♦ Overview of Trait and Factor Theories
♦ Biography of Hans J. Eysenck
♦ The Pioneering Work of Raymond B. Cattell
♦ Basics of Factor Analysis
♦ Eysenck's Factor Theory
Criteria for Identifying Factors Hierarchy of Behavior Organization
♦ Dimensions of Personality
Extraversión Neuroticism Psychoticism
♦ Measuring Personality
♦ Biological Bases of Personality
♦ Personality as a Predictor
Personality and Behavior Personality and Disease
♦ The Big Five: Taxonomy or Theory?
♦ Biographies of Robert R. McCrae and Paul T.
Five Factors Found Description of the Five Factors
♦ Evolution of the Five-Factor Theory
Units of the Five-Factor Theory Basic Postulates
♦ Related Research
Biology and Personality Personality and Culture Five-Factor Model Across Cultures Stability of Traits Over the Lifespan
♦ Critique of Trait and Factor Theories
♦ Concept of Humanity
♦ Key Terms and Concepts
Chance and fortuity often play a decisive role hi people's lives. One such chance event happened to an 18-year-old German youth who had left his native country as a consequence of Nazi tyranny. He eventually settled in England, where he tried to enroll in the University of London. He was an avid reader, interested in both the arts and the sciences, but his first choice of curriculum was physics.
However, a chance event altered the flow of his life and consequently the course of the history of psychology. In order to be accepted hito the university, he was required to pass an entrance examination, which he took after a years study at a commercial college. After passhig the exam, he confidently enrolled in the University of London, intending to major hi physics. However, he was told that he had taken the wrong subjects in his entrance exam and therefore was not eligible to pursue a physics curriculum. Rather than waithig another year to take the right subjects, he asked if there was some scientific subject that he was qualified to pursue. When told he could always take psychology, he asked, "What on earth is psychology?" He had never heard of psychology, although he had some vague idea about psychoanalysis. Could psychology possibly be a science? However, he had little choice but to pursue a degree in psychology, so he promptly entered the university with a major in a discipline about which he knew almost nothing. Years later the world of psychology would know a great deal about Hans J. Eysenck, probably the most prolific writer hi the history of psychology. In his autobiography, Eysenck (1997b) simply noted that by such chance events "is ones fate decided by bureaucratic stupidity" (p. 47).
Throughout his life, Eysenck battled bureaucratic stupidity and any other type of stupidity he came across. In his autobiography, he described himself as "a sanctimonious prig . . . who didn't suffer fools (or even ordhiarily bright people) gladly" (Eysenck, 1997b, p. 31).
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