Comparison of Safeguarding Tendencies with Defense Mechanisms

Adler's Safeguarding Tendencies

1. Limited mostly to the construction of a neurotic style of life

2. Protect the person's fragile self-esteem from public disgrace

3. Can be partly conscious

4. Common types include:

A. excuses

B. aggression

(1). depreciation

(2). accusation

(3). self-accusation

C. withdrawal

(1). moving backward

(2). standing still

(3). hesitating

(4). constructing obstacles

Freud's Defense Mechanisms

1. Found in everyone

2. Protect the ego from the pain of anxiety

3. Operate only on an unconscious level

4. Common types include:

A. repression

B. reaction formation

C. displacement

D. fixation

E. regression

G. projection

H. introjection

I. sublimation

Chapter 3 Adler: Individual Psychology 85

protest. In contrast to Freud's views on women, Adler assumed that women—because they have the same physiological and psychological needs as men—want more or less the same things that men want.

These opposing views on femininity were magnified in the women Freud and Adler chose to marry. Martha Bernays Freud was a subservient housewife dedicated to her children and husband, but she had no interest hi her husband's professional work, hi contrast, Raissa Epstein Adler was an intensely independent woman who abhorred the traditional domestic role, preferring a politically active career.

Dining the early years of their marriage, Raissa and Alfred Adler had somewhat compatible political views, but hi time, these views diverged. Alfred became more of a capitalist, advocating personal responsibility, while Raissa became involved in the dangerous Communist politics of her native Russia. Such independence pleased Adler, who was as much a feminist as his strong-willed wife.

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