Proliferation of cells is unmistakably related to cancer and, subsequently, several proliferation markers have been evaluated. AgNOR (silver-stained nucleolar-organizing regions) reflects transcription activity of ribosomal DNA and mitotic activity. PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) is a protein synthesized in the later G1- and S-phases of the cell cycle. Finally, Ki-67 (MIB1) is a monoclonal antibody that stains a proliferating-specific antigen in tumor cells. All of these markers have been correlated to histological grade and stage and even survival (26-28). Comparative studies that have been performed suggest that Ki-67 is the more powerful prognostic factor of the three (29,30); nevertheless, more multivariate studies are needed.
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