We have reorgnized Theories of Personality to conform more to the historical and conceptual nature of the theories. After the introductory Chapter 1, we present the psychodynamic theories of Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Melanie Klein, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, Harry Stack Sullivan, and Erik Erikson. These theories are now followed by the humanistic/existential theories of Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and Rollo May. Next are the dispositional theories of Gordon Allport, Hans Eysenck, and Robert McCrae and Paul Costa, Jr. The final group of chapters include the behavioral and social learning theories of B. F. Skinner, Albert Bandura, Julian Rotter, Walter Mischel, and George Kelly, although Kelly's theory nearly defies categorization. This new organization gives the reader a better view of the chronology and development of personality theories.

In addition to this reorganization, we made several changes that maintain the challenging and informative yet reader-friendly nature of this text. Most noticeably, we have added half a chapter of new material on the Big Five trait theory of Robert McCrae and Paul Costa, Jr. This five-trait approach has recently evolved from a taxonomy to a full-fledged theory.

In addition to new information on McCrae and Costa, we have added:

• Additional biographical information on most theorists, thus supporting our major thesis that a theorist's birth order, religious background, education, and early professional experiences contribute to his or her unique theory

• Many new references that demonstrate the dynamic quality of most personality theories

• Greater cultural diversity, much of which is reflected by current related research

• A brief chapter opening vignette included for high student interest and designed to engage the reader in an interesting story about that chapter's theorist.

xviii Preface

More specifically, we added information on:

1. Freud's experimentation and use of cocaine (Chapter 2)

2. Why Freud failed to understand women (Chapter 2)

3. Freud's work habits and other bits of interesting information, including his clarification of the female Oedipus complex (Chapter 2)

4. Adler's near-death experience from pneumonia and how it affected his view of life (Chapter 3)

5. Adler's own early recollection and its relationship to his life goals (Chapter 3)

6. Adler's lifelong animosity toward Freud (Chapter 3)

7. Jung's relationship to women, especially Toni Wolff (Chapter 4)

8. Jung's ideas on the balanced personality (see Figure 4.3) (Chapter 4)

9. The lifelong friction between Klein and her daughter Melitta (Chapter 5)

10. Mary Ainsworth's research on attachment style (Chapter 5)

11. New biographical information on Horney (Chapter 6)

12. Sullivan's sexual orientation and how it affected his psychological theories (Chapter 8)

13. Erikson's futile search for personal identity (Chapter 9)

14. Rogers's early interest in scientific agriculture and how that interest related to his subsequent research (Chapter 11)

15. The influence of chance in the lives of Maslow (Chapter 10); Eysenck (Chapter 14); Allport (Chapter 13); and Bandura (Chapter 16)

16. Maslow's quest for the self-actualizing, "good" person (Chapter 10); Biographies of McCrae and Costa (Chapter 14)

17. Eysenck's opinion of the "Big Five" (Chapter 14)

18. Skinner's early failures and how he eventually found his identity (Chapter 15)

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