Erikson hisisted that personality is a product of history, culture, and biology; and his diverse methods of investigation reflect this belief. He employed anthropological, historical, sociological, and clinical methods to learn about children, adolescents, mature adults, and elderly people. He studied middle-class Americans, European children, people of the Sioux and Yurok nations of North America, and even sailors
Part II Psychodynamic Theories
Summary of Erikson's Eight Stages of the Life Cycle
Old age 7
Young adulthood 5
School age 3
Early childhood 1
Generalization of sensual modes Procreativity
Infantile genital-locomotor Anal-urethral -
muscular Oral-respiratory: sensory-kinesthetic
Integrity vs. despair
Generativity vs. Care stagnation
isolation Identity vs. identity confusion Industry vs.
inferiority Initiative vs. guilt
shame, doubt Basic trust vs. basic mistrust
Divided labor and shared household Sexual partners, friends
Role repudiation Peer groups
Neighborhood, school Family
SOURCE: From The Life Cycle Completed: A Review by Erik H. Erikson, Copyright ® 1982 by Rikan Enterprises, Ltd. Reprinted by permission of W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
on a submarine. He wrote biographical portraits of Adolf Hitler, Maxim Gorky, Martin Luther, and Mohandas K. Gandhi, among others. In this section, we present two approaches Erikson used to explam and describe human personality—anthropological studies and psycholiistory.
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