The Importance of Analogy Metaphor and Visualization in Creative Theory Formation

One overarching theme to the cognitive psychology of science literature, especially those studies that focus on analogy, metaphor, and visualization, as well as on theory change and hypothesis testing, is the widespread use of various kinds of strategies, or heuristics, used often implicitly and sometimes explicitly to solve problems. Ryan Tweney defines heuristic as the strategies that are chosen to organize the path from a starting point to some goal.17 As we will see in this and the next...

Biological Psychology Of Science

The overview on the principles of genetics, with an emphasis on behavorial genetics, is based on the work of Clark and Grunstein 2000, Hamer and Copeland 1998, and Plomin and Caspi 1999. 5. See Gray and Thompson 2004 for a review of the neurobiology of intelligence. 6. Definition of intelligence Neisser et al. 1996, p. 77 survey of experts Snyderman and Rothman 1987. 7. Original study Chorney et al. 1998, see also Plomin et al. 1994 failure to replicate Hill, Chorney, Lubinski, Thompson, and...

Social Psychology Of Science

Allport's definition 1985, p. 3 as others have noted Shadish, Fuller, and Gorman 1994 The Social Psychology ofScience Shadish and Fuller 1994. 2. Barnes and Rosenthal 1985, Rosenthal 1976, 1994, Rosenthal and Fode 1963a, Stanton and Baker 1942 experimenter expectancy with animals Rosenthal and Fode 1963b Pygmalion effect Rosenthal and Jacobson 1992, compare also Rosenthal 1994. 3. Rosenthal and Rosnow 1991, p. 126. 7. Simonton 1975, 1976a, 1976b, 1980. Chance configuration theory Simonton...

Domains of Mind as Domains of Science

One of the most fundamental aspects of being human is our reliance on others for our survival. We are constantly confronted with problems of interpersonal relationships from sexual behavior to child rearing, from friendship alliances to kinship-based altruism, from emotion and facial recognition to deception and cooperation. Very briefly, implicit psychology (socialdo-main) consists first and foremost of social preferences seen in newborns as young as a few hours old,...

Familial Factors in the Development of Scientific Interest

Research has demonstrated that birth order is related to both interest in science and one's predilection toward accepting or rejecting revolutionary and novel theories. The research on birth order has a long history, beginning with Francis Galton in the 1870s. One of the first questions addressed in terms of science was simply whether scientists were more likely to be one birth position or another compared to nonscientists. Numerous studies consistently...

Bibliography

A., Lubinski, D., and Benbow, C. P. 1996. Multipotentiality among the intellectually gifted It was never there and already it's vanishing. Journal of Counseling Psychology 43 65 -76. Achter, J. A., Lubinski, D., Benbow, C. P., and Eftekhari-Sanjani, H. 1999. Assessing vocational preferences among intellectually gifted adolescents adds incremental validity to abilities A discriminant analysis of educational outcomes over a 10-year interval. Journal ofEducational Psychology 91 777- 86....

Science And Pseudoscience The Nature of Pseudoscience

Many Americans still seem quite willing to believe things that science and skeptics would just as easily dismiss. Michael Shermer reported in his book Why People Believe Weird Things percentages of Americans in 1991 who believed in the following paranormal experiences 67 percent had actually had a psychic experience 65 percent believed in Noah's flood 52 percent believed in astrology 46 percent believed in extrasensory perception (ESP) and 42 percent believed in communication with the dead.1...