Discrimination Between Means and Ends

Self-actualizing people have a clear sense of right and wrong conduct and have little conflict about basic values. They set their sights on ends rather than means and have an unusual ability to distinguish between the two. What other people consider Chapter 10 Maslow Holistic-Dynamic Theory 293 to be a means (e.g., eating or exercising), self-actualizing people often see as an end in itself. They enjoy dohig something for its own sake and not just because it is a means to some other end. Maslow...

The Democratic Character Structure

Maslow found that all his self-actualizers possessed democratic values. They could be friendly and considerate with other people regardless of class, color, age, or gender, and in fact, they seemed to be quite unaware of superficial differences among people. Beyond this democratic attitude, self-actualizers have a desire and an ability to learn from anyone. In a learning situation, they recognize how little they know hi relation to what they could know. They realize that less healthy...

Gemeinschaftsgefhl

Self-actualizing people possess Gemeinschaftsgefiihl, Adler s term for social interest, community feeling, or a sense of oneness with all humanity. Maslow found that his self-actualizers had a kind of caring attitude toward other people. Although they often feel like aliens in a foreign land self-actualizers nevertheless identify with all other people and have a genuine mterest in helping others strangers as well as friends. Self-actualizers may become angry, impatient, or disgusted with others...

The Peak Experience

As Maslow's study of self-actualizers continued, he made the unexpected discovery that many of his people had had experiences that were mystical in nature and that somehow gave them a feeling of transcendence. Originally, he thought that these so-called peak experiences were far more common among self-actualizers than among non-self-actualizers. Later, however, Maslow (1971) stated that most people, or almost all people, have peak experiences, or ecstasies (p. 175). Not all peak experiences are...

Autonomy

Self-actualizing people are autonomous and depend on themselves for growth even though at some tune in then past they had to have received love and security from others. No one is born autonomous, and therefore no one is completely independent of people. Autonomy can be achieved only through satisfactory relations with others. However, the confidence that one is loved and accepted without conditions or qualifications can be a powerful force hi contributing to feelings of self-worth. Once that...

The Need for Privacy

Self-actualizing people have a quality of detachment that allows them to be alone without behig lonely. They feel relaxed and comfortable when they are either with people or alone. Because they have already satisfied then love and belongingness needs, they have no desperate need to be surrounded by other people. They can find enjoyment in solitude and privacy. Self-actualizing people may be seen as aloof or uninterested but in fact, their disinterest is limited to minor matters. They have a...

Problem Centering

A fourth characteristic of self-actualizing people is their interest in problems outside themselves. Non-self-actualizing people are self-centered and tend to see all the worlds problems in relation to themselves, whereas self-actualizing people are task-oriented and concerned with problems outside themselves. This hiterest allows self-actualizers to develop a mission in life, a purpose for living that spreads beyond self-aggrandizement. Their occupation is not merely a means to earning a...

More Efficient Perception of Reality

Self-actualizing people can more easily detect phoniness in others. They can discriminate between the genuine and the fake not only in people but also hi literature, art, and music. They are not fooled by facades and can see both positive and negative underlying traits in others that are not readily apparent to most people. They perceive ultimate values more clearly than other people do and are less prejudiced and less likely to see the world as they wish it to be. Also, self-actualizing people...

In Search of the Big Five

The study of traits was first begun by Allport and Odbert in the 1930s and continued by Cattell hi the 1940s and by Tupes, Cliristal, and Norman hi the 1960s (see John & Srivastava, 1999, for a historical review of the Five-Factor Model, or the Big-Five). In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Costa and McCrae, like most other factor researchers, were building elaborate taxonomies of personality traits, but they were not using these classifications to generate testable hypotheses. Instead they...

Moving against People

Just as compliant people assume that everyone is nice, aggressive people take for granted that everyone is hostile. As a result, they adopt the strategy of moving against people. Neurotically aggressive people are just as compulsive as compliant people are, and then behavior is just as much prompted by basic anxiety. Rather than moving toward people hi a posture of submissiveness and dependence, these people move against others by appearing tough or ruthless. They are motivated by a strong need...

Related Research

Even though George Kelly wrote only one seminal work (1955, 1991), his impact on personality psychology is remarkable. His personal construct theory lias generated a sizable number of empirical investigations, including nearly 600 empirical studies on his repertory test, which suggests that his theory has fared quite well in generating research. Because he was among the first psychologists to emphasize cognitive sets, such as schema, Kelly's idea of personal constructs in a very real sense was...

Is Falsifiable

A theory must also be evaluated on its ability to be confirmed or disconfirmed that is, it must be falsifiable. To be falsifiable, a theory must be precise enough to suggest research that may either support or fail to support its major tenets. If a theory is so vague and nebulous that both positive and negative research results can be interpreted as support, then that theory is not falsifiable and ceases to be useful. Falsifia-bility, however, is not the same as false it simply means that...

Instinctoid Nature of Needs

Maslow (1970) hypothesizes that some human needs are innately determined even though they can be modified by learning. He called these needs instinctoid needs. Sex, for example, is a basic physiological need but the maimer hi which it is expressed depends on learning. For most people, then, sex is an instinctoid need. Chapter 10 Maslow Holistic-Dynamic Theory 285 One criterion for separating instinctoid needs from lioninstinctoid needs is the level of pathology upon frustration. The thwarting...

Overview of Interpersonal Theory

Harry Stack Sullivan, the first American to construct a comprehensive personality theory, believed that people develop then personality within a social context. Without other people, Sullivan contended, humans would have no personality. A personality can never be isolated from the complex of interpersonal relations hi which the person lives and has his being (Sullivan, 1953a, p. 10). Sullivan insisted that knowledge of human personality can be gained only through the scientific study of...

Critique of Fromm

Erich Fromm was perhaps the most brilliant essayist of all personality theorists. He wrote beautiful essays on international politics (Fromm, 1961) on the relevance of biblical prophets for people today (Fromm, 1986) on the psychological problems of the aging (Fromm, 1981) on Marx, Hitler, Freud and Clnist and on myriad other topics. Regardless of the topic, at the core of all Fromm's writings can be found an unfolding of the essence of human nature. Like other psychodynamic theorists, Fromm...

Social Character in a Mexican Village

Beginning in the late 1950s and extending hito the mid-1960s, Fromm and a group of psychologists, psychoanalysts, anthropologists, physicians, and statisticians studied social character in Chiconcuac, a Mexican village about 50 miles south of Mexico City. The team interviewed every adult and half the children hi this isolated farming village of 162 households and about 800 inhabitants. The people of the village 202 Part II Psychodynamic Theories were mostly farmers, earning a living from small...

Psychotherapy

Fromm was trained as an orthodox Freudian analyst but became bored with standard analytic techniques. With time I came to see that my boredom stemmed from the fact that I was not hi touch with the life of my patients (Fromm, 1986, p. 106). He then evolved his own system of therapy, which he called humanistic psychoanalysis. Compared with Freud Fromm was much more concerned with the interpersonal aspects of a therapeutic encounter. He believed that the ahn of therapy is for patients to come to...

Malignant Narcissism

Just as all people display some necrophilic behavior, so too do all have some narcissistic tendencies. Healthy people manifest a benign form of narcissism, that is, an interest hi their own body. However, in its malignant form, narcissism hnpedes the perception of reality so that everything belonging to a narcissistic person is highly valued and everything belonging to another is devalued. Narcissistic individuals are preoccupied with themselves, but this concern is not lhnited to admiring...

Necrophilia

The term necrophilia means love of death and usually refers to a sexual perversion hi which a person desires sexual contact with a corpse. However, Fromm (1964, 1973) used necrophilia in a more generalized sense to denote any attraction to Chapter 7 Fromm Humanistic Psychoanalysis 199 death. Necrophilia is an alternative character orientation to biophilia. People naturally love life, but when social conditions stunt biophilia, they may adopt a necropliilic orientation. Necrophilic personalities...

The Productive Orientation

The single productive orientation has three dimensions working, loving, and reasoning. Because productive people work toward positive freedom and a continuing realization of then potential, they are the most healthy of all character types. Only through productive activity can people solve the basic human dilemma that is, to unite with the world and with others while retaining uniqueness and individuality. This solution can be accomplished only through productive work, love, and thought. Healthy...

Character Orientations

In Fromms theory, personality is reflected in ones character orientation, that is, a persons relatively permanent way of relating to people and things. Fromm (1947) defined personality as the totality of inherited and acquired psychic qualities which are characteristic of one individual and winch make the individual unique (p. 50). The most important of the acquired qualities of personality is character, defined as the relatively permanent system of all noninstinctual strivings through which...

Positive Freedom

The emergence of political and economic freedom does not lead inevitably to the bondage of isolation and powerlessness. A person can be free and not alone, critical and yet not filled with doubts, independent and yet an integral part of mankind (Fromm, 1941, p. 257). People can attain this kind of freedom, called positive 196 Part II Psychodynamic Theories freedom, by a spontaneous and full expression of both their rational and their emotional potentialities. Spontaneous activity is frequently...

Summary of Human Needs

In addition to physiological or animal needs, people are motivated by five distinctively human needs relatedness, transcendence, rootedness, a sense of identity, and a frame of orientation. These needs have evolved from human existence as a separate species and are aimed at moving people toward a reunion with the natural world. Fromm believed that lack of satisfaction of any of these needs is unbearable and results in insanity. Thus, people are strongly driven to fulfill them in some way or...

Frame of Orientation

A final human need is for a frame of orientation. Bemg split off from nature, humans need a road map, a frame of orientation, to make their way through the world. Without such a map humans would be confused and unable to act purposefully and consistently (Fromm, 1973, p. 230). A frame of orientation enables people to organize the various stimuli that impinge on them. People who possess a solid frame of orientation can make sense of these events and phenomena, but those who lack a reliable frame...

Sense of Identity

The fourth human need is for a sense of identity, or the capacity to be aware of ourselves as a separate entity. Because we have been torn away from nature, we need to form a concept of our self, to be able to say, I am I, or I am the subject of my actions. Fromm (1981) believed that primitive people identified more closely with then clan and did not see themselves as individuals existing apart from their group. Even during medieval thnes, people were identified largely by then social role in...

Relatedness

The first human, or existential, need is relatedness, the drive for union with another person or other persons. Fromm postulated tlnee basic ways in which a person may relate to the world (1) submission, (2) power, and (3) love. A person can submit to 190 Part II Psychodynamic Theories another, to a group, or to an institution hi order to become one with the world. In this way he transcends the separateness of his individual existence by becoming part of somebody or something bigger than...

Human Needs

As animals, humans are motivated by such physiological needs as hunger, sex, and safety but they can never resolve their human dilemma by satisfying these animal needs. Only the disthictive human needs can move people toward a reunion with the natural world. These existential needs have emerged during the evolution of human culture, growing out of then attempts to find an answer to their existence and to avoid becoming insane. Indeed Fromm (1955) contended that one important difference between...

FromrrTs Basic Assumptions

Fromm s most basic assumption is that individual personality can be understood only in the light of human history. The discussion of the human situation must precede that of personality, and psychology must be based on an anthropologic-pliilosophical concept of human existence (Fromm, 1947, p. 45). Chapter 7 Fromm Humanistic Psychoanalysis 189 Fromm (1947) believed that humans, unlike other animals, have been torn away from then prehistoric union with nature. They have no powerful instincts to...

The Ego in Post Freudian Theory

In Chapter 2, we pohited out that Freud used the analogy of a rider on horseback to describe the relationship between the ego and the id. The rider (ego) is ultimately at the mercy of the stronger horse (id). The ego has no strength of its own but must borrow its energy from the id. Moreover, the ego is constantly attempting to balance blind demands of the superego agahist the relentless forces of the id and the realistic opportunities of the external world. Freud believed that, for...

Neurotic Needs

The satisfaction of conative, aesthetic, and cognitive needs is basic to ones physical and psychological health, and their frustration leads to some level of illness. However, neurotic needs lead only to stagnation and pathology (Maslow, 1970). By definition, neurotic needs are nonproductive. They perpetuate an unhealthy style of life and have no value in the striving for self-actualization. Neurotic needs are usually reactive that is, they serve as compensation for unsatisfied basic needs. For...

Neurotic Claims

A second aspect of the idealized image is neurotic claims, hi their search for glory, neurotics build a fantasy world a world that is out of sync with the real world. Believing that something is wrong with the outside world, they proclaim that they are special and therefore entitled to be treated in accordance with then idealized view of themselves. Because these demands are very much in accord with their idealized self-image, they fail to see that their claims of special privilege are...

Social Control

Individuals act to form social groups because such behavior tends to be reinforcing. Groups, hi turn, exercise control over their members by formulating written or unwritten laws, rules, and customs that have physical existence beyond the lives of individuals. The laws of a nation, the rules of an organization, and the customs of a culture transcend any one individuals means of countercontrol and serve as powerful controlling variables hi the lives of individual members. A somewhat humorous...

Constructive Alternativism

Kelly began with the assumption that the universe really exists and that it functions as an integral unit, with all its parts interacting precisely with each other. Moreover, the universe is constantly changing, so something is happening all the time. Added to these basic assumptions is the notion that people's thoughts also really exist and that people strive to make sense out of their continuously changing world. Different people construe reality in different ways, and the same person is...

Critique of Erikson

Erikson built his theory largely on ethical principles and not necessarily on scientific data. He came to psychology from art and acknowledged that he saw the world more through the eyes of an artist than through those of a scientist. He once wrote that he had nothing to offer except a way of looking at things (Erikson, 1963, p. 403). His books are admittedly subjective and personal, which undoubtedly adds to their appeal. Nevertheless, Erikson's theory must be judged by the standards of...

Critique of Object Relations Theory

Currently, object relations theory continues to be more popular in the United Kingdom than it is hi the United States. The British School, which included not only Melanie Klein but also W. R. D. Fairbairn and D. W. Whuiicott, has exerted a strong influence on psychoanalysts and psychiatrists in the United Kingdom. In the United States, however, the influence of object relations theorists, while growhig, has been less direct. How does object relations theory rate in generating research In 1986,...

Concept of Humanity

Allport had a basically optimistic and hopeful view of human nature. He rejected the psychoanalytic and behavioral views of humanity as being too deterministic and too mechanistic. He believed that our fates and our traits are not determined by 392 Part IV Dispositional Theories unconscious motives originating in early childhood but by conscious choices we make in the present. We are not simply automatons blindly reacting to the forces of reward and punishment. Instead, we are able to interact...

Nonproductive Orientations

People can acquire things through any one of four nonproductive orientations (1) receiving things passively, (2) exploiting or takhig things through force,(3) hoarding objects, and (4) marketing or exchanging things. Fromm used the term nonproductive to suggest strategies that fail to move people closer to positive freedom and self-realization. Nonproductive orientations are, however, not entirely negative each has both a negative and a positive aspect. Personality is always a blend or...

Pampered Style of Life

A pampered style of life lies at the heart of most neuroses. Pampered people have weak social hiterest but a strong desire to perpetuate the pampered parasitic relationship they originally had with one or both of then parents. They expect others to Chapter 3 Adler Individual Psychology 81 look after them, overprotect them, and satisfy their needs. They are characterized by extreme discouragement, indecisiveness, oversensitivity, impatience, and exaggerated emotion, especially anxiety. They see...

The Person of Tomorrow

The interest shown by Rogers in the psychologically healthy individual is rivaled only by that of Maslow (see Chapter 10). Whereas Maslow was primarily a researcher, Rogers was first of all a psychotherapist whose concern with psychologically healthy people grew out of his general theory of therapy, hi 1951, Rogers first briefly put forward his characteristics of the altered personality then he enlarged on the concept of the fully functioning person in an unpublished paper (Rogers, 1953). In...

Formative Tendency

Rogers (1978, 1980) believed that there is a tendency for all matter, both organic and inorganic, to evolve from shnpler to more complex forms. For the entire universe, a creative process, rather than a dishitegrative one, is hi operation. Rogers called this process the formative tendency and pohited to many examples from nature. For instance, complex galaxies of stars form from a less well-organized mass crystals such as snowflakes emerge from formless vapor complex organisms develop from...

Background of Existentialism

Modern existential psychology has roots hi the writings of Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), Danish philosopher and theologian. Kierkegaard was concerned with the increasing trend in postindustrial societies toward the dehumanization of people. He opposed any attempt to see people merely as objects, but at the same time, he opposed the view that subjective perceptions are one's only reality. Instead, Kierkegaard was concerned with both the experiencing person and the person's experience. He wished...

Kelly Psychology of Personal Constructs

Overview of Personal Construct Theory Biography of George Kelly Kelly's Philosophical Position Person as Scientist Scientist as Person Constructive Alternativism Basic Postulate Supporting Corollaries Applications of Personal Construct Theory Gender as a Personal Construct Smoking and Self-Concept Arlene, a 21-year-old college student majoring in engineering, was balancing a heavy academic schedule with a full-time job. Her life suddenly became even more hectic when her 10-year-old car broke...

Critique of Cognitive Social Learning Theory

Cognitive social learning theory is attractive to those who value the rigors of learning theory and the speculative assumption that people are forward-looking, cognitive beings. Rotter and Mischel have both evolved learning theories for thinking, valuing, goal-directed humans rather than for laboratory animals. Like that of other theories, cognitive social learning theory's value rests on how it rates on the six criteria for a useful theory. First, have the theories of Rotter and Mischel...

Reinforcement Value

Another variable in the prediction formula is reinforcement value (RV), which is the preference a person attaches to any reinforcement when the probabilities for the occurrence of a number of different reinforcements are all equal. Reinforcement value can be illustrated by a woman's interactions with a vending machine that contains several possible selections, each costing the same. The woman approaches the machine able and willing to pay 75 cents in order to receive a snack. The vending...

Basics of Factor Analysis

A comprehensive knowledge of the mathematical operations involved in factor analysis is not essential to an understanding of trait and factor theories of personality, but a general description of this technique should be helpful. To use factor analysis, one begins by making specific observations of many individuals. These observations are then quantified in some maimer for example, height is measured in inches weight hi pounds aptitude in test scores job performance by rating scales and so on....

Biography of Hans J Eysenck

Hans J rgen Eysenck was bom hi Berlhi on March 4, 1916, the only child of a theatrical family. His mother was Ruth Werner, a starlet at the thne of Eysenck s birth. Ruth Werner later became a German silent film star under the stage name of Helga Molander. Eysenck s father, Anton Eduard Eysenck, was a comedian, shiger, and actor. Eysenck (1991b) recalled I saw very little of my parents, who divorced when I was 4, and who had little feeling for me, an emotion I reciprocated (p. 40). After his...

Fidelity The Basic Strength of Adolescence

The basic strength emerging from adolescent identity crises is fidelity, or faith in one's ideology. After establishing then internal standards of conduct, adolescents are no longer hi need of parental guidance but have confidence hi then own religious, political, and social ideologies. The trust learned in infancy is basic for fidelity in adolescence. Young people must learn to trust others before they can have faith hi then own view of the future. They must have developed hope during infancy,...

Male Oedipal Development

Like the young girl, the little boy sees his mother's breast as both good and bad (Klein, 1945). Then, during the early months of Oedipal development, a boy shifts some of his oral desires from his mother's breast to his father's penis. At this time the little boy is in his feminine position that is, he adopts a passive homosexual attitude Chapter 5 Klein Object Relations Theory 147 toward his father. Next, he moves to a heterosexual relationship with his mother, but because of his previous...

Acceptance of Self Others and Nature

Self-actualizing people can accept themselves the way they are. They lack defen-siveness, phoniness, and self-defeating guilt have good hearty animal appetites for food sleep, and sex are not overly critical of their own shortcomings and are not burdened by undue anxiety or shame. In similar fashion, they accept others and have no compulsive need to histruct, inform, or convert. They can tolerate weaknesses hi others and are not threatened by others' strengths. They accept nature, including...

John Bowlbys Attachment Theory

John Bowlby (1907-1990) was born in London, where his father was a well-known surgeon. From an early age, Bowlby was interested in natural science, medicine, and psychology subjects he studied at Cambridge University. After receiving a medical degree, he started his practice in psychiatry and psychoanalysis in 1933. At about the same time, he began training in child psychiatry under Melanie Klein. During World War II, Bowlby served as an army psychiatrist, and in 1946 he was appointed director...

Schedules of Reinforcement

Any behavior followed immediately by the presentation of a positive rehiforcer or the removal of an aversive stimulus tends thereafter to occur more frequently. The frequency of that behavior, however, is subject to the conditions under which training occurred, more specifically, to the various schedules of reinforcement (Ferster & Skinner, 1957). Reinforcement can follow behavior on either a continuous schedule or an intermittent one. With a continuous schedule, the organism is reinforced...

Actualizing Tendency

An interrelated and more pertinent assumption is the actualizing tendency, or the tendency within all humans (and other animals and plants) to move toward completion or fulfillment of potentials (Rogers, 1959, 1980). This tendency is the only motive people possess. The need to satisfy one's hunger drive, to express deep emotions when they are felt, and to accept one's self are all examples of the single motive of actualization. Because each person operates as one complete organism,...

Dichotomy of Constructs

Now we come to a corollary that is not so obvious. The dichotomy corollary states that a person's construction system is composed of a finite number of dichotomous constructs (Kelly, 1955, p. 59). Kelly insisted that a construct is an either-or proposition black or white, with no shades of gray. In nature, things may not be either-or, but natural events have no meanings other than those attributed to them by an individual's personal construct system. In nature, the color blue may have no...

Horney and Freud Compared

Homey criticized Freud's theories on several accounts. First, she cautioned that strict adherence to orthodox psychoanalysis would lead to stagnation hi both theoretical thought and therapeutic practice (Horney, 1937). Second, Horney (1937, 1939) objected to Freud's ideas on feminine psychology, a subject we return to later. Third, she stressed the view that psychoanalysis should move beyond instinct theory and emphasize the importance of cultural influences in shaping personality. Man is ruled...

Word Association Test

Jung was not the first to use the word association test, but he can be credited with helping develop and refine it. He originally used the technique as early as 1903 when he was a young psychiatric assistant at Burgholtzli, and he lectured on the word association test during his trip with Freud to the United States in 1909. However, he seldom employed it in his later career. In spite of this inattention, the test continues to be closely linked with Jungs name. His original purpose in using the...

Personality and Behavior

Do Eysenck's three general personality dimensions predict behavior According to Eysenck's model shown in Figure 14.7, psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism should predict results of experimental studies as well as social behaviors. Recall that Eysenck's theory assumes that extraversion is a product of low cortical arousability. Therefore, introverts, compared with extraverts, should be more sensitive to a variety of stimuli and learning conditions. Eysenck (1997a) argued that an effective...

Biography of Walter Mischel

Walter Mischel, the second son of upper-middle-class parents, was bom on February 22, 1930, hi Vienna. He and his brother Theodore, who later became a philosopher of science, grew up in a pleasant environment only a short distance from Freud's home. The tranquillity of childhood, however, was shattered when the Nazis invaded Austria hi 1938. That same year, the Mischel family fled Austria and moved to the United States. After living in various parts of the country, they eventually settled hi...

Eliminating Low Expectancies

In addition to changing goals, the therapist tries to eliminate patients' low expectancies of success and its analog, low freedom of movement. People may have low freedom of movement for at least three reasons. First, they may lack the skills or information needed to successfully strive toward their goals (Rotter, 1970). With such patients, a therapist becomes a teacher, warmly and emphatically instructing them in more effective techniques for solving problems and satisfyhig needs. If a...

Neurotic Anxiety

Normal anxiety, the type experienced during periods of growth or of threat to ones values, is experienced by everyone. It can be constructive provided it remains proportionate to the threat. But anxiety can become neurotic or sick. May (1967) defined neurotic anxiety as a reaction which is disproportionate to the tlneat, involves repression and other forms of intrapsychic conflict, and is managed by various kinds of blocking-off of activity and awareness (p. 80). Whereas normal anxiety is felt...

Introduction to Rotters Social Learning Theory

Social learning theory rests on five basic hypotheses. First, it assumes that humans interact with their meaningful environments (Rotter, 1982). People s reaction to environmental stimuli depends on the meaning or importance that they attach to an event. Reinforcements are not dependent on external stimuli alone but are given meaning by the individuals cognitive capacity. Likewise, personal characteristics such as needs or traits cannot, by themselves, cause behavior. Rather, Rotter believes...

Intrapsychic Conflicts

The neurotic trends flow from basic anxiety, which in turn, stems from a child's relationships with other people. To this point, our emphasis has been on culture and interpersonal conflict. However, Horney did not neglect the impact of intrapsychic fac tors in the development of personality. As her theory evolved she began to place greater emphasis on the inner conflicts that both normal and neurotic individuals experience. Intrapsychic processes orighiate from interpersonal experiences but as...

Unity and Self Consistency of Personality

The third tenet of Adlerian theory is Personality is unified and self-consistent. In choosing the term individual psychology, Adler wished to stress his belief that each person is unique and indivisible. Thus, individual psychology insists on the fundamental unity of personality and the notion that inconsistent behavior does not exist. Thoughts, feelings, and actions are all directed toward a single goal and serve a single purpose. When people behave erratically or unpredictably, their behavior...

The Power of Myth

For many years, May was concerned with the powerful effects of myths on individuals and cultures a concern that cuhnhiated in his book The Cry for Myth (1991). May contended that the people of Western civilization have an urgent need for myths. Lacking myths to believe hi, they have turned to religious cults, drug addiction, and popular culture in a vain effort to find meaning hi their lives. Myths are not falsehoods rather, they are conscious and unconscious belief systems that provide...

Consistency Paradox

Mischel saw that both laypersons and professional psychologists seem to intuitively believe that people s behavior is relatively consistent, yet empirical evidence suggests much variability in behavior, a situation Mischel called the consistency paradox. To many people, it seems self-evident that such global personal dispositions as aggressiveness, honesty, miserliness, punctuality, and so forth account for much of our behavior. People elect politicians to office because they see them as having...

Comparison of Safeguarding Tendencies with Defense Mechanisms

Limited mostly to the construction of a neurotic style of life 2. Protect the person's fragile self-esteem from public disgrace 2. Protect the ego from the pain of anxiety 3. Operate only on an unconscious level Chapter 3 Adler Individual Psychology 85 protest. In contrast to Freud's views on women, Adler assumed that women because they have the same physiological and psychological needs as men want more or less the same things that men want. These opposing views on femininity were magnified in...

Overview of Social Cognitive Theory

Albert Bandura s social cognitive theory takes chance encounters and fortuitous events seriously, even while recognizing that these meetings and events do not invariably alter ones life path. How we react to an expected meeting or event is usually more powerful than the event itself. Social cognitive theory rests on several basic assumptions. First, the outstanding characteristic of humans is plasticity that is, humans have the flexibility to learn a variety of behaviors hi diverse situations....

Great Mother

Two other archetypes, the great mother and the wise old man, are derivatives of the anima and animus. Everyone, man or woman, possesses a great mother archetype. This preexisting concept of mother is always associated with both positive and negative feelings. Jung (1954 1959c), for example, spoke of the loving and terrible mother (p. 82). The great mother, therefore, represents two opposing forces fertility and nourishment on the one hand and power and destruction on the other. She is capable...

Criteria for Identifying Factors

With these assumptions in mind Eysenck listed four criteria for identifying a factor. First, psychometric evidence for the factor s existence must be established. A corollary to this criterion is that the factor must be reliable and replicable. Other investigators, from separate laboratories, must also be able to find the factor, and these investigators consistently identify Eysenck's extraversion, neuroticism, and psy-choticism. A second criterion is that the factor must also possess...

The Importance of Childhood Experiences

Horney believed that neurotic conflict can stem from ahnost any developmental stage, but childhood is the age from which the vast majority of problems arise. A variety of traumatic events, such as sexual abuse, beatings, open rejection, or pervasive neglect, may leave their impressions on a child's future development but Horney (1937) insisted that these debilitating experiences can ahnost invariably be traced to lack of genuine warmth and affection. Horney's own lack of love from her father...

Is Parsimonious

When two theories are equal in their ability to generate research, be falsified, give meaning to data, guide the practitioner, and be self-consistent, the simpler one is preferred. This is the law of parsimony. In fact, of course, two theories are never exactly equal in these other abilities, but in general, simple, straightforward theories are more useful than ones that bog down under the weight of complicated concepts and esoteric language. In building a theory of personality, psychologists...

Cognitive Affective Personality System

To solve the classical consistency paradox, Mischel and Shoda (Mischel, 2004 Mischel & Shoda, 1995, 1998, 1999 Shoda & Mischel, 1996, 1998) proposed a cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS also called a cognitive-affective processing system) that accounts for variability across situations as well as stability of behavior within a person. Apparent inconsistencies in a person's behavior are due neither to random error nor solely to the situation. Rather, they are potentially...

Care The Basic Strength of Adulthood

Erikson (1982) defined care as a widening commitment to take care o the persons, the products, and the ideas one has learned to care for (p. 67). As the basic strength of adulthood, care arises from each earlier basic ego strength. One must have hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, and love hi order to take care of that which one cares for. Care is not a duty or obligation but a natural desire emerging from the conflict between generativity and stagnation or self-absorption. The antipathy...

The Rep Test

Another procedure used by Kelly, both inside and outside therapy, was the Role Construct Repertory (Rep) test. The purpose of the Rep test is to discover ways in which people construe significant people hi their lives. With the Rep test, a person is given a Role Title list and asked to designate people who fit the role titles by writing then names on a card. For example, for a teacher you liked, the person must supply a particular name. The number of role Example of a List of Role Titles Used...

Love Sex and Self Actualization

Before people can become self-actualizing, they must satisfy their love and belong-higness needs. It follows then that self-actualizing people are capable of both giving and receiving love and are no longer motivated by the kind of deficiency love (D-love) common to other people. Self-actualizing people are capable of B-love, that is, love for the essence or Being of the other. B-love is mutually felt and shared and not motivated by a deficiency or incompleteness within the lover. In fact, it...

Theorists Personalities and Their Theories of Personality

Because personality theories grow from theorists' own personalities, a study of those personalities is appropriate. In recent years a subdiscipline of psychology called psychology of science has begun to look at personal traits of scientists. The psychology of science studies both science and the behavior of scientists that is, it investigates the impact of an individual scientist's psychological processes and personal characteristics on the development of her or his scientific theories and...

Personality and Disease

Can personality factors predict mortality from cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) Beginning dining the early 1960s, Eysenck devoted much attention to this question. He and David Kissen (Kissen & Eysenck, 1962) found that people who scored low on neuroticism (N) on the Maudsley Personality Inventory tended to suppress then emotion and were much more likely than high N scorers to receive a later diagnosis of lung cancer. Later, Eysenck teamed with Yugoslav physician and psychologist...

Biography of Erich Fromm

Like the views of all personality theorists, Erich Fromm's view of human nature was shaped by childhood experiences. For Fromm, a Jewish family life, the suicide of a young woman, and the extreme nationalism of the German people contributed to his conception of humanity. Fromm was born on March 23, 1900, hi Frankfurt, Germany, the only child of middle-class Orthodox Jewish parents. His father Naphtali Fromm was the son of a rabbi and the grandson of two rabbis. His mother Rosa Krause Fromm was...

Characteristics of Self Actualizing People

Maslow believed that all humans have the potential for self-actualization. Then why are we not all self-actualizing To be self-actualizing, Maslow believed people must be regularly satisfied hi then other needs and must also embrace the B-values. Using these two criteria, he guessed that the psychologically healthiest 1 of the adult population of the United States would be self-actualizing. Beyond Biography What prompted Maslow to look for self-actualizing people For information on Maslow's...

Person Centered Theory

Although Rogers's concept of humanity remained basically unchanged from the early 1940s until his death hi 1987, his therapy and theory underwent several changes in name. During the early years, his approach was known as nondirective, an unfortunate term that remained associated with his name for far too long. Later, his approach was variously termed client-centered person-centered student-centered group-centered and person to person. We use the label client-centered in reference to Rogers's...

Similarities Among Events

No two events are exactly alike, yet we construe similar events so that they are perceived as bemg the same. One sunrise is never identical to another, but our construct dawn conveys our recognition of some similarity or some replication of events. Although two dawns are never exactly alike, they may be similar enough for us to construe them as the same event. Kelly (1955, 1970) referred to this similarity among events as the construction corollary. The construction corollary states that a...

Overview of Behavioral Analysis

Dining the early years of the 20th century while Freud, Jung, and Adler were relying on clinical practice and before Eysenck and Costa and McCrae were using psycho-metrics to build theories of human personality, an approach called behaviorism emerged from laboratory studies of animals and humans. Two of the early pioneers of behaviorism were E. L. Thorndike and John Watson, but the person most often associated with the behaviorist position is B. F. Skinner, whose behavioral analysis is a clear...

Critique of Trait and Factor Theories

Trait and factor methods especially those of Eysenck and advocates of the Big Five model provide important taxonomies that organize personality into meaningful classifications. As pointed out in Chapter 1, however, taxonomies alone do not explain or predict behavior, two important functions of useful theories. Do these theories go beyond taxonomies and produce important personality research The trait and factor theories of Eysenck and Costa and McCrae are examples of a strictly empirical...

Research on Dreams

In the 1950s, when the phenomenon of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was first discovered and found to be strongly associated with dreaming, many scientists began to discount Freud's theory of dreams, which was based on the idea that dreams have meaning and are attempts at fulfilling unconscious wishes. Moreover, the REM research showed that only brain-stem regions and not higher cortical regions were involved with REM states. If these cortical structures were not involved hi REM sleep and yet...

The Impact of Culture

Although Horney did not overlook the importance of genetic factors, she repeatedly emphasized cultural influences as the primary bases for both neurotic and normal personality development. Modern culture, she contended, is based on competition among individuals. Everyone is a real or potential competitor of everyone else (Horney, 1937, p. 284). Competitiveness and the basic hostility it spawns result in feelings of isolation. These feelings of being alone in a potentially hostile world lead to...

Biography of Sigmund Freud

Sigismund (Sigmund) Freud was born either on March 6 or May 6, 1856, in Freiberg, Moravia, which is now part of the Czech Republic. (Scholars disagree on his birth date the first date was but 8 months after the marriage of his parents.) Freud was the firstborn child of Jacob and Amalie Nathanson Freud although his father had two grown sons, Emanuel and Philipp, from a previous marriage. Jacob and Amalie Freud had seven other children within 10 years, but Sigmund remained the favorite of his...

Stages of Therapeutic Change

The process of constructive personality change can be placed on a continuum from most defensive to most integrated. Rogers (1961) arbitrarily divided this continuum into seven stages. Stage 1 is characterized by an unwillingness to communicate anything about oneself. People at this stage ordinarily do not seek help, but if for some reason they come to therapy, they are extremely rigid and resistant to change. They do not recognize any problems and refuse to own any personal feelings or...

Critique of Bandura Concept of Humanity Key Terms and Concepts

People often have their life path permanently altered by unexpected meetings with others or by unplanned happenings. These chance encounters and fortuitous events frequently determine whom people marry, what career they pursue, where they live, and how they will live their lives. Many years ago, a young graduate student named A1 had a chance encounter that altered the course of his life. One Sunday, Al, who was usually a conscientious student, became bored with an uninteresting readmg...

Forms of Love

May (1969b) identified four kinds of love hi Western tradition sex, eros, philia, and agape. Sex is a biological function that can be satisfied through sexual intercourse or some other release of sexual tension. Although it lias become cheapened hi modern Western societies, it still remains the power of procreation, the drive which perpetuates the race, the source at once of the human being's most intense pleasure and his or her most pervasive anxiety (May, 1969b, p. 38). May believed that in...

Neuroticism

The second superfactor extracted by Eysenck is neuroticism stability (N). Like extraversi n introversi n, Factor N has a strong hereditary component. Eysenck (1967) reported several studies that have found evidence of a genetic basis for such neurotic traits as anxiety, hysteria, and obsessive-compulsive disorders. In addition, he found a much greater agreement among identical twhis than among fraternal twins on a number of antisocial and asocial behaviors such as adult crime, childhood...

Safeguarding Tendencies

Adler believed that people create patterns of behavior to protect their exaggerated sense of self-esteem against public disgrace. These protective devices, called safeguarding tendencies, enable people to hide their inflated self-image and to maintain their current style of life. Adler's concept of safeguarding tendencies can be compared to Freud's concept of defense mechanisms. Basic to both is the idea that symptoms are formed as a protection against anxiety. However, there are important...

Biography of Karen Horney

The biography of Karen Horney has several parallels with the life of Melanie Klein (see Chapter 5). Each was bom during the 1880s, the youngest child of a 50-year-old father and his second wife. Each had older siblings who were favored by the parents, and each felt unwanted and unloved. Also, each had wanted to become a physician, but only Horney fulfilled that ambition. Finally, both Horney and Klein engaged hi an extended self-analysis Horney's, beginning with her diaries from age 13 to 26,...

Spontaneity Simplicity and Naturalness

Self-actualizing people are spontaneous, simple, and natural. They are unconventional but not compulsively so they are highly ethical but may appear unethical or nonconforming. They usually behave conventionally, either because the issue is not of great importance or out of deference to others. But when the situation warrants it, they can be unconventional and uncompromising even at the price of ostracism and censure. The similarity between self-actualizing people and children and animals is...

Components of Psychological Health

As we saw earlier, Maslow suggested that self-actualization people can be characterized by 15 different dimensions. From the 1950s through the 1990s, a number of researchers attempted to determine the structure of mental health and well-being. For instance, in the 1950s, Marie Jahoda (1958) was asked by the Joint Commission on Mental Illness and Health to review and summarize the literature on mental health. She concluded that six dimensions most consistently appeared self-acceptance, personal...

Person Situation Interaction

Walter Mischels theory of cognitive-social learning, including his more specific theory of cognitive-affective personality systems, has stimulated hundreds of empirical investigations. Perhaps the most important of these lias been the recent research on the person-situation interaction. The essence of this approach is summed up by the contextual contingency between behavior and context in the statement, If I am in this situation, then I do X but if I am in that situation, then I do Y As we...

An Example of Triadic Reciprocal Causation

Consider this example of triadic reciprocal causation. A child begghig her father for a second brownie is, from the father's viewpohit, an environmental event. If the father automatically (without thought) were to give the child a second brownie, then the two would be conditioning each other's behavior in the Skhuierian sense. The be havior of the father would be controlled by the environment but his behavior, hi turn, would have a countercontrolling effect on his environment, namely the child....

Epigenetic Principle

Erikson believed that the ego develops throughout the various stages of life according to an epigenetic principle, a term borrowed from embryology. Epigenetic development hnplies a step-by-step growth of fetal organs. The embryo does not begin as a completely formed little person, waithig to merely expand its structure and Children crawl before they walk, walk before they run, and run before they jump. Children crawl before they walk, walk before they run, and run before they jump. form....

The Jonah Complex

Accordhig to Maslow (1970), everyone is born with a will toward health, a tendency to grow toward self-actualization, but few people reach it. What prevents people from achieving this high level of health Growth toward normal, healthy personality can be blocked at each of the steps in the hierarchy of needs. If people cannot provide for food and shelter, they remain at the level of physiological and safety needs. Others remain blocked at the level of love and belongingness needs, striving to...

Withdrawal

Personality development can be halted when people run away from difficulties. Adler referred to this tendency as withdrawal, or safeguarding through distance. Some people unconsciously escape life's problems by setting up a distance between themselves and those problems. Chapter 3 Adler Individual Psychology 83 Adler (1956) recognized four modes of safeguarding through withdrawal (1) moving backward (2) standing still, (3) hesitating, and (3) constructing obstacles. Moving backward is the...

Oral Sensory Mode

Erikson's expanded view of infancy is expressed in the term oral-sensory, a phrase that includes infants' prhicipal psychosexual mode of adapting. The oral-sensory stage is characterized by two modes of incorporation receiving and accepthig what is given. Infants can receive even hi the absence of other people that is, they can take hi air through the lungs and can receive sensory data without having to manipulate others. The second mode of incorporation, however, implies a social context....

Critique of Adler Concept of Humanity Key Terms and Concepts

Chapter 3 Adler Individual Psychology 65 In 1937, a young Abraham Maslow was having dinner in a New York restaurant with a somewhat older colleague. The older man was widely known for his earlier association with Sigmund Freud, and many people, including Maslow, regarded him as a disciple of Freud. When Maslow casually asked the older man about being Freud's follower, the older man became quite angry, and according to Maslow, he nearly shouted that this was a lie and a swindle for which he...