Jung divided childhood into three substages: (T) the anarchic, (2) the monarchic, and (3) the dualistic. The anarchic phase is characterized by chaotic and sporadic consciousness. "Islands of consciousness" may exist, but there is little or no connection among these islands. Experiences of the anarchic phase sometimes enter consciousness as primitive images, incapable of being accurately verbalized.
The monarchic phase of childhood is characterized by the development of the ego and by the beginning of logical and verbal thinking. During this tune children see themselves objectively and often refer to themselves in the third person. The islands of consciousness become larger, more numerous, and inhabited by a primitive ego. Although the ego is perceived as an object, it is not yet aware of itself as per-ceiver.
The ego as perceiver arises during the dualistic phase of childhood when the ego is divided into the objective and subjective. Children now refer to themselves in the first person and are aware of their existence as separate individuals. During the dualistic period, the islands of consciousness become continuous land, inhabited by an ego-complex that recognizes itself as both object and subject (Jung, 193171960a).
The period from puberty until middle life is called youth. Young people strive to gain psychic and physical independence from their parents, find a mate, raise a family, and make a place in the world. According to Jung (193 l/1960a), youth is, or should be, a period of increased activity, maturing sexuality, growing consciousness, and recognition that the problem-free era of childhood is gone forever. The major difficulty facing youth is to overcome the natural tendency (found also in middle and later years) to cling to the narrow consciousness of childhood, thus avoiding problems pertinent to the present time of life. This desire to live in the past is called the conservative principle.
A middle-aged or elderly person who attempts to hold on to youthful values faces a crippled second half of life, handicapped in the capacity to achieve self-real-ization and impaired in the ability to establish new goals and seek new meaning to life (Jung, 193171960a).
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