Conditioning

Skinner (1953) recognized two kinds of conditioning, classical and operant. With classical conditioning (which Skinner called respondent conditioning), a response is drawn out of the organism by a specific, identifiable sthnulus. With operant conditioning (also called Skimierian conditioning), a behavior is made more likely to recur when it is immediately reinforced.

One distinction between classical and operant conditioning is that, hi classical conditioning, behavior is elicited from the organism, whereas in operant conditioning, behavior is emitted. An elicited response is drawn from the organism, whereas an emitted response is one that simply appears. Because responses do not exist inside the organism and thus cannot be drawn out, Skinner preferred the term "emitted." Emitted responses do not previously exist inside the organism; they simply appear because of the organism's individual history of reinforcement or the species' evolutionary history.

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Anxiety and Panic Attacks

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