Skinner (1974) recognized the subjective existence of emotions, of course, but he insisted that behavior must not be attributed to them. He accounted for emotions by the contingencies of survival and the contingencies of reinforcement. Throughout the millennia, individuals who were most strongly disposed toward fear or anger were those who escaped from or triumphed over danger and thus were able to pass on those characteristics to their offspring. On an mdividual level, behaviors followed by delight, joy, pleasure, and other pleasant emotions tend to be reinforced thereby increasing the probability that these behaviors would recur in the life of that individ-
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