The Red Wine Diet
Wine is also a potential source of small amounts of chromium. Although mean concentrations were similar for red and white wines tested in France, the red wine ranged from 7 to 90 g Cr L and the white wine ranged from 7 to 44 g Cr L. The chromium concentrations of 94 of all wines tested were
A normal glass of wine, measure of spirits, or half a pint of beer contains approximately ii ml of alcohol (about 9 g). One small glass of wine is approximately 100 ml wine is normally at least ii per cent alcohol therefore 11 100 X i00 ml ii ml. This amount is about i unit. A similar calculation shows that a shot (25 ml) of whisky (which is 43 per cent alcohol) contains ii ml alcohol, and half a pint (284 ml) of beer (3.8 per cent) contains ii ml alcohol. These are only very approximate measurements as drinks vary in strength (especially beer and wine) and wine glasses vary in size. Measures of wine, for example, are often i25 ml and servings are sometimes much larger than this. So a large glass of a strong red wine (i4 per cent) or a can of extra strong lager (6 per cent or higher) may contain 3 units of alcohol. Moreover, there is no international measure of a standard unit of alcohol.
It seems clear that alcohol reduces the level of 'bad' cholesterol in the blood (known as LDL) while increasing the level of 'good' cholesterol (HDL). It dilates blood vessels and lowers blood pressure (but chronic alcohol intake increases it). A decrease in colon cancer and Alzheimer's disease have also been associated with moderate drinking. There is evidence, in particular, that one or perhaps two glasses of red wine a day may be beneficial. This is the so-called 'French paradox', for the level of heart disease in France is one of the lowest in the world despite a diet traditionally rich in animal fats. The French also drink more red wine than other countries, and evidence seems to suggest that components in the grapes, polyphenols such as resveratrol, may be partly responsible for the low level of heart disease. One theory put forward is that this is due to the antioxidant effects of the polyphenols. Antioxidants such as vitamins C and E can react with and remove reactive...
Of red wine grapes (especially Cabernet Sauvignon grapes) affect the levels in the body of a substance called endothelin-i, which constricts blood vessels. Compounds that block the production of this may reduce the fatty streaks in blood vessels and decrease heart attacks. Red wine also, apparently, leads to the dilation of blood vessels and stops red blood cells from clumping, another factor in heart disease.4
Delphinidin The delphinidin gene codes for an enzyme closely related to the cyanidin gene and modifies the antho-cyanin dihydrokaempferol and directs pigment synthesis into the delphinidin pathway. Expression of this gene is responsible for the blue violet colours of violas, delphiniums and grapes. Delphinidin, an active compound of red wine, inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis via the nitric oxide pathway and regulation of calcium homeostasis.
There is evidence that in humans similar mechanisms underlie the development of atherosclerosis. Focal expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, PECAM-1, E-selectin and P-selectin has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaques (Davies et al. 1993 Johnson-Tidey et al. 1994). Levels of soluble adhesion molecules, most likely derived from proteolytic cleavage from the cell surface, have been suggested to serve as independent predictive markers for cardiovascular events (Mulvihill et al. 2002). In particular, soluble ICAM-1 has been attributed a specific role as a prognostic factor in apparently healthy subjects. However, their clinical value, i.e. their sensitivity and-even more important-their specificity, appears at least questionable. P-selectin is implicated in atherothrombosis by mediating leucocyte-endothelium, leucocyte-platelet and platelet-platelet interactions (Merten et al. 2000 Vestweber and Blanks 1999). Interestingly, gallic acid has recently been shown to inhibit...
The cause of his poisoning was traced to lead in the wine he drank. He had a weekend cottage in the mountains in Spain, and there he had bought local pottery. One favourite piece was a three-litre jug which fitted neatly in the fridge, and in which he stored his favourite drink, made from red wine, fresh fruit, and lemonade. This was left to chill and would keep for days. He had not been aware that this jug had a lead glaze which had not been properly fired, and as a consequence the lead continually leached into the drink.
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