Biographies of Robert R McCrae and Paul T Costa Jr

Robert Roger McCrae was born April 28, 1949 in Maryville, Missouri, a town of 13,000 people located about 100 miles north of Kansas City. Maryville is home to Northwest Missouri State, the town's largest employer. McCrae, the youngest of three children bom to Andrew McCrae and Eloise Elahie McCrae, grew up with an avid interest in science and mathematics. By the time he entered Michigan State University he had decided to study philosophy. A National Merit Scholar, he nevertheless was not...

Safeguarding Tendencies

Adler believed that people create patterns of behavior to protect their exaggerated sense of self-esteem against public disgrace. These protective devices, called safeguarding tendencies, enable people to hide their inflated self-image and to maintain their current style of life. Adler's concept of safeguarding tendencies can be compared to Freud's concept of defense mechanisms. Basic to both is the idea that symptoms are formed as a protection against anxiety. However, there are important...

Core Features of Human Agency

Bandura (2001, 2004) discusses four core features of human agency intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness. Intentionality refers to acts a person performs intentionally. An intention includes planning, but it also involves actions. It is not simply an expectation or prediction of future actions but a proactive commitment to bringing them about (p. 6). Intentionality does not mean that all of a person's plans will be brought to fruition. People continually change...

Triadic Reciprocal Causation

Albert Bandura Reciprocal Determinism

In Chapter 15, we saw that Skinner believed that behavior is a function of the environment that is, behavior ultimately can be traced to forces outside the person. As environmental contingencies change, behavior changes. But what impetus changes the environment Skinner acknowledged that human behavior can exercise some measure of countercontrol over the environment, but he hisisted that, hi the final analysis, behavior is environmentally determined. Other theorists, such as Gordon Allport...

What Makes a Theory Useful

Hypothesis Testing Roadmap

A useful theory has a mutual and dynamic interaction with research data. First, a theory generates a number of hypotheses that can be investigated through research, thus yielding research data. These data flow back into the theory and restructure it. From this newly contoured theory, scientists can extract other hypotheses, leading to more research and additional data, which in turn reshape and enlarge the theory even more. This cyclic relationship continues for as long as the theory proves...

Basic Hostility and Basic Anxiety

Horney (1950) believed that each person begins life with the potential for healthy development, but like other living organisms, people need favorable conditions for growth. These conditions must include a warm and loving environment yet one that is not overly permissive. Children need to experience both genuine love and healthy discipline. Such conditions provide them with feelings of safety and satisfaction and permit them to grow hi accordance with then real self. Unfortunately, a multitude...

Psychohistorical Study of Hitler

Following Freud (see Chapter 2), Fromm examined historical documents in order to sketch a psychological portrait of a prominent person, a technique called psyc-hohis-toiy orpsychobiography The subject of Fromm s most complete psychobiographical study was Freud (Fromm, 1959), but Fromm (1941, 1973, 1986) also wrote at length on the life of Adolf Hitler. Fromm regarded Hitler as the world s most conspicuous example of a person with the syndrome of decay, possessing a combination of necrophilia,...

Margaret Mahlers View

Margaret Mahler Stages Development

Margaret Schoenberger Mahler (1897-1985) was bom in Sopron, Hungary, and received a medical degree from the University of Vienna hi 1923. hi 1938, she moved to New York, where she was a consultant to the Children's Service of the New York State Psychiatric Institute. She later established her own observational studies at the Masters Children's Center in New York. From 1955 to 1974, she was clinical professor of psychiatry at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Mahler was primarily concerned...

Concept of Humanity

Fromm Necrophilia

Horney's concept of humanity was based almost entirely on her clinical experiences with neurotic patients therefore, her view of human personality is strongly colored by her concept of neurosis. According to Horney, the prime difference between a healthy person and a neurotic individual is the degree of compulsivity with which each moves toward, against, or away from people. The compulsive nature of neurotic trends suggests that Horney's concept of humanity is deterministic. However, a healthy...

Smoking and Self Concept

Previous research on self-concept and adolescent smoking has tended to find relatively negative self-concepts of smokers compared with nonsmokers. More specifically, smokers have greater disparity between real and ideal self-concepts as well as lower self-esteem (Burton, Sussman, Hansen, Johnson, & Flay, 1989 Webster, Hunter, & Keats, 1994). Because different smokers smoke for different reasons, however, an idiographic approach such as the REP test should be better than the conventional...

What Is the Role of Conscious Motivation

More than any other personality theorist, Allport emphasized the importance of conscious motivation. Healthy adults are generally aware of what they are doing and their reasons for doing it. His emphasis on conscious motivation goes back to his meeting in Vienna with Freud and his emotional reaction to Freud's question And was that little boy you Freud's response carried the implication that his 22-year-old visitor was unconsciously talking about his own fetish for cleanliness in revealing the...

Biography of Erik Erikson

Who was Erik Erikson Was he a Dane, a German, or an American Jew or Gentile Artist or psychoanalyst Erikson himself had difficulty answering these questions, and he spent nearly a lifetime trying to determine who he was. Born June 15, 1902, in southern Germany, Erikson was brought up by his mother and stepfather, but he remained uncertain of the true identity of his biological father. To discover his niche in life, Erikson ventured away from home during late adolescence, adopting the life of a...

Eysenck McCrae ana Costas Trait and Factor Theories

Costa And Mccrae

Overview of Trait and Factor Theories Biography of Hans J. Eysenck The Pioneering Work of Raymond B. Cattell Criteria for Identifying Factors Hierarchy of Behavior Organization Extraversi n Neuroticism Psychoticism Biological Bases of Personality Personality and Behavior Personality and Disease The Big Five Taxonomy or Theory Biographies of Robert R. McCrae and Paul T. Five Factors Found Description of the Five Factors Evolution of the Five-Factor Theory Units of the Five-Factor Theory Basic...

May Recognized Three Forms Of Ontological Guikt

Anxiety arises when people are faced with the problem of fulfilling their potentialities. Guilt arises when people deny then potentialities, fail to accurately perceive the needs of fellow humans, or remain oblivious to their dependence on the natural world (May, 1958a). Just as May used the term anxiety to refer to large issues dealing with one's being-in-the-world, so too did he employ the concept of guilt, hi this sense, both anxiety and guilt are ontological that is, they refer to the...

Overview of Humanistic Psychoanalysis

Erich Fromm's basic thesis is that modern-day people have been torn away from then prehistoric union with nature and also with one another, yet they have the power of reasoning, foresight, and imagination. This combination of lack of animal instincts and presence of rational thought makes humans the freaks of the universe. Self-awareness contributes to feelings of loneliness, isolation, and homelessness. To escape from these feelings, people strive to become reunited with nature and with then...

Interpersonal Trust Scale

Another example of a generalized expectancy GE that has provoked considerable interest and research is the concept of interpersonal trust. Rotter 1980 defined interpersonal trust as a generalized expectancy held by an individual that the word promise, oral or written statement of another individual or group can be relied on p. 1 . Interpersonal trust does not refer to the belief that people are naturally good or that they live in the best of all possible worlds. Neither should it be equated...

Hierarchy of Behavior Organization

Loose Hierarchy Business Traits

Eysenck 1947, 1994c recognized a four-level hierarchy of behavior organization. At the lowest level are specific acts or cognitions, mdividual behaviors or thoughts that may or may not be characteristic of a person. A student finishing a reading assignment would be an example of a specific response. At the second level are the habitual acts or cognitions, that is, responses that recur under similar conditions. For example, if a student frequently keeps at an assignment until it is finished this...

Self Efficacy and Shyness

Bandura argued that the personality system obtains its coherence and formation by and through interactions with the social world. It is from these social interactions that beliefs and evaluations about the self develop, the most important of which is self-efficacy. What impact do these social cognitive beliefs about the self have on long-term and stable personality development That was the fundamental question that Gian Caprara, Patrizia Steca, Daniel Cervone, and Danielle Artistico (2003) set...

Biography of Alfred Adler

Alfred Adler was bom on February 7, 1870, in Rudolfsheim, a village near Vienna. His mother Pauline was a hard-working homemaker who kept busy with her seven children. His father Leopold was a middle-class Jewish grain merchant from Hungary. As a young boy, Adler was weak and sickly and at age 5, he nearly died of pneumonia. He had gone ice-skating with an older boy who abandoned young Alfred. Cold and shivering, Adler managed to find his way home where he immediately fell asleep on the living...

How Conditioning Affects Personality

In Chapter 1, we said that the key elements of personality are stability of behavior over time and across different situations. By these criteria, personality change occurs when new behaviors either become stable over time and or across different situations. One domain in which personality change may be evidenced is hi psychotherapy. In fact, a major goal of therapy is to change behavior, and if the changes are stable over tune and situations, then one could talk about changing personality. One...

Biography of Walter Mischel

Walter Mischel, the second son of upper-middle-class parents, was bom on February 22, 1930, hi Vienna. He and his brother Theodore, who later became a philosopher of science, grew up in a pleasant environment only a short distance from Freud's home. The tranquillity of childhood, however, was shattered when the Nazis invaded Austria hi 1938. That same year, the Mischel family fled Austria and moved to the United States. After living in various parts of the country, they eventually settled hi...

Perseverative Functional Autonomy

The more elementary of the two levels of functional autonomy is perseverative functional autonomy. Allport borrowed this term from the word perseveration, which is the tendency of an impression to leave an influence on subsequent experience. Perseverative functional autonomy is found hi animals as well as humans and is based on shnple neurological principles. An example of perseverative functional Chapter 13 Allport Psychology of the Individual 383 autonomy is a rat that has learned to run a...