German psychologist Frederic Meyer in 1886 described subliminal consciousness, followed by William James' transmarginal consciousness or fringe, a region of the mind just outside consciousness but accessible to it (e. g. access consciousness, ).
Sigmund Freud saw dreams as the "royal road to the unconscious" whose bizarre character was due to censorship and disguise of thwarted drives. Freud's ideas became downplayed, and dreams characterized as mental static (e. g. [102, 103]). However, recent brain imaging shows dream-associated REM sleep activity in regions associated with emotion and gratification [215, 216].
Chilean psychologist Ignacio Matte Blanco (, cf. ) compared logic structure in dreams to the Aristotelian logic of waking consciousness in which, for example, the logic statement:
If x, then y does not imply the statement:
This is obvious to our conscious minds. For example: If the light turns green, then I go
39 I equate nonconscious, unconscious, subconscious and preconscious processes as potentially capable of consciousness. That is, they utilize both classical processes and quantum superposition. However, there are clearly brain processes that are almost exclusively nonconscious and utilize classical processing. But in principle such processes could become conscious. For example, practitioners of certain types of yoga gain conscious control over normally nonconscious processes such as intestinal peristalsis.
Does not imply:
If I go, then the light will turn green.
However, from decades of dream analysis Matte Blanco determined two non-Aristotelian axioms of the logic of the unconscious: symmetry and generalization. In dreams:
If x then y
(according to symmetry) implies that also:
If y then x. In dreams, according to Matte Blanco:
If the light turns green, then I go implies that also:
If I go, then the light turns green.
Generalization means that any entity is a part of a whole, and when symmetry and generalization are combined, paradox occurs. For example:
If a hand is part of the body then also:
The seeming contradiction of any set being a subset of itself defines an infinite set, and is also holographic (and fractal). Any part of a whole also contains the whole within the part.40 Symmetry also means that:
If event a happened after event b, then also:
Event b happened after event a.
From this Matte Blanco concluded: ". . . the processes of the unconscious ... are not ordered in time".
Another implication of unconscious logic is that apparently negating propositions (e. g. p and not p) may be true, resulting in coincidence of con-
40 According to neuroscientists Karl Lashley and Karl Pribram, memory is holographic. Multiple overlapping homunculi in both the central and peripheral nervous systems also suggest holography. Finally, there are serious suggestions that the universe is holographic.
traries. For example (to use Matte Blanco's example):
x is alive and x is dead are both true (e. g. when time is removed). More generally, according to Matte Blanco, "the unconscious is unable to distinguish any two things from each other".
The unconscious utilizes multiple coexisting possibilities, inseparability and timelessness, very much like quantum information. Matte Blanco summarized the unconscious as "where paradox reigns and opposites merge to sameness", also an apt description of the quantum world.
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