Technological qubits reduce/collapse by measurement, introducing randomness averaged out by redundancy. According to Penrose [170] quantum computation that self-collapses by OR avoids randomness, instead providing a noncomputable influence stemming from Platonic values embedded at the Planck scale. Such quantum computation would be algorithmic up to the instant of OR, with an added modification then occurring.

The Penrose argument for noncomputability using Godel's theorem was harshly criticized but not refuted. For consciousness, OR also provides explanations for:

38 Qubits may be manifest as switches that utilize superpositions of various quantum states including electron spins, photon polarization, ionic states, nuclear spin, magnetic flux in a Josephson junction superconducting loop, or "quantum dots" - confined spaces in that single electrons or atoms are mobile but can occupy only discrete sites. Many other possibilities for qubits have also been suggested including some that could be mass produced in silicon. Quantum computers remained largely theoretical curiosities until 1994. Bell Labs mathematician Peter Shor developed a quantum algorithm that would be capable of factoring large numbers into their primes exponentially faster than conventional computers, assuming a quantum computer could be built to run it. Factoring large numbers into primes is the basis for banking and military cryptography, and so governments and industry became extremely supportive of efforts to build quantum computers. A functional quantum computer would make all classically supported cryptography obsolete. The race was on. Subsequently, other algorithms for quantum computers were developed that would provide exceedingly faster search capabilities. There is no doubt quantum computers will be revolutionary if technical obstacles to their construction and operation can be overcome.

- Transition from nonconscious (superpositioned quantum information) to classical information, with consciousness the transition itself.

- Binding via quantum coherence, condensation and/or entanglement.

- Libet's backward time referral and other temporal anomalies.

- The hard problem of conscious experience via Whitehead pan-protopsychism connected to fundamental space-time geometry (Sect. 6.8.4, [90]).

Penrose initially suggested the possibility of superpositions of neurons both firing and not firing as qubits. Microtubules seemed ideal for the type of quantum computation Penrose was suggesting.

Penrose implied that nonconscious processes capable of becoming conscious utilize quantum information. What do we know about nonconscious processes?39

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