

The Idealized Self Image

Horney believed that human behigs, if given an environment of discipline and warmth, will develop feelings of security and self-confidence and a tendency to move toward self-realization. Unfortunately, early negative influences often hnpede people s natural tendency toward self-realization, a situation that leaves them with feelings of isolation and inferiority. Added to this failure is a growing sense of alienation from themselves. Feeling alienated from themselves, people need desperately to acquire a stable sense of identity. This dilemma can only be solved by creathig an idealized self-image, an extravagantly positive view of themselves that exists only in their personal belief system. These people endow themselves with infinite powers and unlimited capabilities they see themselves as a hero, a genius, a supreme lover, a saint, a god (Horney, 1950, p. 22). The idealized self-image is not a global construction. Neurotics glorify and worship themselves hi different ways. Compliant...

Stages of Development

From age 2 to 3, the child begins working on self-esteem. The capacity for pride through achievement starts to develop, as well as the capacity for humiliation and selfishness. 5. Self-image. The self-image includes both evaluation of our present abilities, status, and roles and our aspirations for the future (Allport, 1955, p. 47). Children between the ages 4 and 6, Allport suggested, begin to become capable of formulating future goals and are aware of being good and bad.

Psychological Disorders

Dissociated reactions, which often precede schizophrenia, are characterized by loneliness, low self-esteem, the uncanny emotion, unsatisfactory relations with others, and ever-increasing anxiety (Sullivan, 1953b). People with a dissociated personality, in common with all people, attempt to minimize anxiety by building an elaborate self-system that blocks out those experiences that threaten then security. Whereas normal individuals feel relatively secure in their interpersonal relations and do not need to constantly rely on dissociation as a means of protecting self-esteem, mentally disordered individuals dissociate many of then experiences from their self-system. If this strategy becomes persistent, these people will begin to increasingly operate in their own private worlds, with increasing parataxic distortions and decreasing consensually validated experiences (Sullivan, 1956).

FeSense of Self in Relationships

Relational theorist Stephen Mitchell (1970 1999) suggests that the early parent-child relationship is one in which parents' more or less distorted views of themselves and their child set up a distorted, grandiose self-image in the child. For example, the parents might create an unrealistically good and obedient image of their child, which is too limiting for a real child to have room to develop his or her full personality. Our role relationships with other people throughout life are based on early relationships, and they recapitulate the weaknesses and the defective sense of self that are the legacy of the past. People whose early object relationships are unhealthy because of early physical, sexual, and emotional abuse or other mistreatment are vulnerable to self-destructive behaviors, including suicide (Twomey, Kaslow, & Croft, 2000). They remain in relationships that seem obviously unhealthy. Why would this be The need to maintain a relationship with an important object, such as the...

Identity Versus Identity Confusion

The search for ego identity reaches a climax dining adolescence as young people strive to find out who they are and who they are not. With the advent of puberty, adolescents look for new roles to help them discover then sexual, ideological, and occupational identities. In this search, young people draw from a variety of earlier self-images that have been accepted or rejected. Thus, the seeds of identity begin to sprout during infancy and continue to grow through childhood the play age, and the school age. Then during adolescence, identity strengthens mto a crisis as young people learn to cope with the psychosocial conflict of identity versus identity confusion. Identity confusion is a syndrome of problems that includes a divided self-image, an inability to establish mthnacy, a sense of thne urgency, a lack of concentration on requhed tasks, and a rejection of family or community standards. As with the other dystonic tendencies, some amount of identity confusion is both normal and...

Locus of Control Depression and Suicide

A consistent and somewhat sobering result from the research on suicidal ideation is the often strong sense of lack of control and helplessness that is associated with thoughts of suicide. Those who believe they are relatively powerless to control the central forces of their lives and who have no expectation that they can control the rewards in their lives are more likely to become depressed and have thoughts of suicide. Real Labelle and Lise Lachance (2003) studied this phenomenon hi a group under relatively high levels of stress, namely university students living hi a demanding setting with a low sense of internal control. Labelle and Lachance reasoned that Banduras notion of self-efficacy would be an important influence on the development of depression and suicidal ideation in college students. More specifically, they predicted that students with low academic self-efficacy and high external locus of control would have more thoughts about death and...

Horneys Three Neurotic Solutions

Morbid dependency the need for a partner (friend, lover, or spouse) Poor little me feeling of being weak and helpless Self-subordination assumption that others are superior Martyrdom sacrifice and suffering for others Need for love desire to find self-worth in a relationship Narcissistic in love with idealized self-image The compliant type of person makes few demands on others, instead playing a poor me role that emphasizes helplessness and subordination. This produces low self-esteem. Such a person takes it for granted that everyone is superior to him, that they are more attractive, more intelligent, better educated, more worthwhile than he (Hor-ney, 1945, pp. 53-54).

Diseases That Cause Vulvar Pain Vulvar Vestibulitis

Vulvar Vestibule Healthy

Women with VVS experience substantial pain with tampon insertion, insertion of a speculum, or with sexual activity. When the insertional pain is associated with sexual activity, women usually experience relationship difficulties with their partners. When this occurs, lowered self-esteem is common and some women can experience substantial depression (1,24,25). In the more severe cases, women can experience pain and burning on a day-to-day basis when walking, sitting, wearing clothing that comes in contact with the vulva, after exercise, and wiping after urination. If the inflammatory process includes the periurethral ducts of the vestibule, women may complain of urgency and frequency in the absence of a urinary tract infection. Symptoms can also be totally unpredictable and unprovoked.

Outcomes of Psychotherapy

Rogers proposed that when a therapeutic climate is created that has the three crucial characteristics described above (unconditional positive regard, congruence, and em-pathic understanding), a positive therapeutic outcome will result. In such a case, the client will develop more of the healthy characteristics of self-actualizing people, including openness to experience, self-acceptance, and trust of organismic experience (Rogers, 1961a). Rogers reported empirical studies demonstrating the effectiveness of psychotherapy. In one study, self-concept was measured by a Q-technique. Subjects sorted 100 self-perception statements for example, I often feel resentful , I feel relaxed and nothing really bothers me into nine piles, indicating how well the statements described themselves. These sortings were done for the actual self (as perceived by the subject) and for the ideal self (how the subject would like to be). Before therapy, the real self and the ideal self were quite different. They...

Components of Psychological Health

As we saw earlier, Maslow suggested that self-actualization people can be characterized by 15 different dimensions. From the 1950s through the 1990s, a number of researchers attempted to determine the structure of mental health and well-being. For instance, in the 1950s, Marie Jahoda (1958) was asked by the Joint Commission on Mental Illness and Health to review and summarize the literature on mental health. She concluded that six dimensions most consistently appeared self-acceptance, personal growth, autonomy, environmental mastery, personality integration, and an accurate perception of reality. Many of these were in fact the same or very similar to Maslow's more exhaustive list. In the 1970s, Richard Coan (1977) combined theory and empirical research and argued for five disthict dimensions of mental health efficiency, relatedness, inner harmony, creativity, and self-transcendence. Later, Carolyn Ryff (Ryff & Keyes, 1995) combined Jahoda's theoretical review with research on...

Safeguarding Tendencies

Adler believed that people create patterns of behavior to protect their exaggerated sense of self-esteem against public disgrace. These protective devices, called safeguarding tendencies, enable people to hide their inflated self-image and to maintain their current style of life. Adler's concept of safeguarding tendencies can be compared to Freud's concept of defense mechanisms. Basic to both is the idea that symptoms are formed as a protection against anxiety. However, there are important differences between the two concepts. Freudian defense mechanisms operate unconsciously to protect the ego against anxiety, whereas Adlerian safeguarding tendencies are largely conscious and shield a person's fragile self-esteem from public disgrace. Also, Freud's defense mechanisms are common to everyone, but Adler (1956) discussed safeguarding tendencies only with reference to the construction of neurotic symptoms. Excuses, aggression, and withdrawal are three common safeguarding tendencies, each...

Stages of Therapeutic Change

People at Stage 6 experience dramatic growth and an irreversible movement toward becoming fully functioning or self-actualizing. They freely allow into awareness those experiences that they had previously denied or distorted. They become more congruent and are able to match their present experiences with awareness and with open expression. They no longer evaluate their own behavior from an external viewpoint but rely on their organismic self as the criterion for evaluating experiences. They begin to develop unconditional self-regard, which means that they have a feeling of genuine caring and affection for the person they are becoming. Stage 7 can occur outside the therapeutic encounter, because growth at Stage 6 seems to be irreversible. Clients who reach Stage 7 become fully functioning persons of tomorrow (a concept more fully explained in the section titled The Person of Tomorrow). They are able to generalize then in-therapy experiences to their world beyond therapy. They possess...

The Impact of Culture

Rather than benefiting from the need for love, neurotics strive in pathological ways to find it. Their self-defeating attempts result hi low self-esteem, hicreased hostility, basic anxiety, more competitiveness, and a continuous excessive need for love and affection.

Horneyian Therapy

Although a therapist can help encourage patients toward self-understanding, ultimately successful therapy is built on self-analysis (Horney, 1942, 1950). Patients must understand the difference between then idealized self-image and then real self. Fortunately, people possess an inherent curative force that allows them to move inevitably hi the direction of self-realization once self-understanding and self-analysis are achieved. (Horney, 1987). They are also encouraged to express whatever feelings may arise from the associations. As with dream interpretation, free association eventually reveals patients' idealized self-image and persistent but unsuccessful attempts at accomplishing it.

Person Centered Theory

In Chapter 1, we said that clearly formulated theories often are stated in an if-then framework. Of all the theories hi this book, Rogers's person-centered theory comes closest to meeting this standard. An example of an if-then construction is If certain conditions exist, then a process will occur 'this process occurs, then certahi outcomes can be expected. A more specific example is found hi therapy 'the therapist is congruent and communicates unconditional positive regard and accurate empathy to the client, then therapeutic change will occur 'therapeutic change occurs, then the client will experience more self-acceptance, greater trust of self, and so on. (We discuss congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy more fully in the section titled Psychotherapy.)

Medical Or Cultural Model

Ninety per cent of deaf children are born to hearing parents (Cohen & Gorlin, 1995). Such deaf children may not have easy access to Deaf role models if they do not automatically have similarly affected relatives. This means that they may not develop their Deaf identity until they start school and begin to mix with other d Deaf children through groups and clubs. If they are brought up in a mainstream school and an oral environment then they may not have an affinity with the Deaf community at all, or not until adulthood. However, studies have shown that those d Deaf people who are able to accept, mix and work with the values of both the hearing world and the Deaf community appear to have the highest levels of self-esteem (Bat-Chava, 1994, in Calderon & Greenberg, 2003). Calderon and Greenberg (2003) argue that Deaf role models are vital throughout the education of deaf children, whether they are part of a hearing or deaf education system.

Al and Ethnic Identity

Since Erikson's introduction of identity as a seminal idea, others have expanded the concept to better understand racial and ethnic identities. A person may develop a strong identification with his or her ethnic, racial, or cultural group an ethnic identity or gender identity. This identification can provide the basis of strength and enhanced self-esteem, helping the individual to reject racism, instead of internalizing racism into his or her own identity, when it is confronted in society (Alvarez & Helms, 2001 Helms, 1990 Miller, 1999)- Thus ethnic identity fosters psychological well-being and protects against depression and loneliness (Roberts et al., 1999)- For those who can develop identities in both the majority culture and the minority culture for example, mainstream American and a Native American tribe self-esteem and psychological well-being tend to be even higher than those who develop identities in either culture alone, or neither one (Moran, Fleming, Somervell, & Manson,...

Theory Of Mind And Affects In Deaf Children

Way the test questions (and not control questions) are asked had been modified as regards the standard version used on normal development children, in the same way as in the previous ones. Two separation anxiety tests referred to as Family SAT (Klagsbrun & Bowlby, 1976 Fonagy et al., 1997 Slough, Goyette & Greenberg, 1988 Liverta-Sempio, Marchetti & Lecciso, 2001) - regarding the family and School SAT (Liverta-Sempio, Marchetti & Lecciso, 2001) regarding school. These are semi-projective tests and evaluate the child's answers to questions on separation from significant adults (parents and teachers). Each test involves three mild separation and three severe ones (Slough & Greenberg, 1990). Each test is given individually, recorded on audio media and then transcribed. The researcher first describes the situation to the child and then asks him three questions one on the character's sentiments, another on how he justifies the sentiment and a further one on coping with it. In Slough,...

Cultural Issues in Substance Abuse Treatment

Clinicians must be sensitive to the possibility that certain treatment options may not always be appropriate if a particular Hispanic patient shows a strong identification with the construct of machismo. A common example of this is the ambivalence of some Hispanics to embrace the 12 steps of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). The notion of admitting to being powerless over alcohol, as is stated in step 1 of the AA creed, may strike a painful chord in the Hispanic who much of his or her life may have felt the powerlessness and diminished sense of self-worth that frequently stems from being a minority in the United States. In this individual, the religious appeal of a higher power in AA may not be enough to compensate for feeling disempowered. He or she may opt for a program with a different focus, such as Rational Recovery (Trimpey 1992), that stresses a more cognitive approach to maintaining sobriety. For thousands of other Hispanics, however, AA and the other 12-step programs have been a...

Overview of Social Cognitive Theory

Component of the triadic reciprocal causation model is self-efficacy. People s performance is generally enhanced when they have high self-efficacy that is, the confidence that they can perform those behaviors that will produce desired behaviors in a particular situation. In addition to self-efficacy, both proxy agency and collective efficacy can predict performance. With proxy agency, people are able to rely on others for goods and services, whereas collective efficacy refers to people s shared beliefs that they can brmg about change.

About the Self Efficacy Scale

If you had a high score on this test, you probably feel confident about your ability to make changes in your life and to accomplish your goals. This sense of confidence is not an illusion, you are indeed more likely to achieve success in your personal life, and your educational and vocational endeavors than those who obtained low scores on this test. Stanford psychologist Albert Ban-dura, one of the most respected researchers in the country, has called self-efficacy one of the most powerful determinants of behavioral change because it causes people to take that first step toward their goal, it motivates them to make a concerted effort, and it gives them the strength to persist in the face of adversity. This may make it seem that self-efficacy is only relevant to the highly functioning, go-getters of the world, but a sense of self-efficacy is important to everyone, regardless of whether they head a major corporation or are struggling in psychotherapy to overcome a personal problem....

Cognitive Processes

Language is a significant concern of many theorists. It has been described as the key to making experience conscious and in making discriminations possible, thus facilitating healthy adaptation (e.g., Dollard and Miller, Staats, and other learning theorists). Cognition is central to Kelly's theory, which asserts that behaviors and emotions follow from a person's personal constructs. Mischel and Bandura further developed this idea, describing the cognitive processes of personality, including expectancies and self-efficacy.

Eliminating Low Expectancies

Therapists can also help patients look at the long-range consequences of their behaviors and to understand that many maladaptive behaviors produce secondary gains that outweigh the patients' present frustration. For example, a woman may adopt the role of a helpless child in order to gam control over her husband. She complains to her therapist that she is dissatisfied with her helplessness and would like to become more independent, both for her sake and for the benefit of her husband. What she may not realize, however, is that her current helpless behavior is satisfyhig her basic need for dominance. The more helpless she acts, the more control she exercises over her husband who must respond to her helplessness. The positive reinforcement she receives from her husband's recognition is stronger than her accompanying negative feelings. In addition, she may not clearly see the long-range positive consequences of self-confidence and independence. The task of therapists is to train patients...

Sensory integration dysfunction 281

Sensory integration dysfunction (DSI) The inefficient brain processing of information received through the senses. A child with DSI has trouble detecting, discriminating, or integrating sensations. Children with sensory integration problems may be bright, but they may have trouble using a pencil, playing with toys, or taking care of personal tasks such as getting dressed. some children with this problem are so afraid of movement that ordinary swings, slides, or jungle gyms trigger fear and insecurity. on the other hand, some children whose problems lie at the opposite extreme are uninhibited and overly active, often falling and blundering into dangerous situations. In each of these cases, a sensory integrative problem may be an underlying factor. Its far-reaching effects can interfere with academic learning, social skills, even self-esteem.

Individual Differences in Aggressive Responses

Results from some failure of ego development that lets aggressive instincts get out of control. Problems with early attachment predict aggressive behavior (Lyons-Ruth, 1996). Childhood physical abuse predicts later violence (Malinosky-Rummell & Hansen, 1993). People whose self-esteem is challenged, often because it is inflated and vulnerable, are more likely to become angry and violent in response to ego threats that is, aggression is a reaction to a narcissistic wound (Baumeister, Smart, & Boden, 1996 Bushman & Baumeister, 1998). One kind of ego threat is a threat to masculinity, which can produce violence in relationships (Jakupcak, Lisak, & Roemer, 2002).

How Does Epilepsy Affect Daily Life

People with epilepsy have an increased risk of poor self-esteem, depression, and suicide. These problems may be a reaction to a lack of understanding or discomfort about epilepsy that may result in cruelty or avoidance by other people. Many people with epilepsy also live with an ever-present fear that they will have another seizure.

Examining the Patient

Most patients with major depression have diminished self-esteem. One way for the physician to elicit such thoughts is to ask Sometimes when people are depressed they become very self-critical or self-doubting. I don't mean you should be having such thoughts, but I was wondering whether you are. The examiner should also ask about the patient's sense of success in his or her most prized social roles. Some patients deny diminished self-esteem on screening inquiry but later spontaneously report that they are less-capable workers, less-attractive spouses, or less-nurturing parents. Although such changes can be produced by major depression, other informants often report that the patients ideas are distorted.

Determination Theory and Intrinsic Motivation

Self-determination theory proposes that people innately have three important psychological needs competence, autonomy, and relatedness (Ryan & Deci, 2000). All of these needs must be satisfied if an individual is to thrive. When these basic needs are satisfied, self-motivation is enhanced People work more persistently, perform better, and are more creative. They have a higher self-esteem and sense of well-being. Mental health improves. However, when these needs are not satisfied, well-being suffers and motivation decreases.

Borderline intellectual functioning An IQ

Borderline personality disorder A pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships and self-image, with marked impulsivity, beginning by early adulthood. This type of personality disorder leads to intense feelings of abandonment, poor self-image, and unrealistic expectations of others. Moodiness and angry outbursts may be common, and the individual may seem depressed or suicidal. The hallmark of the disorder is chronic instability, affecting relationships with family members or colleagues, and a lack of close, long-term interpersonal relationships that can add to the sense of isolation and abandonment.