Taxonomic Grouping of Fish Rhabdoviruses Within the Rhabdoviridae Family

Historically, fish rhabdoviruses were first assigned to either the genus Vesiculovirus or the genus Lyssavirus, based on their protein profiles after gel electrophoresis. These genera contain many important mammalian rhabdoviruses such as rabies virusand vesicular stomatitis virus . Until the late 1980s these were the only two genera within the Rhabdoviridae family, which were considered to encompass all rhabdoviruses. However, as more viral genomes became characterized by sequence analysis,...

Regulation of Rhabdoviral Transcription and Replication

The single-strand, negative-sense genomic RNA of rhabdoviruses acts as a template for both transcription and replication. During the transcription process, a positive-strand leader RNA and five or more monocistronic mRNAs are synthesized (Wertz et al. 1987, Banerjee and Chattopadhyay 1990 Wunner 1991 Rose and Whitt 2000 Barr et al. 2002). Like cellular mRNA, rhabdovi-ral mRNAs are capped and methylated at the 5' end and polyadenylated at the 3' end. However, the leader RNA is neither capped nor...

Antigenic Structure of BEFV

The major BEFV antigens are the G and N proteins, each of which occurs abundantly in virions and in infected cells (Walker et al. 1991). The G protein contains type-specific and neutralizing antigenic sites and induces protective immunity in cattle (Cybinski et al. 1990 Uren et al. 1994). The N protein is the major cross-reactive BEFV antigen which is detected in group-specific complement fixation (CF) and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) tests. The Rabies virus N protein can protect against...

Tools to Study the Pathogenesis of Fish Rhabdoviruses

Unit de Virologie et Immunologie Mol culaires, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas, France michel.bremont jouy.inra.fr 2 Minigenome Constructs for Salmonid Rhabdoviruses 121 2.1 Recovery of IHNV from 2.2 Targeted Modifications of the IHNV Genome Exchange of VHSV and IHNV 3 IHNV as Gene 4 Role ofNV in Virus 4.1 Role of the NV Protein in IHNV Pathogenesis in Fish 136 Abstract Rhabdoviruses, mainly in rainbow trout, are among the most devastating viruses for...

BEFV Strain Variation

BEFV exists as a single serotype worldwide. Comparisons of BEFV isolates from South Africa, Nigeria, Australia, Japan and China by cross-protection in cattle, or cross-neutralization tests in mice or cell cultures, have not revealed any significant differences (Takematsu et al. 1956 Inaba et al. 1969 Snowdon 1970 Kemp et al. 1973b Tian et al. 1987), probably because viraemia and transmission of infection precedes the appearance of significant levels of virus neutralising antibody by several...

Rhabdoviri Family

In this chapter, we will present an overview of the current information on plant rhabdovirus structure and taxonomy, genome structure, protein function, and insect and plant infection. Rather than being comprehensive, we will focus on research that is either recent or that emphasizes unique aspects of rhabdovirus biology. Many rhabdovirus species have two natural hosts either insects and plants, or insects and vertebrates (Hogenhout et al. 2003). Plant-infecting rhabdoviruses include a number...

Attenuation of Rhabdoviruses

Both VSV and RV are long-known pathogens. The rhabdovirus reverse genetic systems now allow study of virus pathogenicity and virulence in more detail, which is expected to lead to the generation of viruses and virus vectors that are acceptable for live applications. The approaches taken include transfer of attenuating mutations identified by classical means to recombinant viruses and their combination in a single virus backbone. In addition, empirical and hypothesis-driven approaches may reveal...

References

Anderson EC, Rowe LW (1998) Prevalence of antibody to bovine virus diarrhoea, bovine herpes virus 1, rift valley fever, ephemeral fever and bluetongue and to Leptospira sp. in free ranging wildlife in Zimbabwe. Epidemiol Infect 121 441-449 Bai W (1993) Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever in China. In St. George TD, Uren MF, Young PL, Hoffman D (eds) Bovine ephemeral fever and related rhabdoviruses. ACIAR, Canberra, pp 20-22 Bai W, Tian F, Wang C, Jiang C, Zhang Z (1987)...

Bovine Ephemeral Fever in Australia and the World

CSIRO Livestock Industries, Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL), 5 Portarlington Road, 3220 Geelong, Victoria, Australia Peter. Walker csiro.au 2 Origins of the 3 History and Epizootiology of BEF in 4 Distribution and Epizootiology of BEF in the 5 Pathogenesis of BEFV 7 BEFV Genome Organization and Expression 8 BEF-Related 9 Antigenic Structure of 10 BEFV Strain 11 Disease Diagnosis 12 BEF Abstract Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is a disabling viral disease of cattle and water buffaloes....

Cell Targeting

The G protein of rhabdoviruses mediates both attachment to cell receptors and membrane fusion. Retargeting of rhabdoviruses is most easily achieved by replacing the G protein with analogous viral proteins combining these two activities as well, such as HIV-1 Env, as described above (Mebatsion and Conzelmann 1996 Schnell et al. 1996a). In most cases the rather broad host cell range of the parental rhabdoviruses is thereby restricted to cells that express the respective receptor. HIV-1 Env...

Envelope Switching Flexibility of Rhabdovirus Envelopes

The propensity of rhabdoviruses to accept changes in the composition of the envelope is of great potential for manifold vector applications. Rhabdoviruses carrying novel proteins in their envelopes may have a role to play as particulate vaccines, and as targetable gene delivery vectors (Table 2). Early experiments with ts mutants of VSV (Schnitzer et al. 1979) initially challenged the importance of the rhabdovirus G protein for virus particle formation. The generation of recombinant RV lacking...

BEF Vaccines

Natural BEFV infection induces a strong neutralizing antibody response and, although some exceptions have been recorded, infection appears to induce a durable immunity (Mackerras et al. 1940). It is also known that colostral antibody will protect calves against experimental challenge (St George 1986) but there are conflicting reports of the role of neutralizing antibody in protection (Della-Porta and Snowdon 1979b Uren et al. 1994). Although a T-cell response to BEFV antigens has been observed...

Minigenome Constructs for Salmonid Rhabdoviruses

Increase Amount Plasmid

For negative-stranded RNA viruses, a first approach towards the recovery of recombinant infectious virus has been to engineer a model genome called a minigenome, which is the viral RNA genome in which all the coding regions have been deleted and replaced by a reporter gene such as the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT), luciferase (LUC), or the green fluorescent protein (GFP). This minigenome is a unique tool that makes it possible to establish all the parameters required to overcome all...