1. a. Luck is the main reason for people's success, b. People make their own luck.
2. a. One way to bring about a thunder storm is to plan a picnic or some other outdoor event, b. Weather patterns have nothing to do with people's wishes.
3. a. Students' grades are mostly the result of chance.
b. Students' grades are mostly the result of hard work.
4. a. People have no control over large industries that pollute the environment.
b. People can work together to prevent large industries from dumping waste products into the environment.
5. a. Popularity among high school students is due mostly to things beyond their control, for example, good looks, b. Popularity among high school students is due mostly to a student's own efforts.
6. a. Injuries from motor vehicle crashes cannot be prevented. When ifs your time, it's your time, b. Wearing seat belts, having air bags in you automobile, and driving within the speed limit are proven ways of reducing injuries from motor vehicle crashes. These items are similar to ones Julian Rotter used in developing his Internal-External Control Scale, usually called the locus of control scale. We discuss this widely popular instrument in the section on internal and external control of reinforcement and offer some analysis on the meaning of these items.
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