Hierarchy of Behavior Organization

Eysenck (1947, 1994c) recognized a four-level hierarchy of behavior organization. At the lowest level are specific acts or cognitions, mdividual behaviors or thoughts that may or may not be characteristic of a person. A student finishing a reading assignment would be an example of a specific response. At the second level are the habitual acts or cognitions, that is, responses that recur under similar conditions. For example, if a student frequently keeps at an assignment until it is finished this behavior becomes a habitual response. As opposed to specific responses, habitual responses must be reasonably reliable or consistent.

Several related habitual responses form a trait—the third level of behavior. Eysenck (1981) defined traits as "important seem-permanent personality dispositions" (p. 3). For example, students would have the trait of persistence if they habitually complete class assignments and keep workmg at other endeavors until they are finished. Although traits can be identified intuitively, trait and factor theorists rely on a more systematic approach, namely factor analysis. Trait-level behaviors are extracted through factor analysis of habit-level responses just as habitual responses are mathematically extracted through factor analysis of specific responses. Traits, then,

Chapter 14 Eysenck, McCrae, and Costa's Trait and Factor Theories

Type:

Traits:

Chapter 14 Eysenck, McCrae, and Costa's Trait and Factor Theories

Type:

Traits:

Loose Hierarchy Business Traits

FIGURE 14.3 The organization of behavior into specific actions, habitual responses, traits, and types. Besides persistence and social shyness, other traits such as inferiority, low activity, and serious-mindedness contribute to introversion.

Habits:

I school 1

with I 1

\ work /

\ hobbies J \

Specific Behaviors:

FIGURE 14.3 The organization of behavior into specific actions, habitual responses, traits, and types. Besides persistence and social shyness, other traits such as inferiority, low activity, and serious-mindedness contribute to introversion.

are "defined in terms of significant intercorrelations between different habitual behaviors" (Eysenck, 1990, p. 244). Most of Cattells 35 normal and abnormal primary source traits are at this third level of organization, which accounts for the fact that he identified far more personality dimensions than either Eysenck or advocates of the Five-Factor Theory.

Eysenck concentrated on the fourth level, that of types or superfactors. A type is made up of several interrelated traits. For example, persistence may be related to inferiority, poor emotional adjustment, social shyness, and several other traits, with the entire cluster forming the introverted type. Each of the four levels of behavior organization are shown in Figure 14.3.

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Responses

  • asfaha
    Which is not one of the four levels of hierarchy behavior organization recognized by Eysenck?
    4 years ago
  • sabina
    What is the lowest level of the Hierarchy of Behavior Organization?
    4 years ago
  • paul
    What is eysneck hierachy of behavior organization?
    4 years ago
  • lisa
    Which is not one of four the levels of hierarchy behavior organization reconized by eysenck?
    3 years ago
  • jenni
    What are the four levels of eysencks hierarchical?
    2 years ago

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