Cattell diagrammed these subsidiation relationships in the dynamic lattice (see Figure 8.3). Attitudes (on the left) are subsidiaiy to sentiments (in the middle), which are subsidiaiy to ergs (on the right). The channels show the connections among these dynamic (motivational) levels. Cattell (1950) explained how to interpret this diagram:
The man's attitude ... to his bank account has the direction that he wants to increase it. The lines of subsidiation . . . indicate that he wants to do so in order to protect his wife ... to satisfy self-assertion ... to assuage his fear of insecurity . . . and to satisfy hunger. . . . This attitude or sentiment to his bank account is served by an attitude of annoyance toward higher taxation ... by an intention to keep company with his business friend . . . and by an attitude of avoidance to New York, where he spends too much money. . . . (p. 188)
Metaergs (attitudes and sentiments) are learned. Their connections with one another and with the ergs are affected by learning. Sentiments may be connected to many ergs; through development, these connections change. Ergs are generally satisfied indirectly through metaergs. This indirect satisfaction of ergs is called long-circuiting. (In contrast, artificial stimulation of the pleasure centers of the brain through electrical stimulation in the laboratory, or drug use on the street, could be thought of as short-circuiting.)
Certain types of learning involve reorganizing or coordinating various traits. We may learn certain behaviors that can satisfy many motivations (many metaergs and ergs) at the same time. This is called confluence learning. For example, learning to ski might satisfy various social and physical motivations.
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