R

Race/ethnicity, 21, 25, 35, 36

see also Cultural factors; Immigrants;

Language factors; specific groups academia, 358, 362, 372, 419 access to care, 63, 233 advertising of tobacco and alcohol, 76 community-level collaborations, 184, 190, 201

determinants-of-health model, 57, 61-63 diagnostic services, 197-198, 232 digital divide, 331-332 discrimination, 61-62 health insurance, 12, 62-63 health workers, 36, 233, 235-236 immigrants, 38, 62, 111, 457-460 infant mortality, 20

physicians, minority representation, 233, 235-236

preventive interventions, insurance coverage, 222-223 professional training of public health workers, 362 quality of care, general, 27, 63, 222223, 231-232, 233 seat belt use, 73

socioeconomic status and, 58, 61, 63 tribal governments, 102-103, 421 Radio, 15, 322, 323

RAND Health Insurance Experiment, 218 Rapid Response and Advanced Technology

Laboratory, 143 Rapid Syndrome Validation Project, 131 Reasoned action theory Regionalization community collaborations, 410 DHHS, 162, 168

professional education, 367 public health funding, 97 Religious influences community-level collaboration, 190, 191, 454

faith community, 179, 181, 190, 191, 194, 355, 454 Regulatory issues, 9, 23, 101-102, 257 see also Accreditation of institutions;

Credentialing; Standards DHHS agencies, regulatory authorities,

9-10, 113-114, 164-165, 169 diet and nutrition, 292 enforcement, 32, 99, 102 environmental, 289-290 essential public health services, 99 federal, general, 111, 114 federal agency cooperation, 164 food labeling, 82

health care delivery system, 213, 257 health insurance, 213 local level, 10, 102 monitoring, 422

occupational safety and health, 283-286

(passim) pharmaceuticals, 164 population-level studies and interventions, 72 private and nonprofit organizations, 23 public health laboratories, 136-137 public service announcements, 15, 319320, 322-323 smoking prevention, 76 state-level, 10, 101-102, 104-107 Reporting requirements federal law, 114, 149 federal/state relations, 169 National Notifiable Disease Reporting

System, 248 National Public Health Program

Reporting System, 149, 150 public health agency/delivery system collaboration, 247-250 public health laboratories, 248 public health worker training, 127 state, 106, 149-150, 414 Research methodology, 367 see also Assessment academic research, 16-17, 364, 374-387

applied, 359, 378, 386, 419

biostatistics, 105, 116, 316, 360, 372, 419

committee study at hand, xiii-xiv, xvii, 441-460

competency of public health workers, research, 423-424 descriptive, 378

formative, 334-335, 346, 378, 379 mass media, 334-335, 346-348 occupational safety and health, 286 participatory, 201, 346, 359, 377-378,

380-381, 393, 427 practice-based, 372 process, 378, 379 summative, 378, 379 Research recommendations, xiii, 9, 16, 32 academic research, 16-17, 364, 385, 387 community-based research, 387 essential public health services, 99 interagency cooperation, 164 investigator-initiated research, 385 preventive interventions, 16-17, 387, 422

public health worker training, 117 state law reform, 106 Risk factors, 47

see also Behavioral risk factors;

Environmental factors; Preventive interventions and health promotion; specific risk factors community-level collaborations, 186,

193-198 health insurance holders, 216 models for reduction of, 48-49 population perspectives, 47-48 uninsured persons, 217 World Trade Center attack, response, 287

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 106, 121, 317, 328 see also Turning Point initiative Ron Brown Award for Corporate

Leadership, 299 Rural areas, 54

academia, 250, 376 hospital nursing shortages, 236 public health agencies, 108, 159, 161 school funding, tax increases for, 253 small and remote communities, 98, 108, 134, 160, 161, 188, 250, 415 Ryan White CARE Act, 151, 310

Safety, see Accidents and injuries Safety-net services, 111, 153-154, 216, 219221, 245 see also Health insurance academia, 219

alcohol/drug abuse treatment, 228 community health centers, 153-154, 215, 219

community services, 153-154, 215, 219,

446 defined, 219

federal government, direct provision of,

219, 221, 245 health officials' role, 216, 220 hospitals, 219, 220 local government, 153, 219-220 mental health care, 228 private sector, 153

public health agencies, general, 246, 247 state government, 153, 219-220 Sanitation, 20, 22, 48, 51, 54, 60, 362 School-based interventions, 194, 386, 445446, 450, 451-452 obesity, 79, 80, 82, 197 physical education, 79, 188, 194 smoking, 74-75 Schools of public health, 358, 360, 419-420 see also Academia; Professional education accreditation, 360-361, 368 Association of Schools of Public Health, xi(n.1), 122, 360-361, 394 communication/information systems,

132,333 continuing education, 419 credentialing, 122 curricular content, 419, 422(n.9) international programs, 362, 419 Internet use, 333 leadership training, 122 mass media partnering, 324 minority groups, 362, 419 policy development, 419 recruitment efforts, 420 research agenda, 5-6, 360, 419 state/local public health agency linkages, 419

Screening, see Diagnosis and screening Seat belts, xv, 73-74, 240

Sentinel for Health Award for Daytime

Drama, 327-328 Sentinel surveillance, 131, 247, 250-251 Sex-based differences, see Gender factors Sexual behavior, 222, 334 see also Gays and lesbians contraception, 232, 325-326 television, 325, 328-329 urban areas, 54 Sexually transmitted diseases, 222, 325, 328 see also HIV/AIDS

community-level collaborations, 183184, 444, 449, 458 competencies of health care workers, 440 employee screening, 274 SHINE Awards, 328 Smoking, xv, 53, 60, 70, 223 advertising, 76

community-level collaborations, 188, 196

employees, 274, 275, 276 mass media interventions, population-level studies and interventions, 72, 74-76 school-based interventions, 74-75 taxation, 75, 76, 323, 324 Social Climate Survey, 75 Social comparison theory, 342 Social convergence theory, 342 Social factors, general, xv, 21, 22-24, 29, 56-71

see also Cultural factors; Mass media;

Political influences; Race/ethnicity academic research, 374 business involvement in community,

293-294, 298-299 community-level collaborations, 184,

188, 204, 451 connectedness, 63-66, 70-71, 180 determinants of health, xv, 36, 56-71,

188, 338, 346, 456 health determinant models, 57, 403-405 media advocacy, 338-339 obesity, 76 oral diseases, 229

peer influences, 74-75, 241, 329-330, 342

professional training, 362 public health defined, 28 public service announcements, 323 telecommunications infrastructure, 135 Social influence theory, 342

Social learning theory, 343-344

Social marketing, 14, 117, 125, 201, 282,

299, 319, 326, 333-338 Socioeconomic status, xv, 21, 23, 25, 68, 69, 70-71

see also Educational attainment; Income; Poverty access to care, general, 233, 239 determinants-of-health model, 57-61 environmental factors, 54 gender and, 58 Healthy People 2010, 19 international perspectives, 68-70 media advocacy, 338 obesity, 79

occupational status, 57, 58 population-level studies and interventions, 71 preventive measures, 25-26 primary care, 240

quality of care, general, 231, 232, 233 race/ethnicity and, 58, 61, 63 social marketing, 336 Stages-of-change theory, 344 Standards see also Accreditation of institutions;

Competencies of health workers; Ethical issues; Performance standards; Regulatory issues computer medical records, 242-243 cultural/linguistic competence, 195 dietary guidelines, 79, 80, 292 federal agency cooperation, 164 health care workers, 34 information/communication, 39, 130,

132, 139, 144, 242-243 international movements of goods, 39 national health data set, 127, 417 obesity, clinical guidelines, 81 occupational safety and health, 284 practice scholarship, 394 professional education, 372 public health function, general, 98, 107,

155-158, 415 public health laboratories, 137 public health workforce taxonomy, 117 reporting systems, 130, 150 toxic substance exposure levels, 55 treatment and prevention measures, 272 World Health Organization, 165 State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), 215

State government, 7, 412

see also Medicaid; Medicare; State public health agencies block grants, 150-152, 228-229, 245, 444 community-level efforts, 203 epidemiology, 144, 146 essential public health services, 110, 168, 413

federal government relations, 10-11, 26, 103-104, 115, 145-146, 148, 150, 151-152, 165, 166-170, 418 health insurance regulation, 213 legislative reform, 4-5, 26, 98, 104-107, 414, 422

local public health agencies, cooperation with, 108-109, 142, 143, 410, 412, 415

managed care organizations, 111, 153 national health data set, 127, 417 organizational factors, 101 professional education and training, 5, 372

public health function, general, 97, 98, 99, 101-102, 104-107, 147-149, 412-413, 414 public health laboratories, 7-8, 137,

139, 140, 146 regulatory role, 10, 101-102, 104-107 reporting requirements, 106, 149-150, 414

safety-net services, 153, 219-220 surveillance, 106, 128, 129, 130-131,

132,146 toxic substances in food, 55 State Health Leadership Initiative, 121 State-level trends elderly persons, 35

employer-provided health insurance, 272 income effects on mortality, 69, 70 national health data set, 127, 417 obesity, 77

occupational safety and health, 285 safety-net services, 219 State public health agencies, 107-108, 142, 145-149, 414, 454, 455 academic qualifications of workers, 360 accreditation, 9, 155, 157-158 costs of infrastructure, 144 environmental factors, 416 epidemiology, 144, 146 Graduate Certificate Program, 371-372 health care delivery system and, 213

performance standards, 150, 155-158 professional education, 144, 146, 371372, 373, 374, 419 quality of care regulation, 213-214, 231, 244, 257

schools of public health, linkages, 419 Stress, xvi environmental, 60, 66 management, 278, 282, 283 psychosocial, 47, 62, 65, 66, 275, 278, 282

workplace, 275, 278, 279, 282, 283 Substance abuse, 228-229 see also Alcohol abuse attitudes, 228

community-level efforts, 203, 445 costs to society, 228, 229, 276, 278 employees, 275, 276-277, 278 entertainment television, 328-329 insurance coverage for treatment, 12,

27, 73, 218, 225, 228-231 National Institute on Drug Abuse, 328 social influence interventions, 74-75 Substance Abuse and Mental Health

Services Administration, 112 Suicide, 70, 275

Surgeon General, 74, 167, 225, 328 C. Everett Koop National Health

Award, 299 dental care, 230 Surveillance, 127-136

Agency for Toxic Substances and

Disease Registry, 112, 117, 118, 132, 163

249-250 chronic diseases, 128, 130 DHHS, 113, 128

diagnostic procedures and, 248-250 food-borne pathogens, 129-130 funding, 127-128, 146 health officials' role, 248 information technology, 131, 243, 248, 249

international efforts, 40 local government efforts, 128, 129, 130131,132

National Center for Health Statistics, 114, 368

National Electronic Disease Surveillance Network, 99

National Notifiable Disease Reporting

System, 248 obesity, 82

partnerships, 131, 132 privacy and confidentiality, 13, 248 private sector, 127-128 professional education, 372 public health agency/delivery system collaboration, 244, 247-250 public health laboratories, 136, 138,

140, 247, 248 sentinel, 131, 247, 250-251 state government, 106, 128, 129, 130131, 132, 146 syndrome, 130-131 uninsured/underinsured persons, 218 Sustainability bioterrorism response, 139, 145 change, 202, 254

funding, 7-8, 10, 98-99, 136, 148, 149, 150, 154, 157, 160, 161, 169, 170, 189, 457 technical assistance, 7, 150 Syndrome surveillance, 130-131

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