Taking Backward Time Referral Seriously

How do we resolve these temporal anomalies The color phi effects apparently leave us a choice between a retrospective construction theory and a belief in clairvoyance 76 . Daniel Dennett 39, 40 chose retrospective construction in the context of a multiple drafts model in which sensory inputs and cognitive processing 8 For example Pockett 177 , Breitmeyer 22 , Pollen 180 and others argued that some type of facilitated buildup, or inhibition followed by excitation delayed the onset of effective...

Microtubules Microtubule Associated Protein2 MAP2 and Actin Filaments

Microtubules are a class of cytoskeletal protein found in all living cells. Neurons are generously filled with microtubules, along with actin filaments and neurofilaments, two other major cytoskeletal components. Microtubules are composed of a 3 tubulin dimers longitudinally arranged in protofilaments having plus and minus ends. Plus ends of microtubules undergo polymeriza-tion depolymerization cycles to a much greater extent than do minus ends. Tubulin, the building block of microtubules,...

Microtubules and Networks inside Neurons

Shape, structure, growth and function of neurons are determined by their cytoskeleton, internal scaffoldings of filamentous protein polymers that include microtubules, actin and intermediate filaments. Rigid microtubules (MTs) interconnected by MT-associated proteins (MAPs) and immersed in actin form a self-supporting, dynamic tensegrity network. The cytoskeleton also includes MT-based organelles called centrioles that organize mitosis, membrane-bound MT-based cilia, and proteins that link MTs...

QHN as an Information Propagator for a Microtubules Architecture

The microtubule structure is cylindrical in shape consisting of a number of tubulins arranged in a hexagonal lattice structure, as shown in Fig. 10.1. The tubulin dimers are oriented as they have a net electronegative charge towards the alpha-monomer. There are 13 tubulins along the circumference of the microtubule. Each tubulin has six neighbors and interacts with its six neighbors. There can be propagation of information from one qubit to another in the network due to the (coulombic)...

The Timing of Conscious Experience

Many behaviors apparently happen too quickly to be initiated by consciousness. Max Velmans 247 lists examples analysis of sensory inputs and their emotional content, phonological and semantic analysis of heard speech and preparation of one's own spoken words and sentences, learning and formation of memories, and choice, planning and execution of voluntary acts. Consequently, subjective feeling of conscious control of these behaviors is deemed illusory 256 . In speech, evoked potentials...

Tubulin Biophysics

A measurement of the tubulin electric dipole moment will be useful in simulations of MTs that aim at understanding the polymerization mechanism, as it can be incorporated into the various models as an experimentally determined parameter. For similar reasons, computer simulation of MT networks as cellular automata will also benefit from such a measurement. Furthermore, drug interactions with tubulin are currently under investigation and it has been theorized that electric dipole moment flips are...

The Cosmic Primality of Membrane Excitation

Rather than a molecular accident, the emergence of life can be modeled as a tree of critical cosmological quantum bifurcations, or splittings, interactively between quantum features emerging from the interaction of the atomic and molecular structures that arise in turn as complex asymmetric hierarchical structures from cosmic symmetry breaking itself, Fig. 13.12. The nonlinear nature of charge interactions results in a succession of bonding effects, from strong covalent and ionic bonds, through...

Microtubules and MAPs in Dendrites Play a Critical Role in Memory

Microtubules and MAPs have a clear involvement in learning and memory. We showed MAP2 proteolytic breakdown occurs with memory consolidation 144-146 . We demonstrated MAP2 breakdown in two ways. First, we found increases in immunocytochemical staining in repeated experiments, using a panel of specific monoclonal antibodies. Increases in antibody binding are known to occur following proteolytic breakdown of cytoskeletal proteins because the breakdown exposes more antibody binding sites. The...

Microtubules and Quantum Entanglement A Possible Basis for Memory and Consciousness

Since the brain is not as widely interconnected as might be generally assumed, how is it that the brain acts as an integrated holistic system How can activity at synapses on the same neuron or on different neurons become perfectly unified in order to represent a single idea or act First, it is important to point out that being unified is not the same thing as being connected. During many perceptual tasks different parts of a whole are experienced as unified, but the parts do not necessarily...

Models of the Global MolecularQuantum Interface

The question of free-will in a quantum uncertain universe led several of the early researchers of quantum physics to propose that the brain may be in some way utilizing the uncertainty of individual quanta that appears to violate causality at the foundation of physics 67 , to give rise to a quantum uncertain brain state consistent with free-will. Eddington 32 , for example, noted that the uncertainty of position of a synaptic vesicle was large enough to be comparable with the width of the...

Consciousness Memory and Microtubules

If memory is stored in microtubules, and if microtubules are the site of consciousness in the brain45, then it is a simple case to relate memory and consciousness. Instead of using one hypothesis upon which to base another, however, I will argue that we can eliminate certain possible bases of consciousness if those are not suitable bases for memory storage. Changes in synaptic strength undoubtedly play a role in encoding memory, but is this also the mode of long-term storage The contemporary...

General Features of the Brain

Cerebro Ntico

The human brain is larger than brains of most other species, particularly animals of similar or smaller size. Recent studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) verify earlier research that the typical human brain is approximately 1100 cm3 in volume and has a surface area averaging 1700 cm2 67 . Fig. 3.1. Areas of the human brain drawn according to the scheme of Brodmann 10 . The colors refer to areas of the same (visual, somatosensory, auditory or motor) modality. Prefrontal and limbic...

The Brains Electromagnetic Field

At rest, the neuronal membrane forms a dipole in which the inside of the membrane is negatively (about -65 mV) charged in relation to the outside of the membrane. This charge difference is maintained by the action of ion pumps that pump cations (principally sodium and calcium) out of the neuron. Brain neurons are densely packed, with about 104 neurons mm2 so the fields of adjacent neurons will not be discrete but form a complex overlapping field made up of the superposition of the fields of...

Exploring the Three Pound Universe

Liver Cell Tem Microscope

The human brain has been described as the three-pound universe 46 because, along with some other mammalian brains, it is the single most complex system so far discovered in the entire cosmological realm. It is also the most mysterious. Although we have developed supercomputers, their architecture remains that of a simplistic deterministic automaton by comparison with the brain. Despite the vast increases of speed and memory capacity of modern computers, they remain trivial by comparison. Few...

Dynamic Systems Approach to Metabolism and Cognition

Christopher James 7.1 Life and 7.2 Life and 7.3 Catalysis, Traveling Waves and Excitable Media 271 7.4 The Brain as an Excitable Medium 274 7.5 Conclusion References 8 The Dendritic Cytoskeleton as a Computational Device An Hypothesis Avner Priel, Jack A. Tuszynski, Horacion F. Cantiello 293 8.1.1 Neurobiological 8.1.2 Neuro computational Introduction 297 8.1.3 Dendritic Channel Function 299 8.1.4 Actin-Microtubule Cytoskeletal Connections 299 8.2 C-Termini in 8.2.1 Potential Configurations of...

Application to Mathematics The Riemann Hypothesis

The Riemann hypothesis (RH) - a guess made by Riemann in 1859 - is considered to be the greatest unresolved problem in mathematics. The precise prediction of RH (see below) has been calculated out to billions of instances and they all conform perfectly to RH, yet RH has not been proved. Furthermore, there is no clear understanding why RH should even be true. RH deals with the infinite prime numbers that are the fundamental elements of arithmetic. Prime numbers cannot be factored into more basic...

Conclusions and the Way Forward

The CEMI field theory provides an elegant solution to many of the most intractable problems of consciousness and places consciousness within a secure physical framework that is amenable to experimental testing. The proposed interaction between the CEMI field and neuronal pathways restores to the mind a measure of dualism, but it is a dualism rooted in the real physical distinction between matter and energy, rather than the metaphysical (Cartesian) distinction between matter and soul. Although...

Waking Sleeping and Dreaming Different Levels of Consciousness

Another way to look at consciousness is to see it as part of the sleep-wakefulness continuum. When a subject is awake, the electroencephalogram (EEG) is a complex mixture of fast waves (i.e. beta, alpha, gamma waves). When a subject falls into dreamless sleep (non-REM40), the EEG pattern slows down markedly, each deeper step containing fewer theta waves and more delta waves. When a subject experiences REM or dream sleep, the EEG looks more like that of an awake person than that of a person...

For the Seven Clues to the Nature of Consciousness

Clue 1 Consciousness generates phenomena in the world. It is a cause of effects. A distinctive feature of the CEMI field theory is the proposal that consciousness corresponds to only that component of the brain's electromagnetic field that impacts on motor activity. This does not imply that the brain's electromagnetic field acts directly on motor neurons (which may of course be located outside the brain) but only that electromagnetic field information is communicated to the outside world via...

The Influence of the Brains Electromagnetic Field on Neural Firing

The field across a neuronal membrane will inevitably be the product of the field generated by membrane dynamics (the ion pumps) but also the fields generated by the resting states and firing of all the other neurons in the vicinity. Mostly, the influence of the endogenous fields will be quite weak - maybe up to a millivolt of induced voltage across the neuronal membrane 34 - and so will only be capable of influencing the probability of firing if the neural membrane is already close to the...

Traveling Waves and Structure

The relationship between structure and solitons, or nonlinear localized waves generally, is crucially important. Soliton waves embody a great deal of symmetry in their dynamics. For soliton-wave formation there must be symmetry in the medium and boundary conditions. For example, canals (such as the type in which J. Scott Russell first identified a soliton wave) have a regular depth and width, regularity that is ideal for soliton formation. Also, solitons that are predicted to occur on membrane...

Last Word Concerning Quantum Theories of Consciousness

The em fields are not of course the only kind of field. Any quantum system may be described by a field and there is a great deal of interest in the possibility of quantum matter fields in the brain. However, whereas there is no doubt that electromagnetic fields exist in the brain there is no evidence for large-scale quantum coherence of matter in the brain on the scale that is necessary for quantum consciousness. There are also very real theoretical problems with understanding how quantum...

Overview of the Contributions

We begin this volume with several experimental chapters. In the first chapter, Dick Bierman and Stephen Whitmarsh describe several recent experiments testing the subjective reduction interpretation of the measurement problem in quantum physics. These experiments investigate the proposition that consciousness acts as the ultimate measurement device, where a measurement is defined as the collapse of the statevector describing the external physical system, due to interaction with a conscious...

Microtubules as Cavities

In 80 , a microscopic analysis of the physics underlying the interaction of the water molecules with the dimers of the MT was presented. This interaction is responsible for providing the friction term (4.4) in the effective (continuum) description. We briefly review this scenario here. As a result of the ordered structure of the water environment in the interior of MTs, there appear collective coherent modes, the so-called dipole quanta 25 . These arise from the interaction of the electric...

The CEMI Field Theory

It is clear that very weak electromagnetic field fluctuations are capable of modulating neuron-firing patterns. These exogenous fields are weaker than the perturbations in the brain's endogenous electromagnetic field that are induced during normal neuronal activity. The conclusion is inescapable the brain's endogenous electromagnetic field must influence neuronal information processing in the brain. Information in neurons is therefore pooled, integrated and reflected back into neurons through...

Quantum Mind and Transactional Supercausality

Recapitulating on our ideas of transactions we note the following points 1. Since the first ideas linking quantum uncertainty and free-will were proposed, the nonlocal space-time spanning manifestations of uncertainty have become more apparent and given rise to the concepts of quantum nonlocality and entanglement. A key example of this is the pair-splitting experiment, Fig. 13.16, in which a single quantum event releases two particles in the same wave function. If the state of either is...

Quantum Match Making Transactional Supercausality and Reality

For reasons that immediately become apparent, the collapse in the pair-splitting experiment has to not only be immediate, but also to reconcile information looking backwards in time. The two photons we are trying to detect are linked through the common calcium atom. Their absorptions are thus actually connected via a path traveling back in space-time from one detector to the calcium atom and forward again to the other detector. Trying to connect the detectors directly, for example by...