The Idealized Self Moving away from the Real Self

The third major neurotic adjustment strategy is to turn away from the real self toward some seemingly better (less helpless, less angry) idealized self. The real self is the alive, unique, personal center of ourselves (Horney, 1950, p. 155) and is involved in healthy psychological growth. It is the self that would have developed if we had been nurtured properly as we were developing or that we may become once we overcome our neurosis (Paris, 1999). For clarity, Horney offered a different term...

Externalization Projection of Inner Conflict

In the fourth major adjustment strategy, the neurotic projects inner conflicts onto the outside world, a process Horney called externalization. Externalization refers to the tendency to experience internal processes as if they occurred outside oneself and, as a rule, to hold these external factors responsible for one's difficulties (Horney, 1945, p. 115). It includes the defense mechanism of projection, as traditional psychoanalysis understands it, in which our own unacceptable tendencies (such...

Examples of Evolved Psychological Mechanisms

Sexual attraction based on physical appearance Sexual attraction based on male's ability to provide resources functions to help ensure males that they are the genetic fathers of their mate's child functions to ensure a healthy mate and one with effects of hormones (estrogen or testosterone) that indicate fertility functions to ensure females that their mates will be able to provide resources needed for the survival of their children functions to optimize the number of remaining years of...

Biography of Arthur Staats

Arthur Personality

Arthur Staats was born in New York in 1924, the youngest among four children. His Jewish mother, whose maiden name was Jennie Yollis, came from Tetiev, Russia. Her grandfather was a Talmudic scholar, devoted only to study. Her father, after his own study, became an atheist and radical thinker. When Staats was 3 months old, his father Frank died suddenly, several days after the family arrived in Los Angeles after a voyage through the Panama Canal his mother never remarried. Through primary and...

Psychophysical Systems

Personality is subject to biological as well as psychological influences. Mind and body are inextricably united. Temperament refers to biologically based differences in personality, often evidenced as emotional reactivity to new or potentially frightening stimuli. It is the basis, for example, of one person's shyness and another's bold adventurousness. Allport accepted the empirical research available in his day indicating that temperament constitutes an inherited biological foundation for...

Characteristics of Instincts

Because Freud understood all personality functioning as derived from instinctive energy, knowing the fundamental principles regulating instincts provides a basic framework for understanding personality. These can be summarized as four basic aspects of instincts source, pressure, aim, and object. 1. Source. All psychic energy is derived from biological processes in some part or organ of the body. There is no separate, exclusively mental energy. The amount of energy a person has does not change...

The Emotional Motivational Repertoire

Theorist Skinner Images Ecd Playroom

Staats's Three Basic Behavioral Repertoires BBRs Examples of Related Personality Tests Emotional responses to social interactions with friends and family Sexual arousal Enjoying work and recreation Emotional responses to music and art Type-A behavior1 Feeding Toilet training Writing Aggressive behavior Active-passive behavior Behavior judged masculine or feminine Intelligence tests many items Reading readiness tests Interest tests Strong Vocational Interest Blank Values tests...

Mistaken Styles of Life

Not all styles of life are equally desirable. Sometimes, early in life, people develop strategies for improving their situations that are, in the long run, maladaptive. For example, a child may become overly dependent on doting parents or overly rebellious. Adler referred to these as mistaken styles of life. He listed several types, which we shall examine here. Ruling Type. Ruling types seek to dominate others. They may actively confront life's problems in a selfish way, becoming delinquents,...

The Consistency Paradox

Walter Mischel

This discrepancy between the intuition that people are consistent and empirical findings that they are not poses a consistency paradox. People who are honest in the classroom may cheat on taxes children who wait patiently in the presence of a parent may act impulsively when the situation changes. That is, behavior is not determined by general personality traits, but is situation-specific. Even the religious beliefs and worldviews of elderly people, studied in longitudinal research, vaiy...

The Construction Corollary

According to the Construction Corollary A person anticipates events by construing their replications. (Kelly, 1955, p. 50) Like a scientist who anticipates that obsetvations will confirm a stated research hypothesis, we anticipate confirmation of our constructs (cf. Mancuso, 1998). We base our expectations of the next football game on our experiences of previous ones, of the next concert by previous ones, and so on. Events, more or less similar, occur repeatedly, and our plans for the future...

Attentional Processes Observing the Behavior

Nothing will be learned that is not observed. People who have difficulty remembering names, for example, often simply don't pay attention to them in the first place. Several characteristics of the model and of the observer influence modeling. Models catch our attention more when they look distinctive because of their clothes or other aspects of their physical appearance, when they are liked or disliked, and when they are seen repeatedly, as advertisers well know. All these are examples of...