Jung (193 l/1954b) identified four basic approaches to therapy, representing four developmental stages in the history of psychotherapy. The first is confession of a pathogenic secret. This is the cathartic method practiced by Josef Breuer and his patient Anna O. For patients who merely have a need to share their secrets, catharsis is effective. The second stage involves interpretation, explanation, and elucidation. This approach, used by Freud, gives the patients insight into the causes of their neuroses, but may still leave them incapable of solving social problems. The third stage, therefore, is the approach adopted by Adler and includes the education of patients as social beings. Unfortunately, says Jung, this approach often leaves patients merely socially well adjusted.

To go beyond these three approaches, Jung suggested a fourth stage, transformation. By transformation, he meant that the therapist must first be transformed mto a healthy human being, preferably by undergoing psychotherapy. Only after transformation and an established philosophy of life is the therapist able to help patients move toward individuation, wholeness, or self-realization. This fourth stage is especially employed with patients who are in the second half of life and who are concerned with realization of the inner self, with moral and religious problems, and with finding a unifying philosophy of life (Jung, 193 l/1954b).

Jung was quite eclectic in his theory and practice of psychotherapy. His treatment varied according to the age, stage of development, and particular problem of the patient. About two thirds of Jung's patients were in the second half of life, and a great many of them suffered from a loss of meaning, general aimlessness, and a fear of death. Jung attempted to help these patients find their own philosophical orientation.

The ultimate purpose of Jungian therapy is to help neurotic patients become healthy and to encourage healthy people to work independently toward self-realization. Jung sought to achieve this purpose by using such techniques as dream analysis and active imagination to help patients discover personal and collective unconscious material and to balance these unconscious images with their conscious attitude (Jung, 193 l/1954a).

Although Jung encouraged patients to be independent, he admitted the importance of transference, particularly during the first three stages of therapy. He regarded both positive and negative transference as a natural concomitant to patients'

Chapter 4 Jung: Analytical Psychology 129

revelation of highly personal information. He thought it quite all right that a number of male patients referred to him as "Mother Jung" and quite understandable that others saw him as God or savior. Jung also recognized the process of countertransfer-ence, a term used to describe a therapist's feelings toward the patient. Like transference, countertransference can be either a help or a hindrance to treatment, depending on whether it leads to a better relationship between doctor and patient, something that Jung felt was indispensable to successful psychotherapy.

Because Jungian psychotherapy lias many minor goals and a variety of techniques, no universal description of a person who has successfully completed analytical treatment is possible. For the mature person, the goal may be to find meaning hi life and strive toward achieving balance and wholeness. The self-realized person is able to assimilate much of the unconscious self hito consciousness but, at the same thne, remains fully aware of the potential dangers hidden hi the far recess of the unconscious psyche. Jung once warned agahist digging too deeply in land not properly surveyed, comparing this practice to a person digging for an artesian well and raining the risk of activating a volcano.

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