How people act hi a particular situation depends on the reciprocity of behavioral, environmental, and cognitive conditions, especially those cognitive factors that relate to their beliefs that they can or cannot execute the behavior necessary to produce desired outcomes in any particular situation. Bandura (1997) calls these expectations self-efficacy. According to Bandura (1994) "people's beliefs hi then personal efficacy influence what courses of action they choose to pursue, how much effort they will invest hi activities, how long they will persevere hi the face of obstacles and failure experiences, and then resiliency following setbacks" (p. 65). Although self-
efficacy has a powerful causal influence on people's actions, it is not the sole determinant. Rather, self-efficacy combines with environment, prior behavior, and other personal variables, especially outcome expectations, to produce behavior.
In the triadic reciprocal causal model, which postulates that the environment, behavior, and person have an interactive influence on one another, self-efficacy refers to the P (person) factor.
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