Nitive Complexity

The cognitive complexity of a person is reflected by the number of different constructs he or she uses in describing people (Bieri, 1955). Cognitively complex people are able to view social behavior from several different dimensions and thus have greater flexibility. This helps them adapt to new challenges. First-year university students who have greater cognitive complexity, for example, typically adjust to college more easily (Pancer, Huns-berger, Pratt, & Alisat, 2000). General Robert E....

Stage 2 Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt

During the second year of life, the toddler develops a sense of autonomy. This period includes toilet training, which Freud emphasized, but also broader issues of control of the musculature in general (becoming able to walk well) and control in interpersonal re lationships. The toddler experiments with the world through the modes of holding on and letting go. He or she requires the support of adults to develop, gradually, a sense of autonomy. If the toddler's vulnerability is not supported, a...

Tributions of Behaviorism to Personality Theory and Measurement

The behavioral approach has emerged from its early position of conflict with personality theory. As the act-frequency approach illustrates, behaviorists have stimulated more precise operational definitions of personality concepts. Some behaviorists have even suggested that personality trait measures be included in planning behavioral treatment (Collins & Thompson, 1993)- Behaviorists remind us emphatically that situations matter. They challenge the development of measurement of a person's...

The Anal Stage

During the second and third years, the toddler's pleasure is experienced in a different part of the body the anus. The toddler's desire to control his or her own bowel movements conflicts with the social demand for toilet training. Pleasure is experienced at first through the newly formed ability to retain feces, the anal retentive phase, and then in the experience of willful defecation, the anal expulsive phase. Lifelong conflicts over issues of control, of holding on and letting go, may...

The Pervasiveness of Traits Cardinal Central and Secondary Traits

How pervasive is the influence of a particular trait It varies. For example, you may have the trait of being a drinker of decaffeinated coffee, but that would be noticeable only occasionally, such as when you are drinking coffee or buying it. However, if you have a trait of being self-confident, it affects many more aspects of your life how you behave with others, what risks you choose to take, and so forth. Allport categorized traits as cardinal, central, or secondaiy, depending on how...

Prejudice

Allport (1954) wrote a classic text on prejudice, 71.ie Nature of Prejudice. In this comprehensive work, he examined such factors as in-group and out-group influences, ego defenses, cognitive processes, the role of language, stereotypes in culture, scapegoating, and learning prejudice in childhood. Allport understood prejudice from the point of view of the individual, instead of from a social historical viewpoint that emphasizes oppression of groups, such as the analysis of W. E. B. DuBois...

Specific Facets of the Big Five Factors of Personality

Warmth Gregariousness Assertiveness Activity Excitement-seeking Positive emotions Trust Straightforwardness Altruism Compliance Modesty Each of the five factors in the left column is composed of the six facets of that factor in the right column. The facets are positively correlated with one another, and scores on the facets are summed to obtain a score on the corresponding factor. (Adapted from Costa, McCrae, & Dye, 1991.) Russian, Hebrew, Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and Filipino . . . eveiy...

Research Testing the Need Hierarchy

A fundamental postulate of Maslow's theory is that the five needs emerge in the sequence he described. We would expect hunger and poverty to prevent higher functioning, but many contrary examples have been reported. Psychiatrist Robert Coles (e.g., 1971a, 1971b) has observed people in dire economic conditions who, in apparent contradiction to the concept of a need hierarchy, seem to function at higher levels of human potential. Nazi concentration camps, for all their atrocities, did not cause...

Anima and Animus

People consciously reject not only qualities that are evil or inconsistent with their persona (the shadow) but also qualities they consider incompatible with their identity as males or females. These sex-inappropriate qualities, traditionally exemplified by traits such as emotionality for males and power for females, constitute the anima (a man's repressed or undeveloped feminine-typed qualities) and the animus (a woman's repressed or undeveloped masculine-typed qualities). Jung referred to the...

Fesrd a Psychoanalytic Social Psychology

Like many theorists, Erikson believed that his theoretical concepts had implications for improving the human condition as well as understanding it (Wurgaft, 1976). Erikson clearly envisioned a psychoanalytic approach that would consider social and cultural realities rather than focusing exclusively on the individual, as Freud had done. James C t and Charles Levine have developed such a psychoanalytic social psychology in their research and theorizing (C t , 1993 C t & Levine, 1988a, 1988b,...

Measurement The Myers Briggs Type Indicator

The most commonly used psychological test for measuring the Jungian functions is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (McCaulley, 1990 Myers & McCaulley, 1985). This test gives scores for introversion-extraversion and the four paired functions (think-ing-feeling and sensation-intuition). It determines which of the four functions is dominant by means of a fourth scale that measures whether the external world is approached by a judging function (thinking or feeling, whichever is higher) or a...

Resolution of Dichotomies

Self-actualized people do not see in either-or terms, as less healthy people often do. Maslow (1954 1987, p. 149) offered several examples of dichotomies that to self-actual-ized people no longer seem so for example, reason versus emotion, selfish versus unselfish, serious versus humorous, active versus passive, and masculine versus feminine. Rather than seeing conflict between what is good for the individual and what selves others, the two operate together, with synergy (Maslow, 1964). This...

Moving against People The Expansive Solution

A second strategy for resolving the conflict over unmet early needs is to emphasize the mastery of tasks and power over others, which seem to offer protection from the vulnerability of being helpless. Horney (1945) refers to those who adopt this strategy as aggressive types, who seem to live by the motto If I have power, no one can hurt me (Horney, 1937, p. 98). Less subtle domination over others, or more subtle power through competitive mastery, both achieve the desired protection against...

Obstacles to Self Actualization

If self-actualization is an innate potential, why is it not universally developed Human beings repeatedly confront situations in which they must choose between growth and safety. Safety choices are appealing, but only growth choices move us toward self-actualization. If we think of the positive attractions rather than the dangers of growth, and of the potential boredom rather than the social approval of what appears to be the safe choice, our choices will move us more often toward...

The Genital Stage

In contrast to the autoerotic and fantasy sexual objects of the phallic child, the genital adult develops the capacity to experience sexual satisfaction with an opposite-sex object. The genital character is Freud's ideal of full development. It develops if fixations have been avoided or if they have been resolved through psychoanalysis. Such a person has no significant pre-Oedipal conflicts enjoys a satisfying sexuality and cares about the satisfaction of...

Social Interest

A sense of community is essential for human survival. The more social interest the person has, the more that person's efforts are channeled into shared social tasks, rather than selfish goals, and the more psychologically healthy that person is. The concept of social interest helps correct for the overemphasis on individualism in Western culture (Richardson & Guignon, 1988 Triandis, 1989). In German, Adler used the term Gemeinschafsgefiihl, which has been...

Day of Gratification

Modern culture offers instant gratification of many needs and tempts consumers with a barrage of advertisements for immediate happiness (Goldman, 1996). Our own impulses, too, beg for immediate gratification. In the face of these temptations, delay of gratification, the ability to defer present gratification for larger future goals, is an important adaptational skill that develops in childhood. Mischel and his colleagues explored this self-regulatory system in several studies (e.g., Mischel,...

The Big Five Factors of Personality

Factor Description of High Scorer (Adapted from McCrae, 1990, p. 402 and McCrae, Costa & Piedmont, 1993.) Ask an extra vert what he or she values in life, and the answer will often be cheerfulness and an exciting life (Dollinger, Leong, & LTlicni, 1996). Extraverted subjects, in a study in which they kept records of their social interactions, interacted with more people than did those low in extraversi n they also reported having more control and intimacy in those interactions (Barrett...

Hypnosis

In hypnosis, an individual (the subject) experiences a highly suggestible state, often called a trance, in which the suggestions of a hypnotist strongly influence what is experienced or recalled. The hypnotist may suggest that the subject's arm will rise in the air automatically, without the subject intending it, or that the subject will be unable to do something that is usually easy to do, like bending an arm. Suggestions can also alter perceptions, causing subjects to see things that are not...

The Organic Metaphor

What about a biological metaphor The organic metaphor compares personality with the growth of plants and animals. Rogers used this metaphor when he described the actualizing tendency, and it is also the underlying metaphor of Erikson's epigenetic principle. Potentials for development are located by this metaphor within the person rather than externally. The environment is seen not as a determining force, as in the mechanistic metaphor, but rather as an environment either conducive to the...

Peak Experiences

Probably the best known characteristic that Maslow described is the capacity for mystical experiences, which he called peak experiences. Maslow (1954 1987) described these feelings of limitless horizons opening up to the vision, the feeling of being simultaneously more powerful and also more helpless than one ever was before, the feeling of great ecstasy and wonder and awe, the loss of placing in time and space with, finally, the conviction that something extremely important and valuable has...

Individual Differences in Aggressive Responses

Research on aggression indicates that frustration often produces aggression but some people are more likely to become aggressive than others. Many of the childhood predictors of later aggressive behavior are consistent with psychoanalytic ideas that aggression results from some failure of ego development that lets aggressive instincts get out of control. Problems with early attachment predict aggressive behavior (Lyons-Ruth, 1996). Childhood physical abuse predicts later violence...

Nd ert Einstein

In applying factor theories to Albert Einstein, our task is to suggest a profile of scores on major personality factors. Ideally, we would have inventory scores for a proper assessment. Lacking that, let us venture a rough profile based on inferences from biographical information. Considering Cat-tell's list of sixteen personal factors, Einstein's most noteworthy trait was, of course, intelligence (a high score on Factor B). He would also score as artless, rather than shrewd (a low score on...

Ural Determinants of Development

Horney stressed social and cultural determinants of personality and neurosis, in addition to orthodox Freudian biological forces. She stated that there is no such thing as a normal psychology that holds for all mankind (1937, p. 19). Specific family experiences, such as having domineering or self-sacrificing mothers, only occur under particular cultural conditions (p. viii). In contrast with Freud's description of universal family psycho-dynamics, for Horney, even the Oedipal complex occurs...

S s a r y

Act-frequency approach measuring personality traits by assessing the frequency of prototypical behaviors base rate the rate of responding before conditioning basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) learned behaviors fundamental to later learning of more complex behavior, in three categories language-cognitive, emotional-motivational, and sensory-motor behavior modification the application of learning principles to therapy chaining operant technique for developing sequences of responses by teaching...

Self Regulatory Systems and Plans

Among the most important cognitive person variables are self-regulatory systems and plans. These are internal mechanisms that have powerful implications for behavior. People set performance goals for themselves (whether it is running a four-minute mile, skiing an advanced slope, or graduating with honors) they reward themselves they criticize themselves they pass by immediate pleasure for long-term goals (delay of gratification). All these are self-regulatory systems through which we can...

Person in the Social Environment

Many of the terms we have been using self and goals, for example conjure up images of the individual pursuing selfish goals with no thought of others, but that misper-ception probably comes from the overwhelming individualism of the culture in which most of us were raised. In fact, the environment in Bandura's three-part reciprocal determinism does more than simply provide an arena for individual accomplishments. It is a place of community, with goals and values that we share with others of...

Biography of B F Skinner

Burrhus Frederic Skinner was born March 20, 1904, in the railroad town of Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. He was named Burrhus after his mother's maiden name. She and her husband, William, an attorney, raised Burrhus and a younger son, Ebbe. Skinner's brother died suddenly of an acute illness (probably a massive cerebral hemorrhage) while Fred Skinner, as he was generally called, was visiting his hometown (at that time, Scranton) during his freshman year at college. Childhood had been happy for...

The Oral Stage

The oral stage of development occurs from birth to about age 1. During this stage, the erogenous zone is the mouth, and pleasurable activities center around feeding (sucking). At first, in the oral erotic phase, the infant passively receives reality, swallowing what is good or (less passively) spitting out what is distasteful. Later in the oral stage, a second phase, termed oral sadism, involves the development of a more active role, epitomized by biting. Because the infant's needs are met...

Life and Death Instincts Eros and Thanatos

Eros, the life instinct, motivates life-maintaining behaviors and love. At first, Freud felt that all libido was of this kind, and it is the usual energy described in his theory. Later he postulated a second form of psychic energy, also innate. Thanatos, the death instinct, is a destructive force directing us inevitably toward death, the ultimate release from the tension of living. It motivates all kinds of aggression, including war and suicide. Most often, Freud...

Cognitive Processes

Theoretical developments in psychology generally and in personality in particular have often emphasized cognitive processes. Mischel and Bandura exemplify this tendency They argue that cognitive concepts (e.g., person variables) are the most useful concepts for understanding personality. Realistic cognition is described as a criterion of mental health by many theorists (e.g., Freud, Allport, Rogers, Maslow, and Bandura). Many warn of unconscious forces that make such realism difficult (e.g.,...

Inking about Adler

Does Adler's emphasis on social aspects of personality problems have any particular relevance for today's problems 2. How would Adler's concept of inferiority apply to people with physical disabilities 3. Do you think Adler's use of the term masculine protest would be relevant to today's society 4. Imagine that you are writing open-ended questions for a research project. What would you ask to assess people's fictional finalisms 5. Do you have a first memory or an early memory that can be...

Performance in Cognitive Social Learning Theory Bandura

Self-Regulation of Behavior The Self-System Processes Influencing Learning Observational Learning and Modeling Therapy The Person in the Social Environment Thinking about Mischel's and Bandura's Theories Glossary 13 Kelly Personal Construct Theory Preview Overview of Kelly's Theory Illustrative Biographies Applying Kelly's Theory Richard Nixon Frida Kahlo Constructive Alternativism The Process of Construing The Structure of Construct Systems The Social Embeddedness of Construing Efforts The...

Preview Overview of Freuds Theory

Freud's theory has implications for major theoretical questions, as presented in Table 2.1. From a scientific point of view, this theory has been long criticized as deficient, because of excessive vagueness in operational definitions that makes it difficult to verify. However, there has been increasing research, in nonclinical as well as therapeutic settings, designed to test some psychoanalytic propositions, as studies described in this chapter illustrate. While the theory is in some ways...

Individuation

People develop the various aspects of their psyche unevenly. Along the way, we may identify disproportionately with our ego or with some aspect or another of our unconscious this excessive identification is often referred to as inflation (Edinger, 1972). Modern humans, according to Jung, are particularly vulnerable to ego inflation, and unlike our ancestors who lived more unconsciously, we suppress the unconscious to an unhealthy extent (Drob, 1999)- Individuation is the process of restoring...

Parental Behavior and Personality Development

Neurotic problems begin early in life, within the family, where the basic evil is invariably a lack of genuine warmth and affection (Horney, 1937, p. 80). Parental behavior that undermines a feeling of safety will lead to neurotic development. This includes parental neglect, indifference, and even active rejection of the child. If the environment is loving, the sorts of traumas identified by Freud, such as premature weaning or toilet training or witnessing the primal scene, could be tolerated....

Rigte 73 Religious Orientation as a Predictor of Religious Fundamentalism Wand Prejudice against Racial Minorities Gays

Nonreligious Extrinsic Intrinsic Indiscriminate Religious Orientation Nonreligious Extrinsic Intrinsic Indiscriminate Religious Orientation Nonreligious Extrinsic Intrinsic Indiscriminate Religious Orientation Nonreligious Extrinsic Intrinsic Indiscriminate Religious Orientation Note Higher scores indicate more prejudice against racial minorities, higher religious fundamentalist ideology, and more prejudice against gay men and lesbian women. Prepared from data re ported by Herek (1 987)....

Biography of Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 into a Jewish family in predominantly Catholic Freiberg, Moravia (then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire but now part of the Czech republic). By the time he was 4 years old, his family moved to Vienna, which remained his home until near his death. Freud was one of eight children, including two older half-brothers by his father's first marriage. Freud's father remarried at age 40, and his young wife bore six children. Sigmund was the oldest and by all accounts...

Rminants of Personality Heredity and Environment

Where do traits, so useful for prediction, originate Cattell distinguishes between constitutional traits, which originate in biological causes (especially genetics), and environmental-mold traits, which are the result of learning and social experience. Cattell (I960) developed a statistical technique, the Multiple Abstract Variance Analysis (MAVA), to analyze the effects of heredity and environment based on data from relatives and nonrelatives. It examines the similarity of relatives (identical...

Al and Ethnic Identity

Erikson remarked that identity first became noticeable to him in his psychiatric practice when he immigrated to the United States. People here, coming from diverse backgrounds (especially in large urban centers), must define themselves anew, as did Erikson himself when he changed his name. This issue is particularly salient during adolescence. A study of Chinese immigrants to the United States, for example, found that those who came alone (without family) during adolescence emphasized their...

Harneys Model of Neurotic Conflict

The child, needing to be loved, wants to move towards the parents, but fears rejection. The child also feels hostility and wants to retaliate by moving against the parents, but fears punishment. The child may give up and move away from the parents. The child, needing to be loved, wants to move towards the parents, but fears rejection. The child also feels hostility and wants to retaliate by moving against the parents, but fears punishment. The child may give up and move away from the parents....

Genetics and the Collective Unconscious

One of Jung's controversial ideas is that the collective unconscious follows the laws of genetic inheritance. It is different in humans than in other animal species, of course. Jung suggested that various races and families inherit somewhat different variations of the collective unconscious, just as they inherit different physical characteristics. This notion of a racial unconscious was exploited in the Nazi era as a scientific rationalization for the racially motivated extermination of...

The Choice Corollary

How do we decide which of our constructs to apply to an event Kelly's (1955) Choice Corollary states A person chooses for himself that alternative in a dichotomized construct through which he anticipates the greater possibility for extension and definition of his system, (p. 64) (The term dichotomized will be explained later, when we consider the Dichotomy Corollary.) Like a scientist whose theory has worked so far, the individual seeks to extend his or her predictions. A person, in Kelly's...

The Third Stage Ideal Prototypes

The third stage of psychosocial development leaves the child with the basic virtue of purpose. The corresponding element of the social order for this stage consists of the ideal prototypes of society. Erikson said that primitive cultures provide a small number of unchanging prototypes that are close to the economy of the tribe for example, the buffalo hunter of the Sioux. These provide straightforward models for children to channel their initiative in play (e.g., playing at buffalo hunting with...

Ab ert Einstein

Some of the descriptive questions posed by these biological factor theories are similar to the factor theories covered in the preceding chapter, which is not surprising. Einstein seems to have been low on Anxiety (or Neuroticism). He is described as someone who could be quite relaxed and uninhibited (Clark, 1971 1984, p. 397), enjoying the pleasures of a pipe, wine, music, and sailing. His biographer gives no indication that he was embarrassed by his unkempt appearance and relates that a...

Id P e I z e r

Lack of love is the major problem impeding growth, according to Rogers. Rogers urges parents to love their children unconditionally, instead of placing conditions that the child must meet in order to be lovable. Such conditional positive regard, in his theory, creates a self that is less creative and less healthy than would develop given unconditional positive regard, because the child abandons his or her true potential in order to become the more limited but lovable self. Dave Pelzer's life...

Personality Psychetypes

Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling Introverted Sensation Introverted Intuition Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Sensation Extraverted Intuition interested in ideas (rather than facts) interested in inner reality pays little attention to other people superficially reserved, but sympathetic and understanding of close friends or of others in need loving, but not demonstrative emphasizes the experience that events trigger, rather than the events themselves (e.g., musicians...

Subjective Experience Values and Science

Rogers experienced a conflict between the model of science, in which the therapy client would be viewed objectively, and his experience as a therapist, in which a subjective stance worked better (Barresi, 1999 Rogers, 1955). In his later writing, Rogers went further in his emphasis on subjectivity. Participants in his workshops sometimes described the experience in terms of spirituality. This suggests a transpersonal dimension to human experience. Experiences of altered states of consciousness...

Unconscious Cognition

Freud explored the unconscious from an assumption that consciousness was the usual mode of experience, and unconscious phenomena were the oddities to be explained. He proposed that repression provides the energy to move material from consciousness to the unconscious. Both of these assumptions, the primacy of consciousness and the energy model, have been replaced by more modern explanations. Freud proposed the unconscious and repression to explain why emotional reactions in his patients, obvious...

Anor Roosevelt

Throughout her life, Eleanor Roosevelt experienced the punishing embarrassment of family scandal. Biographer Blanche Wiesen Cook tells us, The 'Victorian' world of her father, and subsequently her young uncles and aunts, involved alcoholism, adultery, child molestation, rape, abandonment. ER grew up with scandal, understood its nuances, and hated it (1993, p. 15). Dollard and Miller theorize that the symptoms described by psychoanalysts as neurosis occur when a person does not know the...

Figure 81 Scatterplots Illustrating Positive and Negative Correlations

If low numbers in one set go with high numbers in the other, there is a negative correlation (see Figure 8.1). A correlation coefficient may range from 1 to +1, indicating the direction and strength of the association between two variables. Several correlation coefficients are computed during the course of a factor analysis. The correlations among all pairs of variables are computed to form a correlation matrix. Patterns of correlations often disclose...

Psychoanalytic Therapy Techniques

The psychoanalyst uses the principle of psychic determinism to discover the unconscious ideas and conflicts of the patient that originated in the past, thus helping the patient to become free of the neurotic compulsion to repeat the past, and instead to be able to live in the present (Covington, 2001). The basic technique of psychoanalysis is free association, which requires the patient to say whatever came into his head, while ceasing to give any conscious direction to his thoughts (Freud,...

Superiority Complex

Some neurotics repress their feelings of inferiority and believe themselves better than others. This outcome is termed a superiority complex. Because it masks an unconscious sense of inferiority, it is not a healthy outcome. People with a superiority complex often behave arrogantly they exaggerate their achievements, which may be intellectual, athletic, or emotional, depending on the unique strengths of the individual. They may adopt idiosyncratic behavior that sets them apart from others....

Efficient Perception of Reality

Self-actualized people have an unusual ability to detect the spurious, the fake, and the dishonest in personality, and in general to judge people correctly and efficiently (Maslow, 1954 1987, p. 128). They are less likely than others to be misled by their own defense mechanisms, wishes, expectations, or stereotypes. Rather, like the boy in the faiiy tale, they are likely to see that the emperor has no clothes if, in fact, he has none. This accuracy perhaps develops because they are not...

Outcomes of Psychotherapy

Rogers proposed that when a therapeutic climate is created that has the three crucial characteristics described above (unconditional positive regard, congruence, and em-pathic understanding), a positive therapeutic outcome will result. In such a case, the client will develop more of the healthy characteristics of self-actualizing people, including openness to experience, self-acceptance, and trust of organismic experience (Rogers, 1961a). Rogers reported empirical studies demonstrating the...

Dy Questions

Explain what Rogers meant by the actualizing tendency. 2. Discuss Rogers's idea that people are basically good, and the criticism this optimism has elicited. 3. Describe the organismic valuing process. Give an example. 4. List and explain the characteristics of a fully functioning person. 5. Discuss Rogers's attitude toward subjective experience. 6. Explain how Rogers used the concept of self to understand personal growth. 7. Explain Rogers's concept of congruence and incongruence. Include the...

Indicting Behavior

Recall that Cattell defined personality as that which permits the prediction of behavior. Let us examine his model for making predictions about how individuals will behave in particular situations. Various traits are combined in a predictive mathematical equation, called the specification equation. In principle, all behavior can be predicted from such equations. The specific terms, of course, would vary depending on the application. To predict which university football players would play the...

Moving away from People The Resignation Solution

A third strategy for resolving childhood conflicts is epitomized by the fox in Aesop's fable who could not reach the grapes hanging over his head. After all attempts to reach them failed, the fox finally gave up, avoiding disappointment by telling himself that the grapes were probably sour anyway. In Horney's theory, some people try to do without other people, having given up on solving the problem of basic anxiety through love or power. Horney (1945) refers to these as detached personality...

Style of Life

110 Part II The Psychoanalytic-Social Perspective First Memories A person's style of life, according to Adler, is established by the age of 4 or 5. In this, he agreed with Freud about the importance of early experience in determining personality. A key to identifying the style of life is a person's first memoiy, which on the average dates back to age 5lA (Mullen, 1994). Few people can remember events before age 3, and for many people, nothing is remembered until 6 or 7 years of age. Early...

The Language Cognitive Repertoire

Language is essential to human personality, enabling us to communicate with others and to think. Normal social interaction requires us to understand and respond to what others say. A person's own thoughts and self-directed speech can also direct behavior, permitting foresight and judgments. Consider the phrases sex is dirty and sinful, and abortion is murder (Staats, 1996, p. 83). These statements elicit emotions and influence behavior. Language has important emotional functions. Language is...

Biography of Erik Erikson

Erik Homberger Erikson (as we now call him) was born near Frankfurt, Germany, in 1902. He was raised by his mother, who was Jewish and of Danish ancestiy, and his stepfather, a Jewish pediatrician whom his mother met when she sought care for 3-year-old Erik. Erikson did not know that he was conceived illegitimately, and he believed that his stepfather was his biological father and was given his last name, Homberger (Hopkins, 1995). His biological father, a Danish Protestant, had left his mother...

Mh nking about Mischels and Banduras Theories

Do you think that cognitive social learning theory is capable of describing the most important human personality characteristics, or is it too focused on cognition 4. Compare delay of gratification to what psychoanalysts meant by the ego compare modeling with identification. 2. Do you believe that people are consistent or not consistent Explain. 5. Do you believe that media violence contributes to aggression in society If so, what should be done about it 3. How would you determine whether...

Horneys Three Neurotic Solutions

Self Effacing Solution The Appeal of Love (The Compliant Personality) Morbid dependency the need for a partner (friend, lover, or spouse) Poor little me feeling of being weak and helpless Self-subordination assumption that others are superior Martyrdom sacrifice and suffering for others Need for love desire to find self-worth in a relationship 2. Expansive Solution The Appeal of Mastery (The Aggressive Personality) Narcissistic in love with idealized self-image Arrogant-vindictive pride and...

The Healthy Style of Life The Socially Useful Type

If the lifestyle is adaptive, Adler referred to it as a socially useful type. To be so characterized, a person must act in ways beneficial to others. This does not necessarily imply economic productivity or acts generally considered altruistic. Adler included artists and poets as people who serve a social function more than anyone else. They have taught us how to see, how to think, and how to feel (Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1956, p. 153). These people have a well-developed sense of social...

Apter Overview

Illustrative Biographies Applying Kelly's Theory Richard Nixon Frida Kahlo Preview Overview of Kelly's Theory Biography of George Kelly Constructive Alternativism The Fundamental Postulate The Process of Construing The Construction Corollary The Experience Corollary The Choice Corollary The Modulation Corollary The Structure of Construct Systems The Dichotomy Corollary The Organization Corollary The Fragmentation Corollary The Range Corollary The Social Embeddedness of Construing Efforts The...

Fictional Finalism

As described in Chapter 2, Freud was committed to the scientific assumption of determinism in even the psychological realm. This assumption led to a theory that treated humans as passive products of various forces, primarily biological. In contrast, Adler viewed individuals as causes rather than effects. He argued that personality is creative. People make choices and determine their own outcomes in life. External factors present challenges and choices but do not wholly determine the outcomes....

Gradients of Approach and Avoidance Responses

The concept of gradients, reflecting the strength of the tendency to make a response depending on the distance from the goal, provided Dollard and Miller with a powerful conceptual tool for understanding conflicts, including the intrapsychic conflicts central to psychoanalytic theory. By considering the gradients for two or more possible responses to the same cue, it was possible to illustrate how people could face difficult conflicts. Dollard and Miller (1950) postulated four basic assumptions...

Cattells 16 Personality Factors 16PF

A AFFECTIA (high score) SIZIA (low score) B INTELLIGENCE (high score) INTELLIGENCE (low score) C EGO STRENGTH (high score) EGO STRENGTH (low score) SUBMISSIVENESS (low score) F SURGENCY (high score) G SUPEREGO STRENGTH (high score) SUPEREGO STRENGTH (low score) H PARMIA (high score) THRECTIA (low score) HARRIA (low score) L PROTENSION (high score) ALAXIA (low score) PRAXERNIA (low score) N SHREWDNESS (high score) ARTLESS (low score) UNTROUBLED ADEQUACY (low score) Qx RADICALISM (high score)...

Fundamental Concepts about Learning

Dollard and Miller drew on various theories of learning, including those of Pavlov, Thorndike, Hull, and Skinner. From these theorists, they borrowed the basic principles of conditioning stimulus, response, reward, generalization, discrimination, and extinction. Miller and Dollard (1941) summed up the primary concepts of learning theory by suggesting that in order to learn one must want something, notice something, do something, and get something (p. 2). These conditions correspond to the...

FeSense of Self in Relationships

Our sense of self is rooted in relationships. Early disturbances, coming from relationships with inadequate parents, leave a person with a weakened or enfeebled sense of self (Kohut, 1984). Children who have not been adequately nurtured or loved, develop a belief (which may be unconscious) that they are not worthy, and this impaired self is at the heart of much pathology. Patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder report what Westen and his colleagues call malevolent early...

PNature Nurture Question from the Perspective of Psychological Behaviorism

Five Biological Factors Personality

Staats has also considered the impact of biological factors on learning as it affects individuals. His analysis is consistent with common sense, and it provides a framework within which physiological approaches to personality may be integrated with behavioral approaches. Learning is stored in biological representations, and so biological factors can influence learning either by having an impact on the process of new learning, or by influencing the biological storage of past learning. A stroke...

Cal Behaviorism and Personality Theory Some Concerns

He argued that the fundamental principles of behavior are the same in rats and humans, but does his model adequately address the issues that personality theory should consider Critics claim that Skinner's theory neglects the unique capacities of the human organism, such as language and intelligent thought. Skinner (1938, 1971) always intended his theory to apply to humans, and behaviorists have undertaken to explain even creative behavior by the operant...

Drive Wanting Something

Freudian theory regarded libido as the driving force behind all action, but Dollard and Miller preferred the concept of drive, from Hullian learning theory, to refer to the motivating force. In common language, a drive is a need, such as hunger, thirst, sleep, money, or recognition, and so on. More formally, Miller and Dollard (1941, p. 18) defined a drive as a strong stimulus which impels action. (This behavioral language avoids the logical problems of whether we truly need something or simply...

Hard Nixon

Richard Milhous Nixon, born in 1913, was the second child of five boys. His older brother, Arthur, died of meningitis in 1925, and a younger brother, Harold, died of tuberculosis in 1933. Nixon was raised (after age 9) in Whit-tier, California, where he worked in the family store. His mother's family was Quaker, and this background influenced his upbringing by emphasizing emotional control, modesty, and hard work. His father (not a Quaker) was more emotional and punitive, and Nixon became...

The Situational Context of Behavior

Consider the following research that Mischel and colleagues conducted with college students. You are asked to vividly imagine yourself having gotten a poor grade on an important paper. Next, you fill in the blanks on a questionnaire, with items like I am _when_. This procedure, the researchers assume, will put you in the frame of mind of imagining that your characteristics vaiy from one situation to another. Compared to other subjects, who go through the same imaginaiy exercise but have...

TftFour Critical Training Periods of Childhood

The development of personality in childhood can be understood in terms of these learning principles. Dollard and Miller credited Freud with pointing out the importance of childhood and its conflicts. They described the three psychosexual conflicts that Freud enunciated, translated into the language of learning theory. They also added a fourth important childhood conflict, focusing on anger. In considering these four stages, keep in mind that the learning analysis has not been systematically...

Stages of Development

The proprium develops gradually through a lifetime. According to Allport (1937b), The newborn infant lacks personality, for he has not yet encountered the world in which he must live, and has not developed the distinctive modes of adjustment and mastery that will later comprise his personality. He is almost altogether a creature of heredity (p. 107). The most important hereditary bases of personality, observable in infancy, are activity level (motility) and emotionality (temperament) (p. 129)....

Examples of Evolved Psychological Mechanisms

Sexual attraction based on physical appearance Sexual attraction based on male's ability to provide resources functions to help ensure males that they are the genetic fathers of their mate's child functions to ensure a healthy mate and one with effects of hormones (estrogen or testosterone) that indicate fertility functions to ensure females that their mates will be able to provide resources needed for the survival of their children functions to optimize the number of remaining years of...

Attentional Processes Observing the Behavior

Nothing will be learned that is not observed. People who have difficulty remembering names, for example, often simply don't pay attention to them in the first place. Several characteristics of the model and of the observer influence modeling. Models catch our attention more when they look distinctive because of their clothes or other aspects of their physical appearance, when they are liked or disliked, and when they are seen repeatedly, as advertisers well know. All these are examples of...

The Superego

The third structure of personality, the superego, is the internal representative of the rules and restrictions of family and society, originating based on the authority of the father. Freud regarded it as the civilizing force that tames our savage nature (Frank, 1999)- It generates guilt when we act contrary to its rules. In addition, the superego presents us with an ego ideal, which is an image of what we would like to be, our internal stan dards. Because the superego develops at a young age,...

M ther Teresa

Mother Teresa, born in Skopje, Serbia, on August 26, 1910 (Spink, 1997), was a world-renowned Roman Catholic nun, mourned worldwide when she died in 1 997 (only a few days after the death of Diana, Princess of Wales). She was widely admired by people of many faiths for her charitable work among those she called the poorest of the poor in India and elsewhere. As a girl, Agnes Bojaxhiu (Mother Teresa's birth name) was the youngest of three children. She witnessed political upheavals in Albania...

Biography of George Kelly

Kelly was born in 1905 on a farm in Perth, Kansas, the only child in a family headed by a Presbyterian minister. In college, Kelly first studied engineering but then changed to education, completing his degree at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1930. In graduate school, he turned his attention to learn ing something about sociology and labor relations (Kelly, 1963a, p. 47). While a graduate student, he taught in many nonpsychological fields, including oratory, public...

Second Born Child

The second-born child, seeing the head start that the older sibling has on life, may feel envious, experiencing a dominant note of being slighted, neglected (Adler, 1921 1927, p. 127). This often makes him or her rebellious, even revolutionary. This experience presents a challenge that can usually be successfully overcome. The older sibling serves as a pacemaker, Adler's analogy with a racer. Thus, the second-born child is stimulated to higher achievement. Observing the pace set by the older...

Unconditional Positive Regard

Rogers found that clients are most likely to make progress when they feel accepted by the therapist. Obviously, a therapist cannot approve of maladaptive behaviors. Yet it is possible to convey a feeling of warmth and acceptance, of unconditional positive regard, offering the client acceptance that is not contingent on particular behaviors. (This is the same quality that Rogers advocated for effective parenting, described above.) Unconditional positive regard means that the therapist accepts...

Rumor Transmission

Motivated by concerns about controlling the spread of rumors during World War II, All-port and Postman (1947) studied rumors in the laboratory and offered advice to the government. Their book, The Psychology of Rumor, illustrates the interplay between history and psychological work, beginning with classifying the rumors that circulated following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. It is an early example of applied social psychological research, and it interweaves experimental...

Eysencks Extraversin and Neuroticism Factors and the Ancient Greek Temperaments

Greek humors Greek temperament Description Eysenck factors excess of yellow bile choleric irritable unstable (high Neuroticism) excess of black bile (high Neuroticism) introvert (low Extraversi n) excess of blood sanguine energetic, optimistic stable (low Neuroticism) extravert (high Extraversi n) excess of (low Neuroticism) Note Correspondences are based on Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975, and Clark & Watson, 1999. arousal. We generally define introverts and extraverts in terms of their...

Inking about Maslows Theory

Maslow found only 1 out of 3,000 undergraduates to be self-actualized. Do you think there would be fewer, more, or the same number today, considering changes in the student population (such as more students returning to school at later ages and a greater ethnic and racial diversity) Discuss the implications of Maslow's hierarchy of needs for current society. Are there factors (e.g., poverty or crime) that can be interpreted in terms of deficiency motivation Maslow suggested that sexuality was...

Table 71 Preview of Allports Theory

Adaptation and Adjustment Cognitive Processes Society Biological Influences Child Development Adult Development Individuals differ in the traits that predominate in their personalities. Some traits are common (shared by various people) others are unique (belonging only to one person). Psychology errs if it looks too much for illness. Allport listed several characteristics of a healthy personality. People's self-statements can generally be taken at face value. Adaptation to society is of central...

Adaptation and Adjustment

Personality can be evaluated along a dimension of health or adjustment. In fact, some personality approaches consider the adaptive function of personality to be central to its definition (e.g., Allport). Many of these theories were developed in a clinical context, including those of Freud, Jung, Adler, Horney, Erikson, Rogers, and Kelly. Others, developed outside the clinical setting, have suggested new forms of therapy. These include the theories proposed by Skinner and Bandura, which suggest...

Healthy versus Neurotic Use of Interpersonal Orientations

Harmonious interpersonal relationships are an important source of life satisfaction cross-culturally, although to a greater extent in some cultures than others (Kwan, Bond, & Sin-gelis, 1997). How do we achieve this The healthy person adopts, when appropriate, any of the three orientations toward people, since each is adaptive in certain situations. The neurotic individual is limited in using these orientations. Consider aggression. While it is pathological to be aggressive toward everyone,...

Table 31 Preview of Jungs Theory

Individuals differ in their tendency to be introverts or ex-traverts, which is stable throughout life. They also differ in the extent to which they make use of four psychological functions (thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition). The unconscious has an important role in healthy maturity and should be explored through symbolism. Health requires a balance between conscious and unconscious functioning. Rational thinking, intuition, and emphasis on concrete details all provide useful...

Important Persons in the History of the Relational Approach

Young children are very needy they relate to part objects (such as the breast) instead of the whole parent their ambivalent feelings cause guilt about their negative feelings about their parents. People have a fundamental need for relatedness. Maternal indifference and lack of love for the child contribute to the development of child pathology. The child defensively splits the rejecting mother (which is internalized) from the hoped-for loving mother, which impedes development from immature to...

Dreams

Freud praised dreams as the royal road to the unconscious. In waking life, conscious forces powerfully restrain the unacceptable forces of the unconscious. During sleep, the restraining forces of consciousness are relaxed, and the unconscious threatens to break into awareness. This triggers anxiety, which threatens to waken the dreamer. Sleep is protected by disguising the unconscious into less threatening symbolic form in a dream. LTsually, a dream disguises the fulfillment of a repressed wish...

The Recovered Memory Controversy

One controversial technique that was used by a small minority of therapists has now been discredited recovered memory therapy. The idea behind this therapy, consistent with psychoanalytic ideas, was that traumatic sexual experiences in childhood had led patients to develop a variety of symptoms (depression, promiscuity, eating disorders, and others) and also to repress the memory of the abuse. If memory for the traumatic event could be restored, it was thought, a therapeutic benefit would be...

Loosening and Tightening Constructs The Creativity Cycle

Although the C-P-C Cycle enables us to select constructs for action, it does not change those constructs. The Creativity Cycle, in contrast, involves the development of constructs. It occurs in therapy, which Kelly (1955, p. 529) calls a creative process. Tight construing means that a large number of situations are construed in the same way, so the individual is insensitive to differences among them. Psychotherapy patients who use defense mechanisms (denial, rationalization, and turning against...

Review Overview of Skinners and Staatss Theories

Skinner's theory and Staats's theory, both offering behavioral interpretations of personality have implications for major theoretical questions, as presented in Table 10.1. One of the greatest strengths of these, and other, behavioral perspectives is its clear statement of scientifically verifiable hypotheses. Because the causes of behavior can be manipulated, Preview of Skinner's and Staats's Theories Individuals differ in their behaviors owing to differences in reinforcement histories. In...

My a Angelou

In Carl Rogers's theory, the most important and often inadequate childhood experience is that of being loved, wholly and unconditionally. As a young child, only 3 years old, when she and her brother were sent from their mother's home to live with their grandmother, Maya could not have understood that this abandonment was not her fault. Experientially, it was rejection. Once in Arkansas, she experienced a loving and stable environment from a protective grandmother who loved her granddaughter...

Central Traits

In the example above, self-confident would be a central trait because it pervasively effects many behaviors. Allport's analysis of Jenny's letters led to the inference that she had eight central traits, as we have seen. Someone who knows you well could summarize your personality in a small number of central traits, perhaps seven to ten adjectives. The specific traits, of course, will vaiy from person to person. A characteristic that is a central trait for one person might not even be relevant...

Business and Education Applications

The MBTI has been used extensively in research, guidance, and especially in business (Bubenzer, Zimpfer, & Mahrle, 1990). It is reported that over 3 million people a year take the MBTI test, and nearly 40 percent of these are taken in corporations for personnel training (Gardner & Martinko, 1996). By teaching people about their psychological type and its implications, trainers hope to make people aware that others may see the world quite differently than they do and to make allowances for...

Iu dy Questions

Contrast Horney's understanding of the unconscious with that of Freud. 2. Describe the emotional conflicts of early life. Include an explanation of basic anxiety and basic hostility. 3. List and describe the three interpersonal orientations. Give an example of each. 4. Explain the terms self-effacing solution, expansive solution, and resignation solution in relation to the three interpersonal orientations. 5. Explain the difference between healthy and neurotic use of the interpersonal...