General Features of the Brain

The human brain is larger than brains of most other species, particularly animals of similar or smaller size. Recent studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) verify earlier research that the typical human brain is approximately 1100 cm3 in volume and has a surface area averaging 1700 cm2 67 . Fig. 3.1. Areas of the human brain drawn according to the scheme of Brodmann 10 . The colors refer to areas of the same (visual, somatosensory, auditory or motor) modality. Prefrontal and limbic...

The Brains Electromagnetic Field

At rest, the neuronal membrane forms a dipole in which the inside of the membrane is negatively (about -65 mV) charged in relation to the outside of the membrane. This charge difference is maintained by the action of ion pumps that pump cations (principally sodium and calcium) out of the neuron. Brain neurons are densely packed, with about 104 neurons mm2 so the fields of adjacent neurons will not be discrete but form a complex overlapping field made up of the superposition of the fields of...

Exploring the Three Pound Universe

Liver Cell Tem Microscope

The human brain has been described as the three-pound universe 46 because, along with some other mammalian brains, it is the single most complex system so far discovered in the entire cosmological realm. It is also the most mysterious. Although we have developed supercomputers, their architecture remains that of a simplistic deterministic automaton by comparison with the brain. Despite the vast increases of speed and memory capacity of modern computers, they remain trivial by comparison. Few...

Application to Mathematics The Riemann Hypothesis

The Riemann hypothesis (RH) - a guess made by Riemann in 1859 - is considered to be the greatest unresolved problem in mathematics. The precise prediction of RH (see below) has been calculated out to billions of instances and they all conform perfectly to RH, yet RH has not been proved. Furthermore, there is no clear understanding why RH should even be true. RH deals with the infinite prime numbers that are the fundamental elements of arithmetic. Prime numbers cannot be factored into more basic...

Conclusions and the Way Forward

The CEMI field theory provides an elegant solution to many of the most intractable problems of consciousness and places consciousness within a secure physical framework that is amenable to experimental testing. The proposed interaction between the CEMI field and neuronal pathways restores to the mind a measure of dualism, but it is a dualism rooted in the real physical distinction between matter and energy, rather than the metaphysical (Cartesian) distinction between matter and soul. Although...

Waking Sleeping and Dreaming Different Levels of Consciousness

Another way to look at consciousness is to see it as part of the sleep-wakefulness continuum. When a subject is awake, the electroencephalogram (EEG) is a complex mixture of fast waves (i.e. beta, alpha, gamma waves). When a subject falls into dreamless sleep (non-REM40), the EEG pattern slows down markedly, each deeper step containing fewer theta waves and more delta waves. When a subject experiences REM or dream sleep, the EEG looks more like that of an awake person than that of a person...

For the Seven Clues to the Nature of Consciousness

Clue 1 Consciousness generates phenomena in the world. It is a cause of effects. A distinctive feature of the CEMI field theory is the proposal that consciousness corresponds to only that component of the brain's electromagnetic field that impacts on motor activity. This does not imply that the brain's electromagnetic field acts directly on motor neurons (which may of course be located outside the brain) but only that electromagnetic field information is communicated to the outside world via...

The Influence of the Brains Electromagnetic Field on Neural Firing

The field across a neuronal membrane will inevitably be the product of the field generated by membrane dynamics (the ion pumps) but also the fields generated by the resting states and firing of all the other neurons in the vicinity. Mostly, the influence of the endogenous fields will be quite weak - maybe up to a millivolt of induced voltage across the neuronal membrane 34 - and so will only be capable of influencing the probability of firing if the neural membrane is already close to the...

Traveling Waves and Structure

The relationship between structure and solitons, or nonlinear localized waves generally, is crucially important. Soliton waves embody a great deal of symmetry in their dynamics. For soliton-wave formation there must be symmetry in the medium and boundary conditions. For example, canals (such as the type in which J. Scott Russell first identified a soliton wave) have a regular depth and width, regularity that is ideal for soliton formation. Also, solitons that are predicted to occur on membrane...

Last Word Concerning Quantum Theories of Consciousness

The em fields are not of course the only kind of field. Any quantum system may be described by a field and there is a great deal of interest in the possibility of quantum matter fields in the brain. However, whereas there is no doubt that electromagnetic fields exist in the brain there is no evidence for large-scale quantum coherence of matter in the brain on the scale that is necessary for quantum consciousness. There are also very real theoretical problems with understanding how quantum...

Overview of the Contributions

We begin this volume with several experimental chapters. In the first chapter, Dick Bierman and Stephen Whitmarsh describe several recent experiments testing the subjective reduction interpretation of the measurement problem in quantum physics. These experiments investigate the proposition that consciousness acts as the ultimate measurement device, where a measurement is defined as the collapse of the statevector describing the external physical system, due to interaction with a conscious...

Microtubules as Cavities

In 80 , a microscopic analysis of the physics underlying the interaction of the water molecules with the dimers of the MT was presented. This interaction is responsible for providing the friction term (4.4) in the effective (continuum) description. We briefly review this scenario here. As a result of the ordered structure of the water environment in the interior of MTs, there appear collective coherent modes, the so-called dipole quanta 25 . These arise from the interaction of the electric...

The CEMI Field Theory

It is clear that very weak electromagnetic field fluctuations are capable of modulating neuron-firing patterns. These exogenous fields are weaker than the perturbations in the brain's endogenous electromagnetic field that are induced during normal neuronal activity. The conclusion is inescapable the brain's endogenous electromagnetic field must influence neuronal information processing in the brain. Information in neurons is therefore pooled, integrated and reflected back into neurons through...

Quantum Mind and Transactional Supercausality

Recapitulating on our ideas of transactions we note the following points 1. Since the first ideas linking quantum uncertainty and free-will were proposed, the nonlocal space-time spanning manifestations of uncertainty have become more apparent and given rise to the concepts of quantum nonlocality and entanglement. A key example of this is the pair-splitting experiment, Fig. 13.16, in which a single quantum event releases two particles in the same wave function. If the state of either is...

Quantum Match Making Transactional Supercausality and Reality

For reasons that immediately become apparent, the collapse in the pair-splitting experiment has to not only be immediate, but also to reconcile information looking backwards in time. The two photons we are trying to detect are linked through the common calcium atom. Their absorptions are thus actually connected via a path traveling back in space-time from one detector to the calcium atom and forward again to the other detector. Trying to connect the detectors directly, for example by...