Rigte 73 Religious Orientation as a Predictor of Religious Fundamentalism Wand Prejudice against Racial Minorities Gays and Lesbians

Nonreligious Extrinsic Intrinsic Indiscriminate Religious Orientation

Nonreligious Extrinsic Intrinsic Indiscriminate Religious Orientation

Nonreligious Extrinsic Intrinsic Indiscriminate Religious Orientation

Nonreligious Extrinsic Intrinsic Indiscriminate Religious Orientation

Note: Higher scores indicate more prejudice against racial minorities, higher religious fundamentalist ideology, and more prejudice against gay men and lesbian women. Prepared from data re ported by Herek (1 987).

rejected his marriage proposal and said she might be lesbian than those with other religious orientations, though they did not excuse such abusive behavior when he was rejected because of religious differences (Burris & Jackson, 1999)- In another study, intrinsically religious people were less likely to devalue a rape victim (Joe, McGee, & Dazey, 1977). The association of religious orientation with prejudice seems to depend, in part, on the target of the potential prejudice.

Other research also casts doubt on Allport's suggestion that intrinsically religious people are wholeheartedly, unselfishly helpful to others. Correlations between the Religious Orientation Survey and other personality measures suggest that intrinsically religious people are motivated by conscious impression management and unconscious self-deception (Leak & Fish, 1989)- From his experimental study of helping, Batson (1990) argued that intrinsically religious subjects were motivated primarily by the desire to enhance their own esteem rather than by pure altruism. Another suggestion is that religious prejudice, like other forms of favoring ingroups over outgroups, is best understood from a group dynamics perspective, rather than as a consequence of personality (Jackson & Hunsberger, 1999).

Batson suggests that another religious orientation religion as quest, comes closer to the non-judgmental concern for helping others that Allport was trying to convey in his concept of intrinsic religious orientation. In both of the above helping studies (Batson et al., 1999; Batson, Eidelman, & Higley, 2001), those scoring high on the religion as quest orientation helped without discriminating. Another study also finds prejudice against homosexuals is more common among students at a conservative Christian school who were low in religious quest orientation, and high in fundamentalist beliefs, but prejudice was not predicted from Allport's intrinsic or extrinsic religious orientations (Fulton, Gor-such, & Maynard, 1999)- The quest orientation describes people who are open-ended in their search for answers to existential-religious questions, who question the contradictions and tragedies of life, facing existential issues personally (Batson, 1976; Batson & Schoenrade, 1991a, 1991b; Batson, Schoenrade, & Ventis, 1993)- For example, how do we deal with life's tragedies? A person with a high quest orientation is disinclined to simply depend on God to deal with the tragedy of a drive-by shooting of an infant who was held in the arms of her praying grandmother (Burris, Jackson, Tarpley, & Smith, 1996). For such a person, active questioning is part of religion's meaning.

The dimension of immanence is a religious orientation that involves "motivation to transcend boundaries [such as the boundaries among various religious groups], awareness and acceptance of experience, and emphasis on the present moment" (Burris & Tarpley, 1998, p. 55). A measure of religious immanence gives points for agreeing with statements such as these: "Learning to appreciate one's dark or 'sinful' side is essential to spiritual growth," and "What my religious tradition labels falsehood is often misunderstood truth" (Burris & Tarpley, 1998, p. 63)- Religious immanence is proposed to be another route to low levels of prejudice. It is positively associated with other religious orientations that eschew traditional orthodoxy: extrinsic religious orientation and religion as a quest (Burris, Jackson, Tarpley, & Smith, 1996; Burris & Tarpley, 1998). Researchers continue to analyze religious attitudes and prejudice to understand the inconsistent relationship between these two aspects of personality.

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