Outcomes

If the process of therapeutic change is set in motion, then certam observable outcomes can be expected. The most basic outcome of successful client-centered therapy is a congruent client who is less defensive and more open to experience. Each of the remaining outcomes is a logical extension of this basic one.

As a result of bemg more congruent and less defensive, clients have a clearer picture of themselves and a more realistic view of the world. They are better able to assimilate experiences mto the self on the symbolic level; they are more effective hi solving problems; and they have a higher level of positive self-regard.

Being realistic, they have a more accurate view of their potentials, which permits them to narrow the gap between self-ideal and real self. Typically, this gap is narrowed because both the ideal self and the true self show some movement. Because clients are more realistic, they lower their expectations of what they should be or would like to be; and because they have an hicrease in positive self-regard they raise their view of what they really are.

Because then ideal self and their real self are more congruent, clients experience less physiological and psychological tension, are less vulnerable to threat, and have less anxiety. They are less likely to look to others for direction and less likely to use others' opinions and values as the criteria for evaluating their own experiences. Instead they become more self-directed and more likely to perceive that the locus of evaluation resides within themselves. They no longer feel compelled to please other people and to meet external expectations. They feel sufficiently safe to

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