Causality and Teleology

Does motivation sprmg from past causes or from teleological goals? Jung insisted that it comes from both. Causality holds that present events have their origin in previous experiences. Freud relied heavily on a causal viewpomt hi his explanations of adult behavior hi terms of early childhood experiences (see Chapter 2). Jung criticized Freud for being one-sided in his emphasis on causality and hisisted that a causal view could not explahi all motivation. Conversely, teleology holds that present events are motivated by goals and aspirations for the future that direct a persons desthiy. Adler held this position, insisting that people are motivated by conscious and unconscious perceptions of fictional final goals (see Chapter 3). Jung was less critical of Adler than of Freud, but he insisted that human behavior is shaped by both causal and teleological forces and that causal explanations must be balanced with teleological ones.

Jung's insistence on balance is seen hi his conception of dreams. He agreed with Freud that many dreams sprhig from past events; that is, they are caused by ear-

Chapter 4 Jung: Analytical Psychology 115

lier experiences. On the other hand, Jung claimed that some dreams can help a person make decisions about the future, just as dreams of making important discoveries hi the natural sciences eventually led to his own career choice.

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