In contrast to introversion, extraversión is the attitude distinguished by the turning outward of psychic energy so that a person is oriented toward the objective and away from the subjective. Extraverts are more influenced by then surroundings than by then inner world. They tend to focus on the objective attitude while suppressing the subjective. Like Jung's childhood No. 1 personality, they are pragmatic and well rooted in the realities of everyday life. At the same time, they are overly suspicious of the subjective attitude, whether then own or that of someone else.

In summary, people are neither completely mtroverted nor completely extraverted. Introverted people are like an unbalanced teeter-totter with a heavy weight on one end and a very light weight on the other (see Figure 4.3 A). Conversely, extraverted people are unbalanced hi the other direction, with a heavy extraverted attitude and a very light introverted one (see Figure 4.3 B). However, psychologically healthy people attain a balance of the two attitudes, feeling equally comfortable with then internal and then external worlds (see Figure 4.3 C).

In Chapter 3, we said that Adler developed a theory of personality that was quite opposite to that of Freud. Where did Jung place these two theories on the extraversión/introversión pole? Jung (1921/1971) said that "Freud's view is essentially extraverted Adler's mtroverted" (p. 62). Our biographical sketches of Freud and



FIGURE 4.3 The Balance of Introversion and Extraversión.

Adler reveal that the opposite appears to be true: Freud was personally somewhat introverted, in tune to his dreams and fantasy life, whereas Adler was personally ex-traverted, feeling most comfortable in group settings, singing songs and playing the piano in the coffeehouses of Vienna. Yet Jung held that Freud's theory was ex-traverted because it reduced experiences to the external world of sex and aggression, Conversely, Jung believed that Adler's theory was introverted because it emphasized fictions and subjective perceptions. Jung, of course, saw his own theory as balanced, able to accept both the objective and the subjective.

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