Lack of satisfaction of any of the basic needs leads to some kind of pathology. Deprivation of physiological needs results hi malnutrition, fatigue, loss of energy, obsession with sex, and so on. Threats to one's safety lead to fear, insecurity, and dread. When love needs go unfulfilled a person becomes defensive, overly aggressive, or socially timid. Lack of esteem results hi the illnesses of self-doubt, self-depreciation, and lack of confidence. Deprivation of self-actualization needs also leads to pathology, or more accurately, metapathology. Maslow (1967) defined metapathology as the absence of values, the lack of fulfillment, and the loss of meaning in life.
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