A number of authors in this book propose that quantum computing plays a role in human consciousness, although the counterview is also represented. A large number of contributors provide various arguments for microtubules being pivotal to consciousness, in particular, because they may well form the central nervous system of the cell. Quantum computations in microtubules, or in other brain proteins, may be a viable tenet, but how does the scientific community proceed to prove or disprove such an idea? Secondly, how does one extrapolate from essentially biophysical studies on brain proteins to assessments of higher cognitive functions in individuals alone or in groups? Within a single brain or mind, one might imagine that nonlocal quantum interactions occur in relation to neural connections or electromagnetic waves linking different neurons or brain areas. Considering small groups of individuals or large societies, we again have classical communication of information between individuals and the genetically determined similarity of neural tissue within the species. The resulting nonlocal phenomena may provide the basis for social psychological effects, such as emotional connection and empathy, as well as for group dynamics, such as polarization and unanimity. Both the nonlocal quantum effects and psychological effects described here are subtle, yet very real effects.

We hope that in assimilating these chapters we have posed some relevant questions and begun to address them.

Acknowledgement. The authors wish to thank the following individuals: Angela Lahee for encouragement, Adele Behar and Mike Weiner for constant support, Stuart Hameroff and Al Scott for inspiration and friendship, and Fred Thaheld for suggestions.

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