Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow s hierarchy of needs concept assumes that lower level needs must be satisfied or at least relatively satisfied before higher level needs become motivators. The five needs composing this hierarchy are conative needs, meaning that they have a striving or motivational character. These needs, which Maslow often referred to as basic needs, can be arranged on a hierarchy or staircase, with each ascending step representing a higher need but one less basic to survival (see Figure 10.1). Lower level needs have prepotency over higher level need; that is, they must be satisfied or mostly satisfied before higher level needs become activated. For example, anyone motivated by esteem or self-actualization must have previously satisfied needs for food and safety. Hunger and safety, therefore, have prepotency over both esteem and self-actualization.

Maslow (1970) listed the following needs in order of then prepotency: physiological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization.

Self-actualization

Esteem

Love and belongingness

FIGURE 10.1 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. One Must Reach Self-actualization One Step at a Time.

Chapter 10 Maslow: Holistic-Dynamic Theory 279

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