Malevolence is the disjunctive dynamism of evil and hatred characterized by the feeling of living among one's enemies (Sullivan, 1953b). It origmates around ages 2 or 3 years when children's actions that earlier had brought about maternal tenderness are rebuffed ignored or met with anxiety and pain. When parents attempt to control their children's behavior by physical pain or reproving remarks, some children will leant to withhold any expression of the need for tenderness and to protect themselves by adoptmg the malevolent attitude. Parents and peers then find it more and more difficult to react with tenderness, which hi turn solidifies the child's negative attitude toward the world. Malevolent actions often take the form of timidity,

Significant intimate relationships prior to puberty are usually boy-boy or girl-girl friendships, according to Sullivan.

mischievousness, cruelty, or other kinds of asocial or antisocial behavior. Sullivan expressed the malevolent attitude with this colorful statement: "Once upon a time everything was lovely, but that was before I had to deal with people" (p. 216).

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Anxiety and Panic Attacks

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