Reduce Sebum Production Naturally
Nutrients on the skin surface are derived mainly from eccrine sweat, apocrine and sebaceous gland secretions, and the stratum corneum. These materials supply a rich mixture of proteins, peptides, amino acids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipoidal material, and inorganic salts that provide ample nutrition to support large microbial populations. However, the epithelium also secretes a range of antimicrobial compounds that are able to kill microorganisms or inhibit their growth. The differential activity against various microbes provides additional ecological pressure to shape the resulting population. In areas where sebaceous glands are present, skin surface lipids are quantitatively the most important class of substances occurring on adult human skin. Sebum, as synthesized in the sebaceous gland, contains little or no free fatty acid (6). However, sebum
Dermatology is the branch of medicine concerned with the skin and all of its related diseases and disorders. These specialists treat both kids and adults who present with any type of disease (either benign or malignant) of the skin, mouth, hair, nails, sweat and sebaceous glands, external genitalia, and mucous membranes. As the protective covering of the body separating us from the external environment, the skin has a broad range of physiologic functions, including temperature regulation and vitamin synthesis.
Plump labia majora Well-developed labia minora Immature hair follicles and sebaceous glands alkaline, presumably because of a relative deficiency of acid-producing vaginal microbes (4,5). Vulvar skin thickness decreases and the mons pubis and labia majora lose some of the subcutaneous fat present at birth (6,7). Although the full complement of vulvar hair follicles and sebaceous glands is thought to be present from birth, these structures do not mature until the adrenal glands are activated at puberty. The prepubescent labia minora have barely discernible vellus hair follicles that are lost at puberty when the follicles of the labia majora and mons pubis terminally differentiate (6). The appearance of the prepubescent hymen is variable. Two common forms in girls more than three years of age are
The definite mechanism of premenstrual exacerbations of acne vulgaris is not known. It is possible that premenstrual skin edema causes a narrowing of the lumen of the ducts of the sebaceous glands, which leads to sebum accumulation and or to variations in sebum secretion (5,16). Treatment with oral contraceptives with an antiandrogenic component has proved successful, although increased androgen levels in women with acne were found in only some of the relevant studies (18). Patients with rosacea can also experience premenstrual exacerbation (4). It is possible that the previously mentioned changes in sebum secretion and or an increased blood supply to the skin in the luteal phase play a pathogenetic role.
The embryonic ectoderm gives rise to the keratinized cutaneous epithelium of the mons pubis, labia majora, clitoris, labia minora, and perineum. Like skin at other anatomical sites, the epidermis of the mons pubis, labia majora, and perineum has a keratinized, stratified squamous structure with sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles (Fig. 1). Cutaneous thickness and degree of keratinization are relatively high on the mons pubis and labia majora, but decrease over the anterior portions of the clitoris and decline progressively from the outer surface to the inner surface of the labia minora (3). Vulvar skin has a higher concentration of epidermal androgen receptors than skin at nongenital sites (11). At puberty, androgens direct the maturation of vulvar sebaceous glands and hair follicles (12).
The formation of the dorsal and ventral segments of the raphe is found to be directly related to the great lengthening of the midperineal region between the anal and urethral orifices. The current investigation indicates that both develop from the same type of tissue, namely, the mesenchyme that originally formed the cloacal labia. After the division of the cloaca, this fi-brovascular tissue becomes divided into components, related to the urogenital and the anal orifices, that meet where the originally connecting cloacal groove regressed. It is now shown that the component ventral to the anal orifice elongates into the dorsal raphe, while the component dorsal to the urogenital orifice becomes involved in the markedly proliferating superficial dorsal urogenital stroma and forms the ventral, or scrotal and penile, raphe. The derivation of these components from the labia is also illustrated by permanent histological characteristics, such as high vascularity and broad, markedly cornifying...
The skin has many eccrine and sebaceous glands. While eccrine glands produce predominantly a watery type of sweat important for thermoregulation, sebaceous glands secrete a complex mixture of triglycerides, fatty acids, squalene and cholesterol, which forms a film on hair follicles and the epidermal surface. Sebum has several protective functions, including its ability to repel water and protect the surface of the skin from growth and invasion by bacteria and fungi (Nickoloff, 2001). In addition, after exposure to various microorganisms or inflammatory cytokines, keratinocytes secrete several antimicrobial peptides, including defensins and cathelecidins (Bardan et al., 2004). These antibiotics introduce pores in bacterial walls, which can directly kill the infectious microbe in the absence of a specific immune reaction. Moreover, they can attract and activate immature dendritic cells, thus providing an important link between innate and adaptive immunity.
Virilization The induction or development of male secondary sec characters, especially the induction of such changes in the female, including enlargement of the clitoris, growth of facial and body hair, development of a hairline typical of the male forehead, stimulation of secretion and proliferation of the sebaceous glands (often with acne), and deepening of the voice. Called also masculinization) eu
The mons pubis and the outer aspects of the labia majora are covered with hairy skin that is similar to that of the scalp and axillae. The labia majora contain numerous sebaceous glands, along with apocrine glands and eccrine sweat glands. The labia minora, in contrast, are free from hair, and are covered with stratified squamous epithelium, which can have a thin layer of keratinized cells at its surface. Sebaceous glands are present, but as the skin is glabrous, these glands open directly at the surface. Eccrine sweat glands are found occasionally on the labia minora but apocrine glands are absent. The clitoris is covered with a thin, nonkeratinized, stratified squamous epithelium and contains nerve bundles and erectile tissue. From the innermost surface of the labia majora to the vagina, the epidermis gradually changes from the keratinized epithelium typical of other external body surfaces to the mucosal epithelium typical of the vagina and other mucous membranes. The vulvar...
Staphylococcal bacteria are normally found on the skin of most people, but if the bacteria get trapped within the skin by blocked sweat or sebaceous glands, they can cause a wide variety of skin infections including pustules, boils, styes, or carbuncles. The bacteria also can cause a severe blistering rash in newborn babies called scalded
Lipids of adult hair contain saturated fatty acids that are fungistatic against Microsporum audouini, formerly a common cause of hair and scalp infections. In particular, various types of sphingosines have recently been found to be active against certain dermato-phytes and C. albicans. Whereas the sebum of adults may not be significantly more fungistatic than that from children on a weight per weight basis, older individuals appear to produce quantitatively more of this material than do children. In addition, fungicidal proteins have been isolated from normal epidermis and could play some role in the defense against cutaneous fungal infections.
There is no pain in this type of burn because the pain receptors have been destroyed along with the rest of the skin and blood vessels, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles. Fluid loss and metabolic problems in these injuries can be profound. These burns always heal with scars. Extensive third-degree burns require aggressive treatment in a hospital burn unit, and the death rate (usually from infection) is significant.
At a high concentration, estrogens suppress sebum production but have only an insignificant or no influence on the apocrine glands (4). The sebum content of the skin is related to the menstrual cycle, with the lowest sebum level following the peak of the estrogen level (5). Estrogens improve the water-binding capacity of the stratum corneum and, through an increase in acid mucopolysaccharides and hyaluronic acid, that of the dermis as well (6). There is a significant increase in the thickness of the skin with the increase in the estradiol level in the middle 1. Decreased sebum
The anterior and posterior boundaries of the vulva extend from the mons pubis to the anus, respectively its lateral boundaries lie at the genitocrural folds. The vulvar epithelium exhibits regional differences in tissue structure based on embryonic derivation. The skin-bearing mons pubis, perineum, and labia are derived from the embryonic ectoderm. Vulvar skin, like skin at other sites, has a keratinized, stratified, squamous epithelial structure with hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands. The thickness degree of keratinization of vulvar skin decreases progressively from the labia majora, over the clitoris, to the labia minora. The vulvar vestibule, derived from the embryonic endoderm, is nonkeratinized. Chapter 2 describes in detail the regional tissue structure of the vulva. Each labium majus has two surfaces the outer surface is pigmented, rugose, and bears pubic hair, sebaceous glands, apocrine glands, and eccrine glands. The inner surface is smooth it bears...
Meatus in moderate-sized to large populations. The largest populations are found in areas where sebaceous glands are numerous and well developed. Staphylococcus capitis subsp. ure-olyticus is present on regions of the head in rather small populations and, like S. capitis, may be found only occasionally on other body sites (Bannerman and Kloos, 1991). This subspecies has been isolated from both human and nonhuman primate skin (e.g., Pan skin).
The analysis of the histogenesis of the surface of the perineum shows that the usual type of skin develops in a peripheral zone only. The rest of the perineum develops a different epithelial and stromal composition, notably with (a) labia-derived fibrovascular stroma covered by epithelium without cutaneous appendages in a median zone from around the anal opening to the midperineal region as far as the labia minora (b) parallel zones with strikingly large sebaceous glands, some apocrine glands and, in the interlabial sulci, deep penetrating non-eccrine, non-apocrine tubular glands, and also a dense subepidermal connective tissue dorsally and parallel oriented, finely fibrillar superficial shaft connective tissue ventrally extending into the sulci between the labia minora and majora (c) lateral areas with fewer and smaller epidermal appendages, and instead of a dermis, dartos fascia in the labia majora and superficial shaft connective tissue in the hood of the clitoris.
The absence of remnants of ps.str.col. epithelium and by the presence of small acinar glands basally. Since this composition can be observed in the spongy urethra of the (adult) male if squamous transformation supervenes, it appears that this type of vestibular epithelium develops by squamous transformation of ps.str.col. epithelium special to the superficial part of the urogenital sinus. His vaginal type of epithelium lining the superficial part of the vestibulum does resemble the epithelium of the vagina but contains less glycogen and does not show the characteristic thin stromal papillae typical of the vagina. The precise mechanism of the forming of this epithelium could not be established with certainty in the present investigation. The early configuration characterized by the overlap of original ps.str.col. and str.sq. epithelium is highly suggestive of a process by which labia-related str.sq. epithelium from outside the orifice replaces the preexistent ps.str.col. epithelium of...
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