The researchers found that the therapy group showed less discrepancy between self and ideal self after therapy than before, and they retained ahnost all those gains throughout the follow-up period. As expected the "normal" controls had a higher level of congruence than the therapy group at the beginning of the study, but in contrast to the therapy group, they showed almost no change hi congruence between self and self-ideal from the hiitial testing until the final follow-up.

In addition, the therapy group changed then self-concept more than they changed their perception of the ordinary person. This finding suggests that, although

Chapter 11 Rogers: Person-Centered Theory 331

clients showed little change in then notion of what the average person was like, they manifested marked change in their perceptions of self, hi other words, intellectual insight does not result hi psychological growth (Rudikoff, 1954).

Does therapy bring about noticeable changes in clients' behavior as perceived by close friends? Participants hi both the therapy and the control groups were asked to supply the experimenters with names of two intimate friends who would be in a position to judge overt behavioral changes.

In general, the friends reported no significant behavioral changes in the clients from the pretherapy period to posttherapy. However, this global rathig of no change was due to a counterbalancing effect. Clients judged by then therapists as behig most improved received higher posttherapy maturity scores from their friends, whereas those rated as least improved received lower scores from their friends. Interestingly, before therapy, clients typically rated themselves less mature than then friends rated them, but as therapy progressed they began to rate themselves higher and therefore, more in agreement with their friends' ratings. Participants in the control group showed no changes throughout the study hi emotional maturity as judged by friends (Rogers & Dymond, 1954).

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